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JOSEPH    WRIGHT,    M.A.,    PH.D.,    D.C.L. 

*  / ' 

VOLUME  I.    A—  C 


-  ^  Sl 



OXFORD:    116    HIGH    STREET 
NEW    YORK:     G.    P.    PUTNAM'S    SONS 


\A(l  rights  reserved} 




THE  ENGLISH  DIALECT  DICTIONARY  is  printed  at  the  expense  of  JOSKPH  WRIGHT,  MA. 
of  Langdale  House,  Park  Town,  Oxford. 

TO    THE 

PROFESSOR  W.   W.  SKEAT,  Litt.V.,  V.C.L. 

founder  and  President  of 

The  English  'Dialect  Society 

Editor  of 
'  Chaucer J  '  Piers  PlowmanJ  and  '  The  Bruce  ' 

The   unwearied    Worker   in  the  varied  Field  of  English   Scholarship 

To    whose   patient    industry    and    contagious   enthusiasm 

in  connexion  tvith  the  laborious  task  of  accumulating 

dialect   material,   the  possibility   of  compiling 

an  adequate 

Dictionary  of  English  Dialects 
is  mainly  due 


THE  Dictionary  includes,  so  far  as  is  possible,  the  complete  vocabulary  of  all  English  dialect  words 
which  are  still  in  use  or  are  known  to  have  been  in  use  at  any  time  during  the  last  two  hundred 
years  in  England,  Ireland,  Scotland,  and  Wales.  All  words  occurring  both  in  the  literary  language  and  in 
the  dialects,  but  with  some  local  peculiarity  of  meaning  in  the  latter,  are  also  included.  On  the  other 
hand,  words  which  merely  differ  from  the  literary  language  in  pronunciation,  but  not  in  meaning,  are 
generally  excluded,  as  belonging  properly  to  the  province  of  grammar  and  not  to  that  of  lexicography. 
It  also  contains  (i)  the  exact  geographical  area  over  which  each  dialect  word  extends,  together  with 
quotations  and  references  to  the  sources  from  which  the  word  has  been  obtained ;  (2)  the  exact  pro- 
nunciation in  each  case  according  to  a  simple  phonetic  scheme,  specially  formulated  for  the  purpose ; 
(3)  the  etymology  so  far  as  it  relates  to  the  immediate  source  of  each  word.  The  work  can  never  become 
antiquated,  and,  when  completed,  will  be  the  largest  and  most  comprehensive  Dialect  Dictionary  ever 
published  in  any  country.  It  will  be  a  '  storehouse '  of  information  for  the  general  reader,  and  an 
invaluable  work  to  the  present  and  all  future  generations  of  students  of  our  mother-tongue.  It  also 
includes  American'  and  Colonial  dialect  words  which  are  still  in  use  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland,  or  which 
are  to  be  found  in  early-printed  dialect  books  and  glossaries.  After  some  experience  it  became  clear 
that  this  plan  was  absolutely  necessary  in  order  to  avoid  admitting  into  the  Dictionary  words  for  which 
I  had  not  full  and  reliable  evidence.  It  is  difficult  enough  to  obtain  information  about  the  pronunciation 
and  exact  usage  of  many  words  in  the  United  Kingdom,  and  it  would  have  been  still  more  difficult  to 
obtain  such  information  from  abroad.  Some  idea  of  the  labour  involved  in  this  respect  may  be  gathered 
from  the  fact  that  at  least  12,000  queries  have  been  sent  out  from  the  '  Workshop '  connected  with  words 
contained  in  this  volume.  And  yet,  in  spite  of  all  this  labour,  it  has  been  necessary  to  keep  back  quite 
a  number  of  words— see  list  on  pp.  xxi-xxiv — for  which  there  is  at  present  insufficient  evidence  to 
allow  them  to  be  included  in  the  Dictionary.  It  is  intended  to  issue  a  list  of  such  words  with  each  Part, 
and  all  the  friends  of  this  undertaking  are  kindly  invited  to  send  to  the  Editor  more  information  about  these 
words,  so  that  they  can  eventually  be  included  in  a  Supplement.  The  article  on  the  verb  '  To  be '  cost 
very  considerable  time  and  trouble.  Copies  of  a  printed  form  containing  194  points  were  sent  to  150 
persons  in  various  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom ;  and  150  similar  forms  containing  many  queries  were 
sent  out  about  the  words  By,  By(e.  Many  of  the  replies  to  these  two  sets  of  queries  showed  how  very 
difficult  it  is  becoming  to  obtain  information  about  minute  points  connected  with  grammar.  It  is  quite 
evident  from  the  letters  daily  received  at  the  '  Workshop '  that  pure  dialect  speech  is  rapidly  disappearing 
from  our  midst,  and  that  in  a  few  years  it  will  be  almost  impossible  to  get  accurate  information  about  difficult 
points.  Even  now  it  is  sometimes  found  extremely  difficult  to  ascertain  the  exact  pronunciation  and 
the  various  shades  of  meanings,  especially  of  words  which  occur  both  in  the  literary  language  and  in  the 
dialects.  And  in  this  case  it  is  not  always  easy  to  decide  what  is  dialect  and  what  is  literary  English : 
there  is  no  sharp  line  of  demarcation  ;  the  one  overlaps  the  other.  In  words  of  this  kind  I  have  carefully 
considered  each  case  separately,  and  if  I  have  erred  at  all,  it  has  been  on  the  side  of  inclusion. 

It  has  taken  hundreds  of  people,  in  all  parts  of  the  United  Kingdom,  twenty-three  years  to  collect 
the  material  for  the  Dictionary.      For  the  lists  of  Workers  and  Correspondents  see  pp.  ix-xiv.      In  almost 


every  county,  competent  people  have  been  secured  to  assist  in  answering  queries  and  in  supplying  any 
words  that  may  have  been  omitted  from  the  glossaries  in  their  respective  districts.  Such  a  plan  ensures 
a  far  higher  degree  of  accuracy  and  completeness  than  can  possibly  be  attained  by  any  other  method. 
In  addition  to  the  great  amount  of  material  sent  in  from  unprinted  sources— see  pp.  xi,  xii— upwards 
of  three  thousand  dialect  glossaries  and  works  containing  dialect  words  have  been  read  and  excerpted 
for  the  purposes  of  the  Dictionary1.  Through  the  great  kindness  of  the  Princess,  the  whole  of  the 
MS.  collections  and  the  library  of  the  late  Prince  Louis  Lucien  Bonaparte  were  placed  at  my 
disposal  for  over  two  years,  which  enabled  me  to  get  many  thousand  words  and  quotations  from 
hundreds  of  small  local  books  not  to  be  found  in  any  of  our  public  libraries. 

I  had  hoped  to  give  a  classification  ot  the  Dialects  in  this  Preface,  but  I  now  think  that  it  will  be 
better  to  wait  until  I  have  finished  a  greater  portion  of  the  Dictionary.  From  the  words  contained 
in  this  volume,  it  would  be  easy  to  give  a  sketch-map  showing  clearly  those  districts  in  which  the 
Norse  element  is  particularly  strong.  It  is  also  most  remarkable  how  in  certain  districts  many 
French  words  have  been  preserved,  which  are  now  obsolete  in  the  literary  language.  At  present 
I  have  not  the  necessary  leisure  to  work  out  and  account  for  the  fact  that  in  Ireland  the 
dialects  of  some  districts  are  essentially  Scotch  whilst  in  other  districts  they  agree  with  those  of 
the  West  of  England.  Also  it  cannot  be  a  mere  accident  that  the  dialect  of  South  Pembrokeshire 
contains  quite  a  number  of  words  of  Flemish  origin.  Later  on  I  hope  to  work  out  these  matters 
fully,  and  also  to  account  for  the  special  peculiarities  of  the  Kentish  dialects.  It  will  also  be  easy 
to  show  that  a  great  many  words  which  are  now  confined  to  particular  districts,  were  confined 
to  those  districts  already  in  the  Middle  Ages,  e.  g.  early  illustrations  of  many  words  still  in  use 
in  East  Anglia  are  only  to  be  found  in  the  Promptorium ;  the  same  applies  to  many  modern 
Yorkshire  words  and  the  York  Mystery  Plays.  In  fact,  when  the  Dictionary  is  completed  it  will 
be  of  immense  value  in  helping  to  settle  the  dialect  in  which  many  of  our  Middle-English 
manuscripts  were  written,  and  it  will  throw  a  flood  of  light  upon  many  problems  connected  with 
Old  and  Middle-English  phonology. 

Any  one  who  takes  the  pains  to  examine  the  Dictionary  will  find  that  neither  time  nor  trouble 
has  been  spared  in  order  to  obtain  accurate  information  about  popular  games,  customs,  and  supersti- 
tions ;  and,  as  far  as  possible,  to  give  the  literature  where  further  information  will  be  found.  In  the 
etymological  part  of  the  dictionary,  it  must  not  be  assumed  that  where  no  etymology  is  given 
there  has  been  no  attempt  made  to  find  one.  The  very  opposite  is  the  case.  It  has  often  happened 
that  dozens  of  dictionaries,  special  glossaries,  and  articles  in  philological  journals  have  been  carefully 
searched  without  any  satisfactory  results.  In  all  such  instances  I  have  preferred  to  give  nothing 
rather  than  a  mere  guess.  In  thousands  of  instances  it  will  be  noticed  that  there  is  no  previously 
printed  authority  for  the  use  of  words  in  some  districts.  In  all  such  cases  I  give  the  initials  of 
the  persons  who  supplied  the  information;  and  I  may  add  that  one  of  my  senior  assistants  has 
spent  over  a  fortnight  in  verifying  these  initials;  so  that  they  may  be  accepted  as  being  correct. 
Several  words  found  in  printed  glossaries  are  omitted  from  the  Dictionary  as  being  'Ghost  Words.' 
All  such  words  will  be  collected  together  and  printed  in  the  last  volume. 

The   number   of  queries   sent    out  was    proportionately  greater  in  the  C-words  than  in  A  and  B, 

owing  to   the  great   importance   of  obtaining  accurate   information   about  their  pronunciation  ;    as  it   is 

of  special  value  to  students  of  English   philology  to   know  in  which  districts  the  initial  guttural   has 

remained   and  in    which    districts    it    has    become   the   affricata   ch.      When   the   letters    C  and   K  are 

mshed,  it  will  become  evident  that  several  factors  have  to  be  taken  into  consideration   in  formulating 

the   laws   for  the   normal   development   of  Germanic  initial  k-.      This  volume  contains  a  large  number 

words  which  W111   be   specially  interesting  to  folk-lorists  and  English  philologists,  as  well  as  to  the 

>f  dialects  in  general;  e.g.  Acre,  Adder,  Agate,  All,  As,  At,  Bandy  sb.\  Banian-day,  Banshee, 

the  scurctwifh 


Barghest,  Barley-break,  Barring-out,  Baum-rappil,  Bcgaged,  Beltane,  Blin  v.,  Blithemeat,  Blue  adj.,  Bly,  Bosb.', 
Bodcv.\  Boggart  sb.\  Bogle,  Boit  sb?,  Bondage,  Boneshave,  Bood,  Boon  sb.2,  Boorey,  Bootsb.2,  Boun,  Braidv.-, 
Bride-ale,  Bride-door,  Bull  sb.',  Bungums,  Bushel  sb.1,  Busk  v.3,  But  prep.,  Buttony,  Call  v.\  Calve  v?  and  sb., 
Cannv,  Cantrip,  Car-cake,  Carlin(g}s,  Carritcli,  Catsb.1,  Cattern,  Char(e  sb.1  and  v.\  Chilver,  Clout,  Cock,  Come  v.\ 
Coiv,  Crack  sb.1  and  v.,  Cradden,  Crook  sb.!  and  v.,  Crouse,  Crundel,  Cuckoo,  &c. 

Owing  to  the  large  number  of  ^4-words  containing  Latin  and  Greek  prefixes,  the  difference  between 
the  number  of  words  beginning  with  A  and  B  is  not  great  in  a  dictionary  of  literary  English ; — e.  g. 
in  Webster,  A  occupies  99  pages  and  B  81  pages.  A  occupies  106  pages  in  the  English  Dialect  Dictionary, 
but  B  occupies  no  less  than  370  pages.  The  statistics  given  below  will  show  what  an  immense  wealth 
of  words  there  is  in  our  dialects,  and  from  them  some  idea  can  also  be  formed  of  the  enormous  amount  of 
labour  involved  in  the  production  of  this  volume.  It  ought  to  be  mentioned  that  the  figures  do  not  include 
the  quotations,  &c.,  from  early  writers,  which  are  placed  within  square  brackets  at  the  end  of  each  article. 
Nor  is  any  account  taken  of  the  many  thousands  of  cross-references.  This  volume  contains  17,519 
simple  and  compound  words,  and  2,248  phrases,  illustrated  by  42,915  quotations  with  the  exact  source 
from  which  they  have  been  obtained.  There  are,  in  addition,  39,581  references  to  glossaries,  to 
manuscript  collections  of  dialect  words,  and  to  other  sources  ;  making  a  total  of  82,496  references.  These 
figures  are  made  up  as  follows:  — 

ABC  Total 

Simple  and  Compound  Words         .        1,508                   7,789                  8,222  I7i5r9 

Phrases    ......          379                      910                      959  2.248 

Quotations 6.759                 18,198                 17,95s  42.915 

References  without  quotations         .       2,500                 '7,542                 '9,539  39, 581 

Total  references       ....       9j259                 35,74°                 37,497  82,496 

As  stated  on  the  title-page,  the  Dictionary  is  in  a  great  measure  founded  upon  the  publications 
of  the  English  Dialect  Society.  It  was  with  this  express  object  in  view  that  the  Society  was  started 
at  Cambridge  in  1873,  with  the  Rev.  Prof.  Skeat  as  Secretary  and  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Cartmell 
as  Treasurer.  In  1876  the  Headquarters  of  the  Society  were  removed  to  Manchester;  when  J.  H.  Nodal, 
Esq.,  became  the  Secretary  and  G.  Milner,  Esq.,  the  Treasurer.  The  Headquarters  remained  at 
Manchester  until  1893.  During  these  eighteen  years  Mr.  Nodal  rendered  most  valuable  services 
to  the  Society,  and  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  it  was  mainly  through  his  great  interest  in  the  subject 
that  the  Society  published  so  many  excellent  County  and  other  glossaries.  From  1893  to  1896  the 
Headquarters  were  in  Oxford,  during  which  time  I  acted  as  Secretary  and  the  Rev.  A.  L.  Mayhew 
as  Treasurer.  After  the  Dictionary  had  been  begun,  it  was  no  longer  necessary  to  continue  the  existence 
of  the  Society,  and  it  was  accordingly  brought  to  an  end  in  1896  after  it  had  published  80  volumes, 
all  of  which  are  being  incorporated  in  the  Dictionary. 

In  the  year  1886  Professor  Skeat  raised  a  fund,  to  which  he  contributed  nearly  half  the  money 
himself,  for  the  purpose  of  helping  to  defray  the  expenses  of  collecting  and  arranging  the  material 
for  the  Dictionary.  He  had  the  good  fortune  to  obtain  the  services  of  the  Rev.  A.  Smythe  Palmer, 
D.D.,  who  acted  as  organizing  Editor  for  two  years  and  a  half.  During  this  period  Dr.  Smythe  Palmer 
succeeded  in  getting  together  and  in  arranging  in  rough  alphabetical  order  a  large  amount  of  material. 
And  I  take  this  opportunity  of  expressing  to  him  my  sincere  gratitude  for  all  the  valuable  help  he  rendered 
at  this  initial  stage  of  the  work.  In  1889  it  was  thought  the  material  was  sufficiently  complete  to 
enable  me  to  begin  to  edit  the  work  for  press.  I  accordingly  prepared  several  articles  and  had  them 
printed.  These  articles  convinced  me  that  at  least  twice  the  amount  of  the  material  which  had  then  been 
collected  would  be  required  before  attempting  to  edit  the  Dictionary.  I  issued  a  circular  stating  the 
kind  of  help  wanted,  and  sent  it  to  all  the  principal  newspapers  and  public  libraries  in  the  United 
Kingdom,  as  well  as  to  many  thousand  people  who  might  be  likely  to  help  in  the  work.  By  this  means 
the  number  of  voluntary  helpers  was  increased  to  over  600.  It  then  became  advisable  to  form  local  Com- 
mittees in  various  parts  of  the  country  with  the  object  of  getting  all  the  books  relating  to  the  respective 
districts  read  and  the  slips  arranged  in  alphabetical  order  before  being  sent  to  me.  After  preparing  several 
lists  of  books  which  still  remained  to  be  read  for  the  Dictionary,  I  addressed  many  meetings  on  the  great 



value  of  dialects  for  philological  and  other  purposes,  and  succeeded  in  forming  a  number  of  local  Committees 
which  have  rendered  most  valuable  assistance.  In  this  connexion  I  wish  to  express  my  best 
all  the  Committees  and  their  Secretaries,  and  more  especially  to  J.  K.  Hudson,  Esq.,  B.A,  Manchester; 
S.  K.  Craven,  Esq.,  Bradford;  R.  O.  Heslop,  Esq.,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne ;  T.  C.  Peter,  Esq.,  Redruth  ; 
and  W  H.  Hills,  Esq.,  Ambleside,  who  have  spared  neither  time,  trouble,  nor  expense  in  helping  to  make 
the  material  as  complete  as  possible.  I  have  also  the  pleasant  task  of  expressing  my  sincere  gratitude 
to  all  the  voluntary  readers,  correspondents,  and  those  people  who  so  kindly  placed  their  manuscript 
collections  of  dialect  words  at  my  disposal.  From  the  lists  given  on  pp.  ix-xiv  it  will  be  seen  that  some- 
thing like  a  thousand  people  have  in  one  way  or  another  rendered  valuable  assistance  in  the  work.  In  the 
Preface  it  is  not  necessary  to  repeat  all  these  names,  but  I  must  specially  mention  the  following  who 
have  so  largely  contributed  to  make  my  material  what  it  is:— Mrs.  F.  A.  Allen,  Ilminster;  H.  A.  Barnes, 
Esq.,  Farnworth;  Dr.  G.  F.  Blandford,  London,  W. ;  the  Rev.  G.  B.  R.  Bousfield,  M.A.,  London,  W. ; 
Dr.  T.  N.  Brushfield,  Budleigh-Salterton ;  Miss  E.  F.  Burton,  Carlisle;  Miss  R.  H.  Busk,  London,  W. ; 
R.  Pearse  Chope,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Bayswater,  W. ;  G.  E.  Dartnell,  Esq.,  Salisbury;  J.  W.  Darwood, 
Esq.,  Cambridge;  Prof.  C.  A.  Federer,  Bradford;  Dr.  Fitzedward  Hall,  Marlesford ;  the  Rev.  E.  H. 
Goddard,  M.A.,  Wootton  Bassett;  Mrs.  S.  Hewett,  Lynton  ;  J.  K.  Hone,  Esq.,  Dudley;  E.  C.  Hulme, 
Esq.,  F.R.C.S.,  S.  Kensington;  the  Rev.  Hamilton  Kingsford,  M.A.,  Stoulton ;  Miss  S.  A.  Kirby, 
London;  B.  Kirkby,  Esq.,  Batley;  Miss  E.  Lloyd,  Crowborough ;  the  Rev.  Dr.  Mitchell,  S.  Leith ; 
the  Rev.  W.  M.  Morris,  M.A.,  Treherbert ;  Mrs.  Parker,  Oxford;  A.  Pope,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Manchester; 
Dr.  E.  W.  Prevost,  Newnham,  Glos. ;  Miss  Romanes,  Oxford  ;  the  Rev.  W.  F.  Rose,  M.A.,  Weston- 
super-Mare;  the  Rev.  J.  S.  F.  Singleton,  M.A.,  Weston-super-Mare ;  E.  Smith,  Esq.,  Birmingham; 
J.  E.  Sugars,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Manchester;  S.  P.  Unwin,  Esq.,  Shipley;  the  Rev.  Alex.  Warrack,  M.A.,  Stranraer; 
T.  C.  Warrington,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Carnarvon ;  I.  Wilkinson,  Esq.,  Skelton,  Yorks. ;  the  Rev.  G.  Williams, 
M.A.,  Thornhill ;  Mrs.  Joseph  Wright,  Oxford  ;  and  also  the  Editors  of  The  Leeds  Mercury  Supple- 
ment, The  Penrith  Observer,  Notes  and  Queries,  and  The  Yorkshire  Weekly  Post. 

I  owe  most  sincere  thanks  to  my  senior  Assistants,  Miss  Partridge,  Miss  Hart,  and  Miss  Yates, 
as  also  to  the  other  Assistants  who  have  helped  so  faithfully  and  excellently  in  the  preparation  of 
this  volume.  My  special  thanks  are  also  due  to  Mr.  Horace  Hart,  Controller  of  the  University 
Press,  for  much  valuable  advice  in  regard  to  the  technic  of  the  Dictionary;  and  also  to  Mr.  Ostler, 
the  press  reader,  for  the  most  excellent  manner  in  which  he  has  read  the  press  proofs.  I  also  express  my 
deep  sense  of  indebtedness  and  obligation  for  the  bequest  of  the  late  Thomas  Hallam,  Esq.,  Manchester, 
and  for  the  grant  from  the  Royal  Bounty  Fund  made  by  the  Right  Hon.  A.  J.  Balfour,  M.P.,  the 
First  Lord  of  the  Treasury.  Had  it  not  been  for  this  timely  substantial  support,  the  labours 
of  hundreds  of  people,  extending  over  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  century,  would  have  been  spent 
in  vain ;  for  I  had  exhausted  all  my  own  money,  amounting  to  considerably  over  ,£2,000.  And 
lastly,  to  the  Delegates  of  the  University  Press  I  owe  my  best  thanks  for  their  great  kindness  in 
providing  me  with  a  'Workshop'  at  the  Press  at  a  nominal  rent;  but  the  Delegates,  while  offering 
me  every  facility  for  the  production  of  the  work,  have  no  responsibility,  pecuniary  or  other,  in  con- 
nexion with  it.  The  whole  responsibility  of  financing  -and  editing  the  Dictionary  rests  upon  myself. 
I  am  therefore  all  the  more  grateful  to  the  Subscribers  who  have  supported  me  in  this  great  and 
difficult  undertaking.  They  may  rest  assured  that  every  effort  will  be  made  to  maintain  the  present 
quality  of  the  work,  and  to  issue  the  Parts  at  regular  intervals  of  six  months  until  the  Dictionary 
is  completed. 



June  1898. 


ABBOTT,  R.  LAMB,  Esq.,  M.A.,  113  Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 

ABKRCROMBY,  The  Hon.  J.,  62  Palmerston  Place,  Edin- 

M.A.,  Librarian). 

ANDERSON,  Esq.,  Librarian). 


ADSHEAD,  G.  H.,  Esq.,  94  Bolton  Road,  Pendleton,  Man- 


AlLSA,  The  Most  Hon.  the  Marquis  of,  Culzean  Castle, 
Maybole,  Ayrshire. 

AITKEN,  JAMES  H.,  Esq.,  Gartcows,  Falkirk,  N.B.     [Sp.E.} 

ALCOCK,  CHARLES,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Lord  Weymouth's 
Grammar  School,  Warminster. 

ALCOCK,  S.  KING,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Burslem  (per  HENRY 

ALDENHAM,  The  Right  Hon.  Lord,  Aldenham  House,  near 
Elstree,  Herts. 

ALLBUTT,  ARTHUR,  Esq.,  M.R.C.P.E..24  Park  Square,  Leeds. 

ALLBUTT,  Prof.  T.  C.,  M.D.,  Chaucer  Road,  Cambridge. 

ALLCOCK,  C.  H.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Eton  College,  Windsor. 

ALLEN,  The  Rev.  Canon  S.  W.,  H  Belmont,  Shrewsbury 
(per  Messrs.  ADNITT  &  NAUNTON,  Booksellers).  [Sp.E.} 

ALLIOTT,  The  Rev.  RICHARD,  M.A.,  Nonconformist  Gram- 
mar School,  Bishop's  Stortford  (per  A.  BOARDMAN, 
Bookseller,  Bishop's  Stortford). 

ALLSOPP,  The  Hon.  A.  PERCY,  Battenhall  Mount,  Worcester. 
(2  copies.) 

OMAN,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 

ALMA  TADEMA,  Miss  LAWRENCE,  17  Grove  End  Road, 
London,  N.W. 

E.  G.  ALLEN,  Bookseller,  28  Henrietta  Street,  Covent 
Garden,  London,  W.C.). 

ANDERSON,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Scot.,  Arns-Brae,  New 
Kilpatrick,  N.B. 

ANDREWS  &  Co.,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  64  Saddler  Street, 

ANSTRUTHER,  Sir  RALPH,  Bart.,  Balcaskie,  Pittenweem, 

ARCHER-HIND,  R.  D.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Trinity  College,  Cam- 

ARGYLL,  His  Grace  the  Duke  of,  K.G.,  K.T.,  Inveraray 

ARKWRIGHT,  E.  H.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  School  House,  Chigwell. 

ARLOSH,  JAMES,  Esq.,  Littlemore,  Oxford. 

ARMOUR,  The  Rev.  Canon,  D.D.,  The  School  House,  Crosby, 
Liverpool  (per  Messrs.  F.  &  E.  GIBBONS,  Booksellers, 
19  Ranelagh  Street,  Liverpool). 

ARMSTRONG,  L.,  Esq.,  Walby,  Weston-super-Mare. 

ARNOLD,  Prof.  E.  V.,  M.A.,  Bryn  Seiriol,  Bangor,  N.  Wales. 

ASHER  &  Co.,  Messrs.,  13  Bedford  Street,  Covent  Garden, 

London,  W.C.     (9  copies.) 

R.  K.  DENT,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
ATHENAEUM  CLUB,  Pall  Mall,  London,  S.W.  (per  H.  T. 

TEDDER,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
ATKIN,  E.   TH.,  Esq.,   Highbury  House,   Kenwood    Road, 

Sheffield.    [Sp.E.] 
ATKINSON,  The  Rev.   Canon,  D.C.L.,  Danby   Parsonage, 

Castleton,  Yorks. 

Esq.,  Librarian). 

AUDEN,  The  Rev.  THOMAS,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Condover  Vicar- 
age, Shrewsbury. 

BACCHUS,  The  Rev.  F.,  The  Oratory,  Edgbaston,  B'ham. 
BAGWELL,  RICHARD,  Esq.,  Marlfield,  Clonmel. 
BAIN,  JAMES,  Esq.,  I  Haymarket,  London. 
BAINBRIDGE,  CUTHBERT,  Esq.,  Leazes  House,  Wolsingham, 

near  Darlington. 

(per  J.  A.  JONES,  Esq.,  Registrar). 
BANG,  Prof.  W.,  Louvain,  Belgium. 
BANKS,  KIRBY,  Esq.,  Rose  Villa,  Burton  Hill,  Leeds  (per 

BARDSLEY,  The  Right  Rev.  J.  W.,  D.D.,  Lord  Bishop  of 

Carlisle,  Rose  Castle,  Carlisle. 
BARLOW,  JOHN  R.,  Esq.,  J.P.,  Greenthorn,  Edgworth,  near 

Bolton,  Lanes. 
BARLOW,    THOMAS,    Esq.,    M.D.,    10    Wimpole    Street, 

London,  W. 
BARNES,  HAROLD  A.,  Esq.,  Crompton  Fold,  Breightmet, 

Bolton,  Lanes. 

BARNETT,  J.  D.,  Esq.,  Stratford,  Ontario,  Canada. 

ALDRED,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

BARTLETT,  ALFRED,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Loughborough,  Leicester- 
BARWELL,  The  Rev.  A.  H.  SANXAY,  M.A.,  Clapham  Rectory, 

BATES,  E.  B.,  Esq.,  Assistant  Postmaster,  Ottawa,  Canada. 


BATSON,  Mrs.  STEPHEN,  Welford  Rectory,  Newbury. 
BATTERSEA  PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  Lavender  Hill,  London,  S.W. 

(per  LAWRENCE  INKSTER,  Esqv  Librarian). 
BAUMGARTNER,  Prof.  A.,  Hottingen,  Ziirich,  Switzerland  (per 


BAXTER,  JAMES  C.,  Esq.,  45  Heriot  Row,  Edinburgh. 
BAYFORD,  EDWIN,  Esq.,  20  Eldon  Street,  Barnsley. 
BAYLIS,  J.  W.,  Bookseller,  Evesham  (per  HENRY  FROWDE). 
BEALBY,  J.  T.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Graden,  Regent's  Park  Road, 

Finchley,  London,  N. 

GENERAL  LIBRARY  (per  H.  M.  DYMOCK,  Esq.,  Hon. 





POOLE,  D.D.). 
BELJAME,  Prof.  A.,  The  Sorbonne,  Paris  (per  Messrs.  BOY- 

VEAU  &  CHEVILLET,  22  Rue  de  la  Banque,  Paris). 
BELL,  HENRY,  Esq.,  Heathfield,  Stockport. 
BELL,  HUGH,  Esq.,  Red  Barns,  Redcar. 
BELL,  RUSSELL,  Esq.,  Sheriff's  Substitute,  Campbeltown, 


BELL,  W.  HEWARD,  Esq.,  Seend,  Melksham,  Wilts. 
BELLAMY,   C.   H.,  Esq.,  F.R.G.S.,  Brock    Road,    Heaton 

Chapel  (per  Messrs.  W.  N.  PITCHER  &  Co.,  49  Cross 

Street,  Manchester). 

BENNION,  J.  A.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  M.Sc.,  County  Offices,  Preston. 
BENTINCK-SMITH,  Miss  M.,  Park  Terrace,  Beverley,  Yorks. 
BEST,  JOHN  D.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  The  College,  Chester. 
BETHELL,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  Rise  Park,  Hull. 
BICKERS  &  SON,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  I  Leicester  Square, 

London,  W.     (2  copies.) 
BILLSON,  CHARLES  J.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  St.  John's  Lodge,  Claren- 

don Park,  Leicester. 

BILSLAND,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  28  Park  Circus,  Glasgow. 
BINDLOSS,    Mrs.    S.    A.,    Carnforth,    Brondesbury    Park, 

London,  N.W. 
BINNS,  J£THELBERT,  Esq.,  Wilsden,  near  Bradford,  Yorks. 


Esq.,  Librarian). 
BIRKETT,   D.   M.,   Esq.,   M.A.,   Grammar   School    House, 

Sevenoaks,  Kent. 
BIRMINGHAM   LIBRARY,  Union   Street,  Birmingham   (per 

C.  E.  SCARSE,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

E.  COLLINGS,  Esq.,  Mason  College,  Birmingham). 
BLACKBURN,  Prof.  JOSEPH,  M.  A.,  Roshven,Moidart,  Scotland. 
BLACKIE,  J.  ALEXANDER,  Esq.  (per  Messrs.  BLACKIE  &  SON, 

Limited,  17  Stanhope  Street,  Glasgow). 
BLACKPOOL  FREE  LIBRARY  (per  Miss  K.  LEWTAS,  Librarian). 
BLACKWELL,  B.  H.,  Bookseller,  Broad  Street,  Oxford. 
BLAIR,  ROBERT,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Harton  Lodge,  near  South 

BLAKISTON,  The  Rev.  R.  MILBURN,  F.S.A.,  7  Dean's  Yard, 

Westminster,  S.W. 

BLAND,  R.,  Esq.,  Three  Gables,  Grove  Park,  Kent. 
BLANDFORD,  G.  FIELDING,  Esq.,  M.D.,  48  Wimpole  Street, 

London,  W. 

FRANCIS,  Esq.,  M.A.). 

BOND,  EDWARD,  Esq.,  Elm  Bank,  Hampstead,  London,  N.W. 
BOND,  J.  KINTON,  Esq.,  B.A.,  13  The  Crescent,  Plymouth. 



PAUL,  TRENCH  &  Co.). 
BOSTON  PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  BOSTON,   U.S.A.   (per  Messrs. 

BOULTER,  H.  B.,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S.,  Barnard  House,  Richmond, 


BOURDILLON,  F.  W.,  Esq.,  Melton  Lodge,  Great  Malvern. 

BOUSFIELD,   The    Rev.   G.   B.   R.,   248   Portsdown    Road, 

London,  W. 

BOWDITCH,  CHARLES,  Esq.,  28  State  Street,  Boston,  Mass., 

U  .S  .  A  . 

BOWEN,   H.   COURTHOPE,   Esq.,   3   York   Street,   Portman 
Square,  London,  W. 

Esq''  CambridSe   (Per   MACMILLAN  & 

BRADBURY,  C.  T.,  Esq.,  Riversvale   Hall,  Ashton-under- 


H.  B.  GRAY,  D.D.). 
BRADFORD  FREE  LIBRARY,  Darley  Street  (per  BUTLER 

\\-OOD,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

BRADLEY,  Prof.  A.  C.,  M.A.,  10  Bruce  St.,  Hillhead,  Glasgow. 
BRADLEY,    HENRY,   Esq.,   M.A.,   96    Bolingbroke    Grove, 

Wandsworth  Common.  London,  S.W. 
BRAMSTON,  Miss  .A.  R-,  Witham  Close,  Winchester. 
BRANDL,  Prof.  A.,  Ph.D.,  Berlin. 
BRASENOSE    COLLEGE   LIBRARY,   OXFORD    (per    Messrs. 

JAMES  PARKER  &  Co.). 
BRAUNHOLTZ,  E.  G.  W.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  37  Chesterton 

Road,  Cambridge. 
BRENAN,  The  Rev.  SAMUEL  ARTHUR,  Knocknacarry,  Co. 


BRENNER,  Prof.  O.,  Ph.D.,  Wurzburg,  Bavaria. 
BRERETON,  The  Rev.  F.  L.,  M.A.,  North  Eastern  County 

School,  Barnard  Castle. 

BRETT,  CHARLES  H.,  Esq.,  Gretton  Malone,  Belfast. 
BREUL,  KARL,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  Litt.D.,    19  Chesterton 

Road,  Cambridge. 

BRIGG,  JOHN  J.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Guard  House,  Keighley,  Yorks. 
BRIGHT,  Prof.  JAMES  W.,  Ph.D.,  Johns  Hopkins  University, 

Baltimore,  Ma.,  U.S.A. 

BRISTOL,  The  Most  Hon.  the  Marquis  of,  6  St.  James's 

Square,  London,  S.W.     [Sp.E.} 
BRITTEN,  JAMES,  Esq.,  18  West  Square,  London,  S.E. 

J.  BURGOYNE,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

BROCKHAUS,  F.  A.,  Bookseller,  48  Old  Bailey,  London,  E.G. 
BROCKINGTON,  W.  A..  Esq.,  Mason  College,  Birmingham. 

Esq.,  Librarian). 
BROOKE,  THOMAS,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Armitage  Bridge,  Hudders- 

field.     [Sp.E.} 
BROOKFIELD,    Mrs.,    2    Devonshire   Villas,    Brondesbury, 

London,  N.W. 

BROWN,  Prof.  ALEX.  CRUM,  8  Belgrave  Crescent,  Edinburgh. 
BROWN,  Prof.  EDWARD  MILES,  University  of  Cincinnati, 

Ohio,  U.S.A. 
BROWN,  JOHN  A.  HARVIE,  Esq.,  Dunipace  House,  Larbert, 


BROWN,  Prof.  J.  CAMPBELL,  D.Sc.,  Brownlow  Street,  Liver- 
pool.   [Sp.E] 
BROWN,  ROBERT,   Esq.,   Jun.,  F.S.A.,   Priestgate    House, 

Barton-on-Humber,  Hull. 

BROWN,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  Trenholme,  Northallerton. 
BROWN,  The  Rev.  W.  HAIG,  LL.D.,  Charterhouse  School, 

Godalming.     [Sp.E] 

BRUCE,  ALEX.,  Esq.,  Clyne  House,  Pollokshields,  Glasgow. 
BRUCE,  Prof.  JAMES  DOUGLAS,  Bryn  Mawr,  Penn.,  U.S.A. 
BRUCE,  R.  T.  HAMILTON,  Esq.,  32  George  Square,  Edin- 
burgh.    [Sp.E.] 
BRUNEL,  ISAMBARD,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  Athenaeum  Club,  London, 

BRUNNER,  Sir  JOHN  T.,  Bart.,  M.P.,  Druids  Cross,  Waver- 

tree,  Liverpool  (per  HENRY  FROWDE). 
BRUNNER,  ROSCOE,  Esq.,  Druids  Cross,  Wavertree,  Liver- 
pool (per  HENRY  FROWDE). 

BRUSHFIELD,  T.  N.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Budleigh-Salterton,  Devon. 
BRYN  MAWR  COLLEGE  LIBRARY,  Penn.,  U.S.A.  (per  Messrs. 

BUCKMAN,  S.  S.,  Esq.,  F.G.S.,  Ellborough,  Charlton  Kings, 

Cheltenham   (per  JOHN  H.   KNOWLES,  Bookseller,   15 

Rush  Hill  Road,  Lavender  Hill,  London,  S.W.). 
BiiLBRiNG,  Prof.  KARL  D.,  Ph.D.,  Groningen,  Holland  (per 

DAVID  NUTT,  270  Strand,  London,  W.C.). 
BULL,  C.  M.,  Esq.,  Kennett,  Doods  Road,  Reigate. 
BULLER,  The  Right  Hon.  Sir  REDVERS  H.,  V.C.,  G.C.B., 

29  Bruton  Street,  London,  W. 

BUMBY,  Mr.  FRED  E.,  University  College,  Nottingham. 
BUND,  J.W.WILLIS,  Esq.,  15  Old  Square,  Lincoln's  Inn, 

London,  W.C. 

JOHN  ALLEN,  Esq.,  Hon.. Sec.). 
BURNSIDE,  W.,  Esq.,  The   Laurels,   Hither   Green    Lane, 

London,  S.E. 



BURRA,  JAMES  S.,  Esq.,  Bockhanger,  Ashford,  Kent. 

BURTT,  G.  W.,  Esq.,  1 14  Manor  House  Road,  Newcastle-on- 

BUTE,  The  Most  Hon.  the  Marquis  of,  22A  Queen  Anne's 
Gate,  Westminster,  London,  S.W.  (per  RENE  F.  R. 
CONDER,  Esq.,  Librarian),  [i  ordinary  and  I  Sp.E.] 

BYRDE,  The  Rev.  R.  A.,  M.A.,  Allhallows  School,  Honiton, 

BVRNE,  L.  S.  R.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Eton  College,  Windsor. 

BVROM,  J.  LEWIS,  Esq.,  Brookland  Lodge,  Delph,  near  Man- 

BYWATER,  Prof.  INGRAM,  M.A.,  Norham  Gardens,  Oxford. 

CADDICK,   EDWARD,   Esq.,  Wellington  Road,  Edgbaston, 

Birmingham.     [Sp.E.] 

DRUM,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 

M1LLAN  &  BOWES,  Cambridge). 
CAMPBELL,  J.  ALEX.,  Esq.,  Stracathro,  Brechin,  N.B. 
CANDLISH,  The  Rev.  J.   S.,  D.D.,  Free  Church   College, 


PRECINCTS,  CANTERBURY  (per  The  Right  Rev.  the 

BISHOP  OF  DOVER,  Librarian). 

LINGER,  Esq.). 
CARLINGFORD,  The  Right  Hon.  Lord,  K.P.,  Chewton  Priory, 


HOUSE  (per  R.  BATEMAN,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
CARMICHAEL,  Sir  THOMAS  D.  GIBSON,  Bart.,  M.P.,  Castle- 

craig,  Dolphinton,  N.B. 
CARPENTER,  The  Right  Rev.  W.  BOYD,  D.D.,  Lord  Bishop 

of  Ripon,  The  Palace,  Ripon. 
CARTER,  Rev.  H.  J.  (per  MACMILLAN  &  BOWES). 
CARTER,  Miss  MARY  H.,  The  Cottage,  Headington  Hill, 

CARY-ELWES,  V.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  The  Manor  House,  Brigg, 

CASARTELLI,  The  Rev.  L.  C,  Ph.D.,  St.  Bede's  College, 

CAZENOVE,  C.  D.,  Bookseller,  26  Henrietta  Street,  Covent 

Garden,  London,  W.C.     (2  copies.) 
CECIL,  HENRY,  Esq.,  Bregner,  Bournemouth. 
CHADWICK,  S.  J.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Oxford  Road,  Dewsbury, 

CHALMERS,  F.  RASHLEIGH,  Esq.,  44  Broadway,  New  York, 

CHAMBERLAIN,  The  Right  Hon.  J.,  M.P.,  Highbury,  Moor 

Green,  Birmingham. 

CHAMBERS,  Messrs.  W.  &  R.,  339  High  Street,  Edinburgh. 
CHAMPNEYS,  A.  C.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  The  College,  Marlborough. 
CHANCE,  F.,  Esq.,  Burleigh  House,  35  Sydenham  Hill, 

London,  S.E. 

Rev.  W.  HAIG  BROWN,  LL.D.). 

P  CHASE,  Miss  ELLEN,  Heath  Hill,  Brookline,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 
CHASE,  FRANK  H.,  Esq.,  51  Trumbull  Street,  New  Haven, 

Conn.,  U.S.A. 
CHEETHAM,  The  Ven.  S.,  D.D.,  Archdeacon  of  Rochester, 

The  Precincts,  Rochester. 
CHELSEA   PUBLIC    LIBRARY,  LONDON,  S.W.   (per  J.   H. 

QUINN,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

W.  J.  BROWNE,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

CHETTLE,  HENRY,  Esq.,  76  Ridge  Road,  Hornsey,  London,  N. 
CHILD,  Prof.  FRANCIS  J.,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  Cambridge,  Mass., 

U.S.A.  (per  B.  F.  STEVENS). 
CHOLMELEY,  ROBERT  F.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  St.  Paul's  School, 

London,  W. 

CHOPE,  R.  PEARSE,  Esq.,  B.A.,  The  Patent  Office,  25  South- 
ampton Buildings,  Chancery  Lane,  London,  W.C. 
CHORLTON,  THOMAS,  Esq.,  32  Brazenose  Street,  Manchester. 
CHRISTIAN,  GEORGE,  Esq.,  Redgate,  Uppingham,  Rutland. 


PAUL,  TRENCH  &  Co.). 

JAMES  PARKER  &  Co.). 

MCLEAN,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 

CHURCH,  W.  S.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  130  Harley  Street,  London,  W. 

CLARENDON,  The  Right   Hon.   the   Earl  of,  The  Grove, 

CLARK,  CHARLES  J.,  Bookseller,  4  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 

London,  W.C. 

CLARK,  Prof.  E.  C.,  LL.D.,  Newnham  House,  Cambridge. 
CLARK,  E.  K.,  Esq.,  13  Well  Close  Place,  Leeds. 
CLARK,  The  Rev.  J.  MEEK,  M.A.,  Arborfield,  Weybridge. 
CLARK,  OSCAR  W.,  Esq.,  M.B.,  Rahere,  Brunswick  Road, 

CLAYE,   H.    SANDFORD,  Esq.,    Park    Lane,    Macclesfield, 

Cheshire.     [Sp.E.] 

BROWN,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

Esq.,  Librarian). 

Esq.,  Librarian.) 

CLOUSTON,  TH.  S.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Tipperlinn  House,  Morning- 
side  Place,  Edinburgh. 

COCHRANE,  Miss  JANET,  10  Bondgate  Without,  Alnwick. 
COCK,  ALFRED,  Esq.,  Q.C.,  8  Kensington  Park  Gardens, 

London,  W. 

COHEN,  F.,  Buchhandlung,  Bonn,  Germany. 
COLDICOTT,  ARTHUR  C.,  Esq.,  Ullenhall,  Henley-in-Arden, 

near  Birmingham. 

COLE,  The  Rev.  R.  E.,  M.A.,  Doddington  Rectory,  Lincoln. 
COMPTON,  The  Right  Rev.  Lord   ALWYNE,   D.D.,    Lord 

Bishop  of  Ely,  The  Palace,  Ely.. 

STECHERT,  Bookseller). 
COLLITZ,  Prof.  HERMANN,  Ph.D.,  Bryn  Mawr  College,  Bryn 

Mawr,  Penn.,  U.S.A.  (per  G.  E.  STECHERT,  30  Welling- 
ton Street,  Strand,  W.C.). 

Boulder,  Colo.,  U.S.A.  (per  E.  G.  ALLEN). 

(per  G.  E.  STECHERT). 

CONSTABLE,  Messrs.  T.  &  A.,  University  Press,  Edinburgh. 
CONWAY,  Prof.  R.  SEYMOUR,  M.A.,  Redcroft,  Llandaff,  near 

COOK,  Prof.  ALBERT  S.,  Ph.D.,  Yale  University,  New  Haven, 

Conn.,  U.S.A. 

COOPER,  Miss  A.  J.,  50  Colebrooke  Row,  London,  N. 
COOPER,  The  Rev.  T.  S.,  F.S.A.,  Chiddingfold,  Godalming. 
COPLEY,  A.  B.,  Esq.,  School  of  Shorthand,  Rutland  Street, 


ALLEN,  London,  W.C.). 
CORNISH  BROTHERS,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  37  New  Street, 

Birmingham.     (2  copies.) 

Rev.  CHARLES  PLUMMER,  M.A.,  Librarian). 
COSIJN,  Prof.  P.  J.,  Ph.D.,  Leyden,  Holland. 
COULSTON,    The    Rev.   G.,   D.D.,   St.   Cuthbert's   College, 

Ushaw,  Durham. 
COURTNEY,  The  Right  Hon.  L.,  M.P.,  15  Cheyne  Walk, 


COURTNEY,  Miss  M.A.,  Trenance,  Penzance,  Cornwall. 
COWEN,  JOSEPH, Esq., Stella  Hall, Blaydon-on-Tyne.  [Sp.E.} 
CRAIG,  W.  J.,  Esq.,  Ardverness,  Reigate. 
CRAIGIE,   WILLIAM  A.,  Esq.,   M.A.,  United  College,  St. 

Andrews,  N.B. 

CRAMPTON,  W.  T.,  Esq.,  Parcmont,  Roundhay,  near  Leeds. 
CRAVEN,  E.,  Esq.,  Mulcture  Hall,  Eastwood,  Todmorden. 
CRAWFORD,  The  Right   Hon.  The  Earl  of,    K.T.,   Haigh 
Hall,  Wigan. 




CREWE,  The  Right  Hon.  The  Earl  of,  Crewe  Hall,  Crewe. 

\Sp.E.]     (2  copies.) 

CROCKETT,  S.  R.,  Esq.,  Bank  House,  Penicuick,  Midlothian. 
CROFTON,  H.  T.,  Esq.,  36  Brazenose  Street,  Manchester. 
CROSS,  The  Rev.  JOHN  EDWARD,  M.A.,  Halecote,  Grange- 

CROSSLEY,  JAMES,  Bookseller,  19  Union   Street,   Halifax, 

Yorks.     (2  copies.) 
GROSSMAN,  Maj.-Gen.  Sir  WILLIAM,  K.C.M.G.,  Cheswick 

House,  Beal,  R.S.O.,  Northumberland. 
CRUICK.SHANK,  J.  W.,  Esq.,   Coorabe    Head,   Haslemere, 

CRUSO,  The  Rev.  H.  E.  T.,  M.A.,  Tunstall  Rectory,  Sitting- 

CUMMINGS,  WILLIAM  H.,  Esq.,   Sydcote,  West   Dulwich, 

London,  S.E. 
CURLE,  JAMES,  Esq.,  Jun.,  F.S.A.,  Priorwood,  Melrose,  N.I?. 

DALE,  Messrs.  JOHN,  &  Co.,  Booksellers,  17  Bridge  Street, 

Bradford,  Yorks. 
DALTON,  The  Rev.  Canon,  F.S.A.,  C.M.G.,  St.  George's, 

Windsor  Castle. 
DANIEL,  The  Rev.  W.    EUSTACE,   M.A.,  East    Pennard, 

Shepton  Mallet. 
DARLINGTON,  T.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Glynderwen,  Alleyn   Road, 

West  Dulwich,  S.E. 

BUCHHANDLUNG,  Strassburg). 
DAVIDSON,  HUGH,  Esq.,  Braedale,  Lanark. 
DAVIDSON,  THOMAS,  Esq.,  339  High  Street,  Edinburgh. 
DAVIES,  The    Rev.    T.  WITTON,   B.A.,  Midland    Baptist 

College,  Nottingham. 
DAY,  T.  J.,    Bookseller,    Guelph,    Ontario,    Canada   (per 


DAYMAN,  F.  S.,  Esq.,  Ashley  Court,  Tiverton,  Devon. 
DEEDES,  The  Rev.  CECIL,  M.A.,  2  Clifton  Terrace,  Brighton. 
DEES,  R.  R.,Esq.,The  Hall.Wallsend,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
DEIGHTON,  BELL  &  Co.,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  Cambridge. 

(5  copies.) 
DENNY,  Messrs.  A.  &  F.,  Booksellers,  304  Strand,  London, 

W.C.    (2  copies.) 
DENWOOD,  JOHN,  Esq.,  Morland   Place,  Brigham  Road, 

Cockermouth,  Cumberland  (per  AE.  BINNS,  Wilsden). 


DERBY,  The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl  of,  G.C.B.,  Knowsley 

Hall,  Prescot,  Lanes,  (per  The  Rev.  JOHN  RICHARDSON, 

Librarian).     [Sp.E.] 



Esq.,  Librarian). 

DEW,  GEORGE  JAMES,  Esq.,  Lower  Heyford,  Banbury. 
DEWAR,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Rugby  School,  Ru^by 


DICK,  J.,  Esq.,  1  1  Osborne  Avenue,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne 
DIXIE,  WALTER  J.,  Esq.,  27  Park  Street,  Windsor,  Berks.' 
DOBLE,  C.  E.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  21  Winchester  Road,  Oxford. 
DOGGETT,    HUGH    G.,    Esq.,    Springfield,    Leigh   Woods, 

Clifton,  Bristol. 
DONALDSON,  JAMES,  Esq.,   LL.D.,  Principal  of  the  Uni- 

versity, St.  Andrews,  N.B. 
DOTESIO,  W.C.,  Bookseller,  Bra  dford-on-  Avon  (per  HENRY 


EDWARD'  LL'D"  Buona  Vista>   Killiney, 

>  Bi™ingham  (per  HENRY 

(2  copies.) 

The  Rev.  H.,  M.A,  Hawarden,  Chester. 

^SH  LiBRA*Y>  Gordon  S£luare.  London,  W.C. 
W.  H.,  Esq.,  Gorway,  Walsall. 

&   C°"   Booksellers>   37    Soho    Square, 

DUNN,  G.,  Esq.,  3  Greenhill  Place,  Edinburgh. 

DURHAM  CATHEDRAL  LIBRARY  (for  the  Dean  and  Chapter, 

per    The    Rev.    W.    GREENWELL,     D.C.L.,    F.R.S., 



&  Co.,  Durham). 
DYSON,  GEORGE,  Esq.,  Argyle  Street,  Marsden,  near  Hud- 


EARLE,  The  Rev.  Prof.  JOHN,  M.A.,  Oxford  (per  Messrs. 
JAMES  PARKER  &  Co.). 

EASTWOOD,  JOHN  ADAM,  Esq.,  49  Princess  Street,  Man- 

ECCLES,  Miss  JANE  HELEN,  3  Dean's  Yard,  Westminster 
Abbey,  London,  S.W.  [Sp.E.] 

EDINBURGH  ACADEMY  LIBRARY,  Henderson  Row,  Edin- 
burgh (per  G.  B.  GREEN,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

Esq.,  Librarian). 

Esq.,  Librarian). 

EDWARDES,  The  Rev.  DAVID,  M.A.,  Denstone  College, 

EDWARDS,  TREVOR,  Esq.,  West  Riding  Solicitor,  Wakefield. 

EGERTON,  Prof.  CHARLES  W.,  M.A.,  University  College, 
Auckland,  New  Zealand. 

EINENKEL,  Prof.  Dr.  EUGENE,  92  Hammerstrasse,  Miinster, 

ELLERSHAW,  The  Rev.  HENRY,  M.A.,  Hatfield  Hall,  Durham 
(per  Messrs.  ANDREWS  &  Co.,  Booksellers,  Durham). 

ELLIOT,  ANDREW,  Bookseller,  17  Princes  Street,  Edinburgh. 

ELLIS,  Miss  CHARLOTTE,  The  Hall,  Belgrave,  Leicester. 

ELLIS,  F.  S.,  Esq.,  The  Red  House,  Chelston,  Torquay. 

ELWORTHY,  FREDERICK  T.,  Esq.,  Foxdown,  Wellington, 

EMERSON,  P.  H.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  M.B.,  North  Cliff  Lodge, 

EMRYS-JONES,  A.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  J.P.,  Brynderw,  Fallowfield, 

ERDMANN,  Prof.  AXEL,  Upsala,  Sweden. 



EVANS,  H.  A.,  Esq.,  16  Manchester  Road,  Chorlton-cum- 
Hardy,  Manchester. 

EVANS,  H.  E.  G.,  Esq.,  St.  Mary's  House,  Tenby. 

EVANS,  J.  GWENOGFRYN,  Esq.,  M.A.,  7  Clarendon  Villas, 
Oxford.  [Sp.E.] 

EVANS,  W.  H.,  Esq.,  15  Victoria  Square,  Reading. 




J.  MuiR,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
FAIRCHILD,  The  Hon.  C.  S.,  LL.D.,  46  Wall  Street,  New 

York  City,  U.S.A. 
FARRAH,  JOHN,  Esq.,  F.R.Met.Soc.,  Crescent  Road,  Harro- 

FARWELL,  GEORGE,  Esq.,  60  Queen's  Gardens,  Lancaster 

Gate,  London,  W. 
FAUNTHORPE,  The  Rev.  J.  P.,  M.A.,  Whitelands  College, 

Chelsea,  London,  S.W. 

FEDERER,  Prof.  CH.  A.,  L.C.P.,  8  Hallfield  Road,  Bradford. 
FERGUSON,  The  Rev.  JOHN,  B.D.,  The  Manse,  Aberdalgie, 

Perth,  N.B. 

FERGUSON,  Prof.  JOHN,  M.A.,  Glasgow. 
FERGUSON,  ROBERT,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Morton,  Carlisle. 
FICKLING,  W.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  St.  Peter's  College,  Peterborough. 
FIEDLER,  Prof.  GEORG,  Ph.D.,  Mason  College,  Birmingham. 
FINDLAY,  J.  R.,  Esq.,  3  Rothesay  Terrace,  Edinburgh. 
FIRTH,  C.  H.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  33  Norham  Road,  Oxford. 



FISCHER,  Prof.  HERMANN,  Ph.D.,  Tiibingen,  Germany. 
FISHER,  THOMAS,  Esq.,  Carhead,  Crossbills,  via  Keighley. 
FLEMING,  GEORGE,  Esq.,  C.B.,  LL.D.,  Higher  Leigh,  Combe 

Martin,  North  Devon. 

FLETCHER,  CHARLES  K.,  Esq.,  Kenward,  Yalding,  Maidstone. 
FLETCHER,  The  Rev.  GEORGE,  Wesleyan  College,  Richmond, 

FLUGEL,  Prof.  EWALD,  Ph.D.,  Stanford  University,  Calif., 

U.S.A.  (per  MAX  NIEMEYER,  Bookseller,  Halle,  a.  S., 


FOGGITT,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  South  Villa,  Thirsk,  Yorks. 
FoOTE,  S.  H.  WELLS,  Esq.,  Leigham  Court  Road,  Streatham, 

London,  S.W. 
FORD,  A.  L.,  Esq.,  Gwynallt,  Lynmouth,  Devon  (per  JOHN 

GALWAY,  Bookseller,  17  Garrick  Street,  Covent  Garden, 

F6RSTER,  MAX  TH.  W.,  Esq.,  Ph.D.,  28  Giergasse,  Bonn, 

Germany  (per  Messrs.  ROHRSCHEID  £  EBBECKE,  Book- 
sellers, Bonn). 

FOSTER,  T.  GREGORY,  Esq.,  University  College,  London,  W.C. 
FOWLER,  The  Rev.  J.  T.,  D.C.L.,  Bishop  Hadfield's  Hall, 

Durham  (per  Messrs.  ANDREWS  &  Co.,  Durham). 
FOWLER,  W.  WARDE,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Lincoln  College,  Oxford. 
Fox,  ARTHUR  W.,  Esq.,  Albion  House,  The  Downs,  Bowdon, 

Fox,  FRANCIS  F.,  Esq.,  Yate  House,  Chipping  Sodbury, 


FRANCIS,  A.  L.,  Esq.,  Blundell's  School,  Tiverton,  Devon. 
FRANKLAND,  M.,  Esq.,  The  Grammar  School,  Ossett,  Yorks. 
FRANKLIN,  W.    E.,    Bookseller,   Newcastle-on-Tyne    (per 


FRASER,  H.  E.,  Esq.,  M.B.,  63  Church  Street,  Inverness,  N.B. 
FRASER,  JOHN,  Esq.,  I  Railway  Cottages,  Spekeland  Road, 

Liverpool.     (2  copies?) 
FREEMAN,  J.    J.,   Esq.,   Halliford-on-Thames,   Middlesex. 


Glasgow  (per  W.  CANDISH,  Esq.,  Librarian). 


VERSITAT,  Baden,  Germany. 

FRY,   Mrs.   FRANCIS  J.,  Eversley,  Leigh  Woods,  Clifton, 

FURNIVALL,  F.  J.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  3  St.  George's  Square, 

London,  N.W. 

GALLAWAY,  ALEX.,  Esq.,  Dirgarve,  Aberfeldy,  N.B. 

GALLEE,  Prof.  J.  H.,  Ph.D.,  Utrecht,  Holland. 

GEDEN,  A.  S.,  Esq.,  Wesleyan  College,  Richmond,  Surrey. 

GENERAL-  ASSEMBLY  LIBRARY,  Wellington,  New  Zealand 
(per  HENRY  FROWDE). 

GEORGE'S  SONS,  Messrs.  WILLIAM,  Booksellers,  Park  Street, 
Bristol.  (3  copies.) 

GERISH,  W.  B.,  Esq.,  3  Oxford  Villas,  Womley,  Herts. 

GERRANS,  H.  T.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  20  St.  John's  Street,  Oxford. 

GIBBS,  ANTHONY,  Esq.,  Tyntesfield,  Bristol.    [Sp.E.] 

BROS.,  Booksellers,  Bream's  Buildings,  Fetter  Lane, 
London,  E.G.). 

CROFT,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

GILES,  P.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  10  Park  Terrace,  Cambridge. 

GILLIAT,  The  Rev.  E.,  M.A.,  Harrow-on-the-Hill,  London. 

GLADSTONE,  The  Right  Hon.  HERBERT,  M.P.,  4  Cleve- 
land Square,  St.  James's,  London,  S.W. 

GLADSTONE,  The  Right  Hon.  W.  E.,  Hawarden  Castle, 

SIMPSON,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

HOSE  &  SONS,  Booksellers,  Glasgow). 

GOLLANCZ,  L,  Esq.,  M.A.,  54  Sidney  Street,  Cambridge. 

GOMME,  G.  L.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  24  Dorset  Square,  London,  N.W. 

GOODWIN,  D.  G.,  Esq.,  Buildwas,  Ironbridge,  Shropshire. 

GORDON,  The  Rev.  J.  M.,  M.A.,  St.  John's  Vicarage,  Redhill, 

GORDON,  The  Right  Rev.  Dr.,  Bishop's  House,  Leeds  (per 

J.  DODGSON,  Bookseller,  Albion  Street,  Leeds). 
Goss,  WILLIAM   HENRY,  Esq.,  Bank  House,  Stoke-upon- 

Trent   (per    R.   HEAD,    Bookseller,    11    High    Street, 


GOSTEKER,  CH.,  Esq.,  Moorthorpe,  Darwen.     [Sp.E.] 

Booksellers,  33   King  Street,  Covent  Garden,  London, 

GOTT,  The  Right  Rev.  JOHN,  D.D.,  Lord  Bishop  of  Truro, 

Trenython,  Par  Station,  Cornwall. 
Gow,  JAMES,  Esq.,  Litt.D.,  Nottingham  High  School. 
GOWANS,  ADAM  L.,  Esq.,  Hazeldean,  Langside,  Glasgow. 

UNIVERSITAT,  Graz,  Austria  (per  Prof.  KARL  LUICK, 


CARTER,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

GREEN,  The  Rev.  R.,  Didsbury  College,  Manchester. 
GREY,  The  Right  Hon.  Earl,  Howick,  Lesbury,  Northum- 
berland.    [Sp.E.} 

GREY,  W.  WILSON,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 
GRIERSON,   Prof.    H.  J.   C,  M.A.,   King's  College  Road, 


GROSS,  E.  J.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Gonville  Place,  Cambridge. 
GRUNDY,  G.  BEARDOE,  Esq.,  M.A.,  The  Military  College, 


Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Librarian). 

PITTS,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Curator). 
GUNN,    WILLIAM,    Esq.,   Geological    Survey   of   Scotland, 

Sheriff  Court  House,  Edinburgh. 
GUTCH,  Mrs.,  Holgate  Lodge,  York. 
GUY,  RALPH  C.,  Esq.,  Forest  School,  Walthamstow,  London. 

HAGERUP,  H.,  Boghandel,  Copenhagen  (per  SAMPSON  Low, 

MARSTON  &  Co.). 

KENNEDY,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Librarian). 
HALES,  The  Rev.  C.  T.,  M.A.,  Aysgarth  School,  Bedale, 

HALES,  Prof.  JOHN  W.,  M.A.,  I  Oppidans  Road,  Primrose 

Hill,  London,  N.W. 

HALFORD,  Sir  H.  ST.  JOHN,  C.B.,  Wiston,  Leicester. 

Esq.,  Librarian). 
HALL,  FITZEDWARD,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  Marlesford,  Wickham 

HALL,  JOSEPH,  Esq.,  M.A.,  189  High  Street,  Oxford  Road, 

HALLAM,  THOMAS,  Esq.,  25  Craig  Street,  Stockport  Road, 


(per  DAVID  NUTT). 


handler,  Bergstrasse  10,  Hamburg). 
HAMILTON  PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  Hamilton,  Ontario,  Canada 

(per  RICHARD  T.  LANCEFIELD,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
HAMMERSMITH  PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  Ravenscourt  Park,  London 

(per  S.  MARTIN,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
HANKINSON,  G.  H.,  Esq.,  88  King  Street,  Manchester. 
HANSEN,  Dr.  ADOLF,  Chr.  Winthersvej  25,  Copenhagen. 
HARBEN,  H.  A.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  F.S.A.,  107  Westbourne  Terrace, 

Hyde  Park,  London,  W. 

NEWLAND,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

HARRIS,  The   Hon.   W.   T.,   LL.D.,   United   States   Com- 
missioner of  Education,  Washington,  D.C. 
HARRISON  &   SONS,   Messrs.,  Booksellers,  59   Pall   Mall, 

London,  S.W.     [i  Sp.E.} 



HART,  Prof.   C.  E.,  33   Levington  Ave,  New  Brunswick, 

New  Jersey,  U.S.A. 
HART,  Prof.  J.  M.,  J.U.D.,  Cornell  University  (per  B.  F. 


HARTLAND,  E.  SIDNEY,  Esq.,  Highgarth,  Gloucester. 

TRENCH  &  Co.). 

HARVEY,  H.  C.,  Esq.,  Fern  Dene,  Ryton-on-Tyne. 
HARVEY,  W.,  Esq.,  The  Rookery,  Nantwich. 
HARWOOD,  JAMES,  Bookseller,  Derby  (per  HENRY  FROWDE). 
HATCHARD  &  Co.,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  Piccadilly,  London, 

W.  (per  HENRY  FROWDE).    (3  copies.) 
HAWELL,  The  Rev.  JOHN,  M.A.,  Ingleby-Greenhow  Vicarage, 


Esq.,  Librarian). 
HAWKINS,  The  Rev.  Sir  JOHN  C.,  Bart.,  Kelston  Lodge, 

Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 
HAYWARD,  W.  D.,  Bookseller,  42  George  Street,  Croydon 

(per  HENRY  FROWDE).     [Sp.EJ] 
HAZARD,  ROWLAND  GIBSON,  Esq.,   Holly  House,   Peace 

Dale,  Rhode  Island,  U.S.A. 

HEADLAM,  C.  E.  S.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Trinity  Hall,  Cambridge  (per 

Messrs.  MACMILLAN  &  BOWES,  Booksellers,  Cambridge). 

HEATH,  Prof.  H.  FRANK,  M.A.,  Bedford  College,  York  Place, 

Baker  Street,  London,  W. 

ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE    (per    D.    H.    WADE,    Esq., 

(per  Prof.  SCHICK). 


HELME,  The  Rev.  ROBERT,  M.A.,  St.  George's,  Hassocks. 

PAUL,  TRENCH  &  Co.). 
HEREFORD  CATHEDRAL   LIBRARY  (per  the  Rev.   Canon 

PHILLOTT,  Librarian). 

HERFORD,  Prof.  C.  H.,  Litt.D.,  Hillside,  Aberystwyth. 
HERVEY,  The  Rev.   SYDENHAM   H.  A.,   B.A.,  Wedmore 

Vicarage,  Weston-super-Mare. 
HESLOP,  R.  O.,  Esq.,  The  Crofts,  Corbridge,  R.S.O.,  Nor- 

HEWGILL,  The  Rev.  W.,  M.A.,  Milton  Villas,  Farnworth, 

HEYWOOD,    JOHN,     Bookseller,    Deansgate,     Manchester 

(2  copies.) 

HILL,  The  Rev.  A.  D.,  Downton  Vicarage,  Salisbury 
HILL,  Miss  ELLEN  M.,  63  Compayne  Gardens,  W.  Hamp- 

stead,  London,  N.W. 
HILL,  The    Rev.    GEOFFREY,   M.A.,   Harnham  Vicarage, 

HILL,  TH.  A.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Normanton-on-the-Wolds,  Plum- 

tree,  near  Nottingham. 

HILLS,  WM.  HENRY,  Esq.,  The  Knoll,  Ambleside. 
ilND,  JESSE,  Esq.,  Papplewick  Grange,  Nottingham. 
HIRST,  F.  W.,  Esq.,  Wadham  College,  Oxford. 
HIRST,  WILLIAM,  Bookseller,  259  Monton  Road,  Eccles, 

HOCKLIFFE,  F.,  Bookseller,  Bedford.     \Sp.E.} 

Esq"  Bamborough  Keep> 

'  New«stle-on- 

Hm  TL!f  wRAETICKi  £sq"  The  Gran&e'  Eastbourne. 

OLLIS  W.  A.,  Esq.,  8  Cambridge  Road,  Brighton 
Messrs.  HODGES,  FIGGIS  &  Co.,  104  Grafton 

HOOPS,  Prof.  J.,  Ph.D.,  Tubingen,  Germany. 

HOPKINS,  HENRY,  Esq.,  Castle  Acre.  Swaffham,  Norfolk. 

HORNING,  Prof.  L.  E.,  Victoria  University,  Queen's  Park, 

Toronto,  Canada. 

(per  RALPH  C.  WALPOLE,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
HOVENDEN,  ROBERT,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,   Heathcote,  Park  Hill 

Road,  Croydon,  Surrey. 
HOWARD,  DAVID,  Esq.,   Devon    House,   Buckhurst    Hill, 


HOWARD,  ROBERT  H.,  Esq.,  Brampton,  Carlisle.    [Sp.E.] 
HOWES,  The  Rev.  A.  P.,  Bolton  Abbey  Rectory,  Skipton-in- 

HOWORTH,  DANIEL  F.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.Scot.,  Grafton  House, 

HOYLE,    WILLIAM    E.,    Esq.,   Manchester    Museum,  The 

Owens  College,  Manchester. 

HUBBARD,  Prof.  F.  G.,  Univ.  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wiscon- 
sin, U.S.A. 
HUDSON,  J.  K.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Masson  Villa,  Dickenson  Road, 

Longsight,  Manchester. 

HULL  SUBSCRIPTION  LIBRARY,  Royal  Institution,  Hull  (per 

A.  MILNER,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

HULME,  E.  C.,  Esq.,  F.R.C.S.,  18  Philbeach  Gardens, 
S.  Kensington,  S.W. 

HUMFREYS,  W.  J.,  Esq.,  Hereford. 

HUTCHINGS,  The  Rev.  Canon  R.  S.,  Alderbury  Vicarage, 

MUTTON,  A.  H.  D.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Carisbrooke,  Chelston,  Tor- 
quay (per  Messrs.  MACMILLAN  &  BOWES,  Cambridge). 

HYDE,  JOHN,  Esq.,  F.S.S.,  University  Place,  N.W.,  Washing- 
ton, D.C.,  U.S.A. 

INDERWICK,  F.  A.,  Esq.,  Q.C.,  8  Warwick  Square,  London, 


INGILBY,  Sir  HENRY  D.,  Bart.,  Ripley  Castle,  Yorkshire. 

OF  THE,  Moorgate  Place,  London,  E.G.  (per  REGINALD 

B.  FELLOWS,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

JACKS,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  M.P.,  Glasgow. 

JACKSON,  CHARLES  H.,  Esq.,  2  Copthall  Chambers,  London, 

JACKSON,   RICHARD,    Bookseller,    16    Commercial    Street, 

Leeds.     (2  copies.) 

JAMESON,  J.  H.,  Esq.,  3  Northumberland  Street,  Edinburgh. 
JAMIESON,  JAMES  AULDJO,  Esq.,  14  Buckingham  Terrace, 


JAMES  PARKER  &  Co.). 

JOHNSON,  E.,  Bookseller,  30  Trinity  Street,  Cambridge. 
JOHNSTON,   JOHN,   Bookseller,  Linthorpe   RoacL    Middles- 
borough.     (2  copies.) 

JOHNSTONE,  JAMES,  Esq.,  Ycoed,  Stroud,  Glos. 
JONES,  JOHN,  Esq.,  Central  Buildings,  Llandudno,  Wales. 
JONES,  JOHN  A.,  Esq.,  9  Granville  Road,  Middlesborough. 
JONES,  Prof.  W.  LEWIS,  M.A.,  University  College,  Bangor, 

N.  Wales. 
JUST,  W.  N.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  St.  Peter's  College,  Westminster. 

London,  S.W. 
JUTA  &  Co.,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  Cape  Town,  Cape  Colony 

(per  HENRY  FROWDE). 


(per  R.  MOODY,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
KENNEDY,  A    C.,  Esq.,  20  Tite  Street,  Chelsea,  London, 

a.W.     [Sp.E.} 
KENNEDY,  Miss  LOUISE,  Fairacre,  Concord,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

(per  B.  F.  STEVENS). 

KER,  Prof.  W.  P.,  M.A.,  95  Gower  Street,  London,  W.C. 
KIMPSTER,  Miss  A.,  Royal  Holloway  College,  Egham,  Surrey. 
K.ING,  j.  E.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  The  Grammar  School,  Manchester. 




CARTER,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
KIRBY,  THOMAS    FREDERICK,  Esq.,  M.A.,    The    College, 

KIRKPATRICK,  The    Rev.   Prof.,  D.D.,   3  Salisbury  Villas, 

KITCHIN,   The   Very   Rev.    G.   W.,    D.D.,    The    Deanery, 


KlTTREDGE,  Prof.  G.  L.,  A.B.,  Harvard  University,  Cam- 
bridge, Mass.,  U.S.A. 

KNIGHT,  A.  L.,  Esq.,  30  Basinghall  Street,  Leeds. 
KNOWLES,  The  Rev,   CH.,   M.A.,  Winteringham  Rectory, 


KNOWLES,  W.  ].,  Esq.,  Flixton  Place,  Ballymena. 
KOEPPEL,  Prof.,  Miinchen  (per  A.  BUCHHOLZ,  Buchhandler, 

7  Ludwigstrasse,  Miinchen,  c/o  Messrs  KEGAN  PAUL, 

TRENCH  &  Co.).    (2  copies.} 
KONRATH,  Prof.  M.,  Ph.D.,  Greifswald,  Germany. 

LADELL,  H.  R.,  Esq.,  Englewood,  Harold  Road,  Upper 
Norwood,  London,  S.E.  (per  WILLIAMS  &  NORGATE). 

LAFAYETTE  COLLEGE  LIBRARY,  Easton,  Pa.,  U.S.A.  (per 
H.  GREVEL  £  Co.). 

LAFFAN,  The  Rev.  R.  S.  DE  C.,  M.A.,  Cheltenham  College, 

LAING,  The  Rev.  R.  C.,  St.  Cuthbert's  College,  Ushaw, 

Manchester  (per  C.  GOODYEAR,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

LANDY,  CHRISTOPHER  H.  H.,  Esq.,  91  High  Street,  South- 

LANGE,  RICHARD,  Esq.,  Moika  38,  St.  Petersburgh  (per 
Messrs.  W.  WESLEY  &  SON,  Booksellers,  28  Essex 
Street,  Strand,  London,  W.C.). 

LAYER,  HENRY,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Head  Street,  Colchester. 

LAWRANCE,  HENRY,  Esq.,  The  Lawn,  Gainsborough. 

LEA,  Miss  E.  M.,  48  Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 

LEADER,  R.  E.,  Esq.,  41  Streatham  Hill,  London,  S.W. 

GRANT,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

LEARNED,  Prof.  MARION  DEXTER,  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia,  Pa,  U.S.A. 

EYRE,  Esq.^Secretary,  24  Kelsall  Terrace,  Burley,  Leeds). 

LEEDS  LIBRARY,  Commercial  Street,  Leeds  (per  FRANK 
YATES,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

LEIGH  FREE  LIBRARY,  Leigh,  Lanes,  (per  JAMES  WARD, 
Esq.,  Librarian). 

LEIGH,  W.  B.,  Esq.,  Mersey  Bank,  Heaton  Mersey,  Man- 



LENZ,  Prof.  Dr.  PHILIPP,  Hohere  Tochterschule,  Baden- 
Baden,  Germany. 

LEOSER,  CHARLES  M°K.,  Esq.,  Larchmont  Manor,  New  York, 

LEVESON-GOWER,  GRANVILLE,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Titsey  Place, 

LEWIS,  His  Hon.  Judge  DANIEL,  Llandrindod  Wells,  Rad- 

LEWIS,  Sir  W.  THOMAS,  Bart.,  Aberdare,  S.  Wales. 

ALLEN,  Bookseller). 

D.C.,  U.S.A.  (per  W.  O.  WlNLOCK,  Esq.). 



Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 

A.  F.  ETHERIDGE,  Esq.,  Librarian).  [Sp.E.] 

LIPPINCOTT,  Messrs.  J.  B.,  Company,  Booksellers,  10  Hen- 
rietta Street,  Covent  Garden,  London,  W.C. 

LLOYD,  Miss  E.,  Branxholm,  Pine  Grove,  Weybridge. 

LOCKE,  CYRIL  L.  C.,  Esq.,  St.  Neots,  Eversley,  Winchfield, 

LOGEMAN,  Prof.  H.,  Ph.D.,  136  Chausse"e  de  Courtrai,  Ghent 
(per  Messrs.  WOHLLEBEN,  45  Great  Russell  Street, 
London,  W.C.). 

LONDON  LIBRARY,  St.  James's  Square,  London,  S.W.  (per 
C.  T.  HAGBERG  WRIGHT,  Esq.,  LL.B.). 

LONDON  UNIVERSITY  LIBRARY,  Burlington  Gardens,  W. 
(per  A.  MILMAN,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Registrar). 

LONG,  The  Rev.  W.  S.  F.,  M.A.,  Culham  College,  Abingdon. 

LONGSTAFF,  G.  B.,  Esq.,  Highlands,  Putney  Heath,  Lon- 
don, S.W. 

LOUNSBURY,  Prof.  T.  R.,  LL.D.,  Yale  University,  New 
Haven,  Conn.,  U.S.A. 

LOWRY,  H.  D.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Camborne,  Cornwall. 

LOWTHER,  The  Rev.  W.  B.,  Wesley  Villas,  Thirsk,  Yorks. 

LUCY,  CHARLES  F.,  Esq.,  Bank,  Pickering,  Yorks. 

LUNDELL,  Prof.  J.  A.,  Upsala,  Sweden  (per  Prof.  ERDMANN). 

LUPTON  BROS.,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  Burnley,  Lanes. 

LUZAC,  Messrs.,  &  Co.,  46  Great  Russell  Street,  London,  W.C. 

MACDONALD,  A.  M.,  Esq., Thornlea,  Seafield,  Aberdeen,  N.B. 
MACDONALD,  GEORGE,  Esq.,  2  St.  Bernard's  Place,  Hillhead, 

MACINTYRE,  P.  M.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  LL.B.,  12  India  Street, 

MACKAY,  The   Rev.  G.  5.,  Free   Church    Manse,   Doune, 

Perthshire  (per  Messrs.  MACNIVEN  &  WALLACE,  Book- 
sellers, 138  Princes  Street,  Edinburgh). 
MACLAGAN,  R.  C.,  Esq.,  M.D.,  5  Coates  Crescent,  Edinburgh. 
MACLEHOSE,  Messrs.  JAMES,  &  SONS,  Booksellers,  61  St. 

Vincent  Street,  Glasgow.     (2  copies.) 
MACMILLAN  &  BOWES,  Messrs.,  Cambridge.     (3  copies.) 
MACNIVEN  &  WALLACE,  Messrs.,  Booksellers,  138  Princes 

Street,  Edinburgh.     (4  copies.) 

MACRlTCHIE,  DAVID,  Esq.,  4  Archibald  Place,  Edinburgh. 
MADDOCKS,  JOHN,  Esq.,  Maple  Hill,  Park  Drive,  Heaton, 

Bradford,  Yorks. 

Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 

SUTTON,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 

Free  Library). 

MANFIELD,  Sir  PHILIP,  Northampton.    [Sp.E.] 
MANNING,  PERCY,  Esq.,  46  Broad  Street,  Oxford. 
MANT,  The  Rev.  NEWTON,  M.A.,  The  Vicarage,  Hendon, 

London,  N.W. 

MARCH,  HENRY  COLLEY,  Esq.,  M.D.,  2  West  Street,  Roch- 
MARKHAM,    CHRISTOPHER    A.,    Esq.,    F.S.A.,    Spratton, 


MARRIOTT,  W.  K.,  Esq.,  The  Manor,  Barking,  Essex. 
MARSDEN,  RICHARD  G.,  Esq.,  Fernbank,  14  Fox  Hill,  Upper 

Norwood,  London,  S.E. 
MARSH,  Prof.  ARTHUR  R.,  Harvard  University,  Cambridge, 

Mass.,  U.S.A. 
MARSHALL,  Miss  ADA  BLANCHE,  Belle  Vue   House,  92 

Cheyne  Walk,  London,  S.W. 
MARTIN,  A.  T.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Rodborough  House,  Percival 

Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

MARTIN,  Prof.  ERNST,  Ph.D.,  Strassburg,  i.  E.,  Germany. 
MARTIN,  The  Rev.  H.  A.,  M.A.,  Laxton  Vicarage,  Newark. 

MARWICK,  Sir  JAMES   D.,  LL.D.,  19  Woodside  Terrace, 


MASON,  JOHN,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Windermere. 
MASON,  PHILIP  B.,  Esq.,  Burton-on-Trent. 
MATHIESON,  F.  C.,  Esq.,  Beechworth,  Hampstead  Heath, 

London,  N.W. 



MATHWIN,  H.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Upwood,  Birkdale,  Southport. 
MATTHEWS,  ALBERT,  Esq.,  145  Beacon  Street,  Boston,  Mass. 

(per  Messrs.  SAMPSON  Low,  MARSTON  &  Co.). 
MATTHEWS,   Miss    ELIZABETH,    The    Hollies,  Swaffham, 

MATVEIEFF,  BASIL,  Esq.,  102  Fenchurch  Street,  London.E.C. 

MAX  MULLER,  The  Right  Hon.  Prof.  F.,  M.A.,  7  Norham 

Gardens,  Oxford. 

MAYLAM,  PERCY,  Esq.,  9  Watling  Street,  Canterbury. 
McCLURE,  J.  D.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Mill  Hill  School,  London,  N.W. 
McCoRMlCK,  W.  S.,  Esq.,  St.  Andrews,  Scotland. 
M°KERROW,  R.  B.,  Esq.,  227  Cromwell  Mansions,  Cromwell 

Road,  London,  S.W. 

MEDLEY,  The  Rev.  J.  B.,  M.A.,  Tyntesfield,  Bristol. 
MELBOURNE    PUBLIC    LIBRARY,  Victoria,  Australia    (per 

M.  F.  DOWDEN,  Esq.,  Librarian). 


(per  The  Rev.  WILLIAM  BAKER,  D.D.). 
MERRICK,  W.  P.,  Esq.,  Manor  Farm,  Shepperton. 

PARKER  &  Co.). 

METCALFE,TheRev.W.  M.,D.D.,  South  Manse,  Paisley.N.B. 
MEYER,  Prof.  KUNO,  Ph.D.,  University  College,  Liverpool 

(per  Messrs.  WILLIAMS  &  NORGATE). 
MICHIGAN,  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  U.S.A. 

(per  Messrs.  H.   SOTHERAN  &  Co.,  Booksellers,  140 

Strand,  London,  W.C.). 


M.A.,  Headmaster). 
MILES,  Messrs.  T.,  &  Co.,  Booksellers,  95  Upper  Street, 

London,  N. 

MILL,  Miss,  12  Croxteth  Road,  Princes  Park,  Liverpool. 
MILLER,  A.  L.,  Esq.,  Ravensdowne,  Berwick-on-Tweed. 
MILLER,  Prof.  C.  W.  E.,  Johns  Hopkins  University,  Balti- 

more, U.S.A. 
MILLER,  HUGH,  Esq.,  H.M.  Geological  Survey  of  Scotland, 

Sheriff  Court  House,  George  IV  Bridge,  Edinburgh. 
MILLER,  P.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.Scot.,  8  Bellevue  Terrace,  Edin- 

MILNE,  The   Rev.  J.,   Newlands   Manse,  Mountain  Cross, 

Peeblesshire,  N.B. 
MILWAUKEE  PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  Wise.,  U.S.A.  (per  G.  E. 


MINET,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  48  Gloucester  Square,  London,  W. 
MITCHELL,  The  Rev.  JAMES,  M.A.,  D.D.,  The  Manse,  South 

Leigh,  Edinburgh. 
MITCHELL  LIBRARY,  21   Miller  Street,  Glasgow  (per  T. 

BARRETT,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

MOCATTA,  F.  D.,  Esq.,  9  Connaught  Place,  London,  W. 
MOFFAT,  ALEX.  G.,  Esq.,  Swansea, 
MOIR,  JAMES,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  The  Ash,  Hamilton  Place,  Aber- 

MOLLER,  Prof.  Dr.  HERMANN,  2  Mathildevei,  Frederiksberg, 

Copenhagen,  Denmark. 

MOLLER,  J.  GATMAR,  Bookseller,  Lund,  Sweden 
MONTEFIORE,  CLAUDE  G.,  Esq.,  12  Portman  Square,  Lon- 

don, W. 

MOORE,  ALFRED,  Esq.,  Eythorne,  Dover. 
MOORE,  AW.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Woodbourne  House,  Douglas, 

Isle  of  Man. 

MORETON  The  Lord,  Sarsden,  Chipping  Norton,  Oxon. 
MORFILL,  W.  R,  Esq.,  M.A.,  4  Clarendon  Villas,  Oxford. 
MORGAN,  Lieut.-Col.  W.  LI.,  Brynbriallu,  Swansea. 
M  ORISON  JOHN,  Esq.,  11  Burnbank  Gardens,  Glasgow. 
MORRIS,  Prof  E.  E.,  University  of  Melbourne,  Australia  (per 

SLADE'  Booksellt' 

MORRISON,  WALTER,  Esq.,  M.P.,  77  Cromwell  Road,  Lon- 

don, S.W.     [Sp.E.] 
MORSBACH,  Prof.  L.,  Ph.D.,  Gottingen  (per  SAMPSON  Low, 

MARSTON  &  Co.    (2  copies^ 
MORTIMER,  J.  R.,  Esq.,  Driffield,  Yorks. 
MOUBRAY,JOHN  J.,  Esq.,  Naemoor,  Rumbling  Bridge,  N.B. 

Upper  Ma,,, 
View,  Tyn, 

MOULTON,  Rev.  W.  F.,  D.D.,  The  Leys  School,  Cambridge 

(per  Messrs.  MACMILLAN  &  BOWES). 
MOUNT,  The  Rev.  C.  B.,  M.A.,  14  Norham  Road,  Oxford. 
MUNBY,  A.  J.,  Esq.,  6  Figtree  Court,  Temple,  London,  E.G. 
MURDOCH,  The  Rev.  A.  G.,  M.A.,  Free  Church  Manse,  John 

Street,  Ayr,  N.B. 

MURISON,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  27  Gladstone  Place,  Aberdeen. 
MURRAY,  A.,  Esq.,  5  Meadow  Place,  Edinburgh  (per  Mr. 

MILLER,  33  So.  Clerk  Street,  Edinburgh). 
MURRAY,  DAVID,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  169  West  George   Street, 

MURRAY,  Dr.  W.,  Swinburne  Castle,  Haughton,  Northum- 

MUSTERS,  Mrs.  L.  C.,  Wiverton  Hall,  Bingham,  Notts. 

NAPIER,  Prof.  A.  S.,  M.A.,  Headington  Hill,  Oxford. 
NAPIER,  The  Rev.  T.  P.,  B.A.,  c/o  Rev.  J.  STEPHENSON, 

Forton  Vicarage,  Gosport. 
NASH,  EDMUND,  Esq.,  M.D.,  123  Lansdowne  Road,  Netting 

Hill,  London,  W. 
NATIONAL  LIBERAL  CLUB,  Whitehall  Place,  London,  S.W. 

(per  A.  W.  HUTTON,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

FIGGIS  &  Co.,  104  Grafton  Street,  Dublin). 

Miss  MARY  L.  JONES,  Librarian). 

NETTLESHIP,  EDWARD,  Esq.,  5  Wimpole  Street,  London,  W. 


NEWBOLD,  ARTHUR,  Esq.,  Parklands,  Burgess  Hill,  Sussex. 

SOCIETY  (per  W.  E.  FRANKLIN,  Bookseller,  42  Mosley 

Street,  Newcastle-on-Tyne). 

ANDERTON,  Esq.,  Chief  Librarian). 

STEPHEN,  Librarian). 


NICHOLSON,  E.  W.  B.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Bodleian  Library,  Oxford. 
NINNIS,  BELGRAVE,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Brockenhurst,  Aldrington 

Road,  Streatham,  London,  S.W.    [Sp.E.] 
NOCK,  L.  F.,  Esq.,  Tutshill  House,  Durham  Rd.,  Birmingham. 
NODAL,  John  H.,  Esq.,  The  Grange,  Heaton  Moor,  near 


NOORDHOFF,  P.,  Boekhandelaar,  Groningen,  Holland. 

BRISCOE,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

ODDIE,  The  Rev.  J.  W.,  Lyzwick  Hall,  Keswick. 
O'KlNEALY,  The  Hon.  Mr.  Justice  (per  Messrs.  MACMILLAN 

&  BOWES). 
OLDFIELD,  The  Rev.  W.  J.,  M.A.,  St.  Paul's  Missionary 

College,  Burgh,  R.S.O.,  Lines. 

TIONAL DEPARTMENT),  Foundry  Street,  Oldham  (per 

A.  SPENCER,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

OLIPHANT,  T.  L.  KINGTON,  Esq.,  Gask,  Auchterader,  N.B. 

PARKER  &  Co.). 

ORPEN,  Rev.  J.  H.  (per  Messrs.  MACMILLAN  &  BOWES). 
OTT,  Dr.  J.  H.,  Librarian,  Watertown,  Wisconsin,  U.S.A. 

(per  B.  F.  STEVENS). 

OWEN,  The  Rev.  ERNEST,  M.A.,  Cathedral  School,  Llandaff. 
OWEN,  HENRY,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  44  Oxford  Terrace,  Hyde  Park, 

London,  W. 
OWEN,    The  Rev.  R.  TREVOR,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Llangedwyn 

Vicarage,  Oswestry. 




RHODES,  Esq.,  Librarian). 

HARRISON  &  SON,  59  Pall  Mall,  London,  S.W.).  [Sp.E.} 

Booksellers,  Oxford). 

PAGET,  The  Very  Rev.  FRANCIS,  D.D.,  The  Deanery,  Oxford. 
PAGET,  Sir  R.   H.,  Bart.,  Cranmore  Hall,  Shept on- Mallet, 

PALGRAVE,   Prof.    FRANCIS  T.,   M.A.,   15   Cranley   Place, 

Onslovv  Square,  London,  S.W. 
PALMER,  H.  V.,  Esq.,  The  Yorkshire  Post,  Leeds. 
PARKER,  GEORGE  T.,  Esq.,  United  States  Consul,  Birming- 
ham (per  HENRY  FROWDE). 

PARKER,  JAMES,  &  Co.,  Booksellers,  Oxford.    (2  copies.) 
PARKIN,  W.  WILTON,  Esq.,  Eastbourne,  Darlington. 
PARKINSON,  JOHN  WILSON,   Esq.,  35  Winchelsea  Road, 

Tottenham,  London,  N. 
PARKYN,  Major  EDWIN,  J.P.,  F.G.S.,  Hon.  Sec.,  Cornwall 

Library,  Truro. 

PARRY,  R.  St.  J.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 
PATON,  A.  B.,  Esq.,  Irvine  Bank,  Crosby,  near  Liverpool. 
PAUL,  GEORGE  M.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.Scot.,  38  Greenhill  Gardens, 

PAUL,  Messrs.  KEGAN,  TRENCH  &  Co.,  Paternoster  House, 

Charing  Cross  Road,  London. 
PAWSON,  ALBERT  HENRY,  Esq.,  Farnley,  Leeds. 
PAYNE,  WILLIAM,  Esq.,  Hatchlands,  Cuckfield,  Sussex. 
PAYNE-SMITH,  The  Rev.  W.  H.,  M.A.,  10  Hillmorton  Road, 


(per  E.  G.  ALLEN). 
PEACOCK,  EDWARD,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Dunstan  House,  Kirton- 

in-Lindsey,  Lines. 
PEACOCK,  MATTHEW  H.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  The  Grammar  School, 


PEARSON,  Prof.  KARL,  M.A.,  University  College,  London. 
PEASE,  HOWARD,  Esq.,  Arcot  Hall,  Dudley,  R.S.O.,  Nor- 
PECKOVER,    ALEXANDER,    Esq.,    LL.D.,    F.S.A.,   Sibald's 

Holme,  Wisbeach. 
PEEK,  C.  E.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  Rousdon,  Lyme  Regis, 


PEEL,  ROBERT,  Esq.,  The  Avenue,  Wilmslow,  Cheshire. 
PEILE,  JOHN,  Esq.,  Litt.D.,  The  Master,  Christ's  College, 


NEIL,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 
PERCIVAL,  The  Right  Rev.  JOHN,   D.D.,  Lord  Bishop  of 

Hereford,  The  Palace,  Hereford. 
PERCY,  The  Right  Hon.  Earl,  Alnwick  Castle. 
PETER,  THURSTAN  C.,  Esq.,  Townhall,  Redruth,  Cornwall. 

BARNES,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian). 
PHILLIPS,  JOHN,  Esq.,  M.A.,  M.D.,  71  Grosvenor  Street 

London.  W. 

PICKUP,  P.  W.,  Esq.,  71  Preston  New  Road,  Blackburn. 
PIERPOINT,  ROBERT,  Esq.,  M.P.,  St.  Austin's,  Warrington. 
PILKINGTON,  Sir  GEORGE  A.,  C.A.,  Belle  Vue,  Southport. 
PLATNAUER,  H.  M.,  Esq.,  The  Museum,  York. 
PLATT,  R.,  Bookseller,  Wigan  (per  HENRY  FROWDE). 

Plymouth  (per  GORDON  GOODWIN,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
POGATSCHER,  Prof.  A.,  Ph.D.,  Prague,  Austria  (per  Messrs. 

SAMPSON  Low,  MARSTON  &  Co.). 

POOLES,  The  Rev.  C.  KNOX,  M.A.,  The  Rectory,  New- 
townards,  Co.  Down  (perT.  DARGAN,  Bookseller,  Castle 
Lane,  Belfast). 

POOLL,  Mrs.  BATTEN,  Road  Manor,  Bath. 
POPE,  The  Rev.  R.  W.  M.,  D.D.,  Students'  Delegacy,  Oxford. 
PORTER,  R.  V.,  Esq.,  Raleigh,  Beckenham. 
POTT,  JAMES,  Esq.,  19  Radeclyffe  Terrace,  Pimlico  Road, 

,  Prof.  F.  YORK,  M.A.,  Christ  Church,  Oxford. 

POWELL,  J.  U.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  St.  John's  College,  Oxford. 

PRICE,  The  Rev.  Canon  BARTHOLOMEW,  D.D.,  The  Master, 
Pembroke  College,  Oxford. 

PRICE,  Prof.  THOMAS  R.,  LL.D.,  Columbia  College,  New 
York  City,  U.S.A. 

PRIESTLEY,  A.  W.,  Esq.,  Reservoir  View,  Thornton,  Brad- 
ford, Yorks.  (per  AETHELBERT  BINNS,  Wilsden). 

PRIMER,  Prof.  SYLVESTER,  Austin,  Texas,  U.S.A.  (per 
Messrs.  MACMILLAN  &  Co.,  London).  [Sp.E.} 

PROCTOR,  RICHARD,  Esq.,  Oak  Mount,  Burnley  (per  W. 
COULSTON,  Bookseller,  Burnley). 

PROESCHOLDT,  Dr.  L.,  Friedrichsdorf,  Taunus,  Germany. 

PRYOR,  F.  R.,  Esq.  (per  Messrs.  MACMILLAN  &  BOWES). 

PUTNAM'S  SONS,  Messrs.  G.  P.,  New  York,  U.S.A.  (20 

QUARITCH,  BERNARD,  Bookseller,  15  Piccadilly,  London,  W. 

[l  ord.  and  I  Sp.E.} 

MEISSNER,  Librarian). 

RAMSAY,  The  Hon.  Charles  M.,  M.P.,  48  Grosvenor  Street, 

London,  S.W.     [Sp.E.] 
RANDELL,  The  Rev.  THOMAS,  D.D.,  The  Rectory,  Sunder- 

land.     (2  copies.) 

Dublin  (per  The  Rev.  P.  S.  WHELAN,  M.A.). 

Esq.,  Librarian). 
REICHEL,   H.   R.,  Esq.,  M.A.,   The   Principal,   University 

College,  Bangor,  N.  Wales. 
RENSHAW,  WALTER  C.,  Esq.,  Q.C.,  39  Queen's  Gardens, 

Lancaster  Gate,  London,  W. 
REPTON  SCHOOL  LIBRARY,  Repton  Hall,  Burton-on-Trent 

(per  The  Rev.  W.  M.  FURNEAUX,  M.A.). 
REYNOLDS,    LLYWARCH,    Esq.,  B.A.,  Old  Church  Place, 

Merthyr  Tydvil. 
REYNOLD'S  LIBRARY,  Rochester,  New  York,  U.S.A.  (per 

RHYS,  J.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  The  Principal,  Jesus  College, 


RICHARDS,  F.,  Esq.,  Kingswood  School,  Bath. 
RICHARDSON,  The  Ven.  JOHN,  Archdeacon  of  Nottingham. 
RICHMOND  FREE  PUBLIC  LIBRARY,  Richmond,  Surrey  (per 

ALBERT  A.  BARKAS,  Esq.,  Librarian). 
RIDLEY,  THOMAS  D.,  Esq.,  Coatham,  Redcar. 
RlPON,  The  Most  Hon.  the  Marquis  of,  K.G.,  9  Chelsea 

Embankment,  London,  S.W. 

ROBARTES,  The  Right  Hon.  Lord,  29  Park  Lane,  London,  W. 
ROBERT,  Sir  OWEN,  F.S.A.,  D.C.L.,  Clerk  to  the   Cloth- 
workers'  Company,  Clothworkers'  Hall,  London,  E.G. 
ROBERTSON,  J.  DRUMMOND,  Esq.,  6  Park  Road,  Richmond 

Hill,  Surrey. 
ROBY,  HENRY  J.,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  c/o  ERMEN  &  ROBY,  Patri- 

croft,  Manchester. 

Lane,  Rochdale  (per  A.  B.  SILVERWOOD,  Esq.,  Secretary 

Educational  Department). 
ROCHDALE    PUBLIC    LIBRARY   (per   G.   HANSON,   Esq., 

ROCK,  R.,  Esq.,  Oak  Mount,  Burnley  (per  W.  COLSTON, 

Bookseller,  Burnley). 

ROGERS,  A.  G.  L.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  49  Beaumont  Square,  Lon- 
don, E. 

ROGERS,  Prof.  L.  J.,  M.A.,  Yorkshire  College,  Leeds. 
ROGERSON,  JOHN  J.,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  Merchiston  Castle,  Edin- 

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ROSS,   DAVID,   Esq.,  M.A.,   B.Sc.,   LL.D.,   The    Principal, 

Training  College,  City  Road,  Glasgow.   [Sp.E.'] 
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C  2 



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Hon.  Librarian). 
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MILLETT,  F.  W.,  Esq.,  Marazion,  Cornwall. 


AFTER  making  many  experiments,  it  has  been  found  advisable  to  devise  a  plain  and  simple  phonetic  alphabet 
to  represent  the  approximate  pronunciation.  An  elaborate  transcription  is  useless  to  people  who  have  not 
had  a  practical  training  in  phonetics.  And  it  can  all  the  more  easily  be  dispensed  with  in  giving  the  pro- 
nunciation of  the  dialect  words  in  the  body  of  the  Dictionary,  because  the  phonological  introduction  which 
I  hope  to  write  when  the  Dictionary  is  finished,  will  contain  the  exact  pronunciation  of  all  the  common  words 
in  everyday  use.  It  is  impossible  to  attempt  this  part  of  the  work  alongside  of  the  Dictionary,  as  it  will  require 
some  years  of  patient  toil  to  collect  reliable  material  and  to  digest  it.  In  the  meantime  I  must  ask  philologists 
to  be  contented  with  the  brief  resume  given  at  the  beginning  of  each  letter  of  the  alphabet  for  the  vowels,  see 
e.g.  pp.  i,  2.  On  comparing  the  results  given  there  with  those  arrived  at  by  Karl  Luick  in  his  excellent  book 
Untersuchungen  aur  englischen  Laulgeschichte,  it  will  be  found  that  we  differ  in  a  few  minor  points.  After  a 
careful  perusal  of  his  book,  I  now  think  it  would  have  been  better  to  have  used  the  word  usual  instead  of 
normal  on  p.  i  of  the  Dictionary. 


The  only  consonants  which  require  to  be  specially  mentioned  are  : 

tj  like  the  ch  in  cheap. 

p  „  „  th   „   thin. 

$  „  „  th   „  then. 

q  „  „  n    „   think. 

Note :  (r)  is  only  sounded  when  the  next  word  in  the  same  sentence  begins  with  a  vowel. 

dg  like  the  j  in  just. 

g      „  „     s  „  pleasure. 

X      „  „    ch  „   Germ.  Nacht,  ich. 

J       „  „    sh  „   ship. 


a  like  the  a  in  Germ.  Mann. 
ae  „      „     a  „   Southern  Engl.  bat. 

B      „         „       U   „     lip. 

e  „  „  e  „  wen. 

i  „  „  i  „  bit. 

0  „  „  o  „  mob. 
u  „  „  u  „  full. 

9  „  „  e  „    Germ.  Gabe. 

a  „  „  a  „  father. 

e  „  „  e  „    Germ.  Reh. 

1  „  „  ee  „   feet. 

5    „  „    o  „    Germ.  Bole. 

9    „  „  aw  „    law. 

u    „  „  oo   „  food. 

9    „  „    i    „    bird. 

oe  „  „    6   „   Germ,  mogen. 

u    „  „    u   „    Germ.  Gute. 

Note:  (i)  No  attempt  is  made  to  distinguish  between  close  and  open  e.  (2)  The  first  element  of  oa  is 
a  very  close  sound  closely  approaching  u.  (3)  The  stress  is  always  on  the  first  element  of  diphthongs,  unless 
the  contrary  is  indicated  in  the  Dictionary.  (4)  Vocalic  m,  n  are  written  am,  an.  (5)  A  point  after  a  vowel 
(no'bad)  indicates  that  the  vowel  bears  the  chief  stress  in  the  word. 

ai  like 

the  i  in 


au    .. 

„  ou  „ 


ei     •. 

„  <*    „ 


eu    „ 

„  ou  „ 

the  s.  dial,  pronun.  of  mouse. 

ea    ,. 

?»      "        >5 


in    „ 

„  ew  „ 


is      „ 

„  ea  „ 


oi    „ 

„  oy  „ 


ou   „ 

„  ow  „ 

low  (with  the  first 

element  more  open). 

oa    „ 

))     O     ,, 

bone  (dial,  pronun 

.  ofw.Yks.). 

93    „ 

„  a   „ 

all  (n.  dialects). 

ui    ,, 

„  oo  „ 

food  (n.  dialects). 



adj.            —  adjective. 
adv.          =  adverb. 


=  impersonal. 
=a  imperfect. 

pf.             —  perfect. 
phr.          =  phrase. 

advb.        =  adverbial,  -ly. 


=   Indicative. 

pl.,/>/.      =  plural. 

AFr.         =  Anglo-French. 
Amer.       —  American. 


=  indefinite. 
=  Infinitive. 

pop.          i=  popular,  -ly. 
pp.            =  past  participle. 

app.          =  apparently. 
arch.         =  archaic. 


=  interjection. 
=  intransitive. 

ppl.  adj.    =  participial  adjective, 
pred.         =  predicative,  -ly. 

assoc.       =  association. 


=  Irish. 

pref.          —  prefix. 

attrib.       —  attributive,  -ly. 


=  Italian. 

prep.         =  preposition. 

c.              =  circa,  about. 


=  language. 

pres.         =  present. 

Cf.            =  confer,  compare. 


=  Latin. 

pret.         =  preterite. 

cogn.  w.  =  cognate  with. 


=  Low  German. 

Prim.  sign.  =  Primary  signification. 

colloq.       -    colloquial. 


=  literary. 

priv.         <=  privative. 

Comb.      —  Combinations. 


=  literal,  -ly. 

prob.        =  probably. 

comp.       =  compound,  composition. 


=  Middle  Dutch. 

pron.        =  pronoun. 

compar.    =  comparative. 


=  Middle  English. 

pron.        =  pronunciation,  pronounced. 

conj.          =  conjunction. 


=  meaning. 

prov.        =  proverb. 

const.       «  construction. 


=  Middle  High  German. 

prp.           —  present  participle. 

contam.    =  contamination. 


=  midland  (dialect). 

q.v.           —  quod  vide,  which  see. 

contr.       =  contracted,  contraction. 


=  mediaeval  Latin. 

reg.           =  regular. 

Dan.         =  Danish. 


=  Middle  Low  German. 

re              __  I  representative,  representing, 

dem.         =  demonstrative. 


=  modern. 

=  j      represents. 

der.          =  derivative,  -ation. 


=  nautical. 

Rom.        =  Romanic,  Romance. 

dial.,  dial.  •=  dialect,  -al. 


—  Northern  French. 

sb.            =  substantive. 

Diet.         =  Dictionary. 


_  (  New  High  German, 

Sc.           =  Scotch. 

dim.          =  diminutive. 

(      modern  German. 

sing.         =  singular. 

Du.           =  Dutch. 


=  northern  (dialect). 

sp.             —  spelling. 

Dy.           =  Daily. 


=  Norwegian. 

spec.         =  special. 

E.             =  English. 


=  object. 

subst.        =  substantively. 

e.midl.      =  east  midland  (dialect). 


=  obsolete. 

suff.          =  suffix. 

equiv.       =  equivalent. 


=  obsolescent. 

superl.      •=  superlative. 

erron.       =  erroneous,  -ly. 


=  occasional,  -ly. 

Sw.          =  Swedish. 

esp.          =  especially. 


=  Old  Danish. 

s.w.          =  south-western  (dialect). 

etym.        =  etymology. 


=  Old  Dutch. 

trans.        =  transitive. 

fig.             •=  figurative,  -ly. 


=  Old  English  (  =  Anglo-Saxon). 

transf.      =  transferred  sense. 

Flem.       =  Flemish. 


=  Old  Flemish. 

unkn.        =  unknown. 

Fr.            =  French. 


=  Old  French. 

v.,  vb.       =  verb. 

freq.         =  frequently. 


—  Old  Frisian. 

var.           =  variant  of. 

frequent.  =  frequentative. 


=  Old  High  German. 

var.  dial.  =  various  dialects. 

Fris.         =  Frisian. 


=  Old  Irish. 

vbl.  sb.     =  verbal  substantive. 

G.             =  German. 
Gael.        =  Gaelic. 


=  Old  Norse  (Old  Icelandic). 
=  Old  Northern  French. 

v.  r.          =  various  readings. 
v.  sir.        =  verb  strong. 

gen.          —  genitive. 


=  Old  Northumbrian. 

v.  w.  irr.  —  verb  weak  irregular. 

gen.          —  general,  -ly. 


=  original,  -ly. 

wd.           —  word. 

gen.  sign.  =  general  signification. 


=  Old  Saxon. 

Wei.         =  Welsh. 

Gl.            =  Glossary. 


=  Old  Swedish. 

WGer.      =  West  Germanic. 

gloss.        =  glossaries. 
Goth.        =  Gothic  (  =  Mceso-Gothic). 
imp.         —  Imperative. 


=  Old  West  Saxon. 
=   passive,  -ly. 
-   person,  -al 

Wkly.      =  Weekly, 
w.midl.     =  west  midland  ^dialect). 
WS.         =  West  Saxon. 

Abd.         =  Aberdeen. 
Agl.          =  Anglesea. 


=  Connaught 
=  Cornwall. 

e.Yks.       ^  East  Riding  of  Yorkshire. 
Fif.           =  Fife. 

Ags.         =  Angus. 


=  Cork. 

Fit.            =  Flint. 

Ant.          =  Antrim. 


=  Carlow. 

Frf.           =  Forfar. 

Arg.          =  Argyll. 
Arm.         -   Armagh. 
Aus.         =  Australia. 
Bch.         =  Buchan. 
Bck.         «  Bucks. 
Bdf.          _  Bedford. 
Bnff.         =  Banff. 
Brk.          =  Brecknock. 
Brks.        =  Berks. 
Bte.          =  Bute 


=  Cromarty. 
=  Carnarvon. 
=  Carmarthen. 
=  Cumberland. 
=  Derby. 
=  Devon. 
=  Dumbarton. 
=  Dumfries. 
-  Denbigh. 

Frm.         =  Fermanagh. 
Gall.         —  Galloway. 
Glo.          =  Gloucester. 
Glw.         =  Galway. 
Gmg.        =  Glamorgan. 
Hdg.         =  Haddington. 
Hmp.        =  Hampshire. 
Hnt.          =  Huntingdon. 
Hrf.         =  Hereford. 

Bwk.        =  Berwick. 


=  Donegal. 

Hit.          =  Hertford. 


=  Dorset. 

I.  Ma.       =  Isle  of  Man. 

Cav.         =  Cavan 


=  Dublin. 

Inv.           =  Inverness. 

Cdg.         ^  Cardigan. 
Chs.         =  Cheshire. 
Cla.           =  Clare. 
Clc.          =  Clackmannan. 



=  Durham. 
=  Down. 
«  East  Anglia. 
—  Edinburgh. 

Ir.  ,  Irel.   =  Ireland. 
I.W.        =  Isle  of  Wight. 
Kcb.         =  Kircudbright. 
Kcd          =  Kincardine. 

Cld.           =  Clydesdale. 
Cmb.        -  Cambridge. 


-  Elgin. 
-   England. 
-  Essex. 

Kco.          =  King's  County. 
Ken.          =.  Kent. 
Ker.          =  Kerry. 




=   Kildare. 


-   Newfoundland. 


=    Selkirk. 


--   Kilkenny. 


—   Northumberland. 


=  Sligo. 


-  Kinross. 


=   Northampton. 


=  Somerset. 


=  Lancashire. 


=   Nottingham. 


-  Stafford. 


—  Londonderry 


=  Norfolk. 


=  Sutherland. 


=  Leicester. 


=  New  South  Wales. 


=  Suffolk. 


=  Limerick. 


-  North  Wales. 


=  Surrey. 


=  Lincoln. 


=  North  Riding  of  Yorkshire. 


=  Sussex. 

=  Longford. 


=   New  Zealand. 


=  South  Wales. 


=  Lanark. 

Or.  I. 

=  Orkney  Isles. 


=  Tipperary. 


=  Linlithgow. 


-   Oxford. 


=  Tyrone. 


=  Leinster. 


-  Peebles. 


=  Ulster. 


=  London. 


=  Pembroke. 


=   United  States. 


=  Louth. 


=  Perth. 


=  Wales. 


=  Lothian. 


=  Queen's  County. 


=  Warwick. 


=  Leitrim. 


=  Radnor. 


=   Wigtown. 


=  Meath. 


=•  Renfrew. 


=  Wiltshire. 


=  Merioneth. 


=  Ross. 


=  Wicklow. 


=  Middlesex. 


=  Roscommon. 


=  Westmoreland. 


—  Monaghan. 


=  Rutland. 


=  West  Meath. 


=  Monmouth. 


=  Roxburgh. 


-  Worcester. 


=  Moray. 


—  Scotland. 


=  Waterford. 


=  Montgomery. 

Sc.  I. 

=  Scilly  Isles. 


=   Wexford. 


=  Munster. 

Sh.  I. 

-  Shetland  Isles. 


=  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire. 


=  Mayo. 


=  Shropshire. 


=  Yorks. 


=  Nairn. 


=  Stirling. 



Shetland  . 

Orkney    . 










Buchan    . 




Perth       . 

West  Scotland. 

Argyll      . 


Fife . 

Kinross    . 

Clackmannan   . 

Stirling    . 

South  Scotland 



Renfrew  . 

Ayr . 

Lanark     . 


Lothian    . 




Berwick  . 

Peebles    . 

Selkirk     . 


Dumfries . 


Kirkcudbright . 













































North  Ireland .  n.Ir. 
Ulster  .  .  Uls. 
Antrim  .  .  Ant. 



Londonderry  . 


Tyrone    . 


Donegal  . 








Armagh  . 


West  Ireland   . 




Leitrim    . 






Galway    . 


Roscommon     . 


East  Ireland 


Leinster  . 




West  Meath     . 






Dublin      . 




Kildare   . 


King's  County 


Queen's  County 


South  Ireland  . 




Carlow     . 


Wexford  . 


Munster   . 

















Durham   . 


Cumberland     . 








Isle  of  Man 

I.  Ma. 



Wales      . 


North  Wales    . 


Flintshire          .         .  Fit. 

Denbighshire  .         .  Dnb. 

Carnarvonshire         .  Crn. 

Anglesea .         .         .  Agl. 

Merionethshire  .  Mer. 

Staffordshire    .  .  Stf. 

Derbyshire      .  .  Der. 

Nottinghamshire  .  Not. 

Lincolnshire     .  .  Lin. 

Rutlandshire    .  .  Rut. 

Leicestershire .  .  Lei. 

Northamptonshire  .  Nhp. 

Warwickshire .  .  War. 

Worcestershire  .  Wor. 

Shropshire       .  .  Shr. 

Montgomeryshire  .  Mtg. 

Herefordshire  .  .  Hrf. 

South  Wales    .  .  s.Wal. 

Cardiganshire  .  .  Cdg. 

Radnorshire     .  .  Rdn. 

Brecknockshire  .  Brk. 

Glamorganshire  .  Gmg. 

Carmarthenshire  .  Cth. 

Pembrokeshire  .  Pern. 

Gloucestershire  .  GIo. 

Oxfordshire      .  .  Oxf. 

Berkshire          .  .  Brks. 

Buckinghamshire  .  Bck. 

Bedfordshire    .  .  Bdf. 

Hertfordshire  .  .  Hrt 

Middlesex         .  .  Mid. 

London    .         .  .  Lon. 

Huntingdonshire  .  Hnt. 

East  Anglia      .  .  e.An. 

Cambridgeshire  .  Cmb. 

Norfolk    .         .  .  Nrf. 

Suffolk     .         .  .  Suf. 

Essex       .         .  .  Ess. 

Kent         .         .  .  Ken. 

Surrey     .         .  .  Sur. 

Sussex     .         .  .  Sus. 

Hampshire       .  .  Hmp. 

Isle  of  Wight  .  .  I.W. 

Wiltshire.         .  .  Wil. 

Dorsetshire      .  .  Dor. 

Somersetshire.  .  Som. 

Devonshire       .  .  Dev. 

Cornwall .          .  .  Cor. 

Scilly  Isles        .  .  Sc.I. 


ABLACH,  sb.  An  insignificant  person  (Abd.). 

ACCIDENCE,  sb.    A  slip  [of  memory]  (Ayr). 

ACHE,  v.    To  walk  hurriedly  (w.Yks.). 

ACTION,  sb.  The  game  also  called  Baccare,  q.v. 

ADDER-STINGER,  sb.   A  large  dragon-fly  (Hmp.). 

AESOME,  adj.   Single  (Sc.). 

AFLOCHT,/^/.  adj.  Agitated,  in  a  flutter  (JAM.). 

AFLOITS,  adv.   In  confusion  (Yks.). 

AFORE  THE  STEM.^/zr.  A  large  sleeping  bunk  in  a 
ship  (Sc.). 

AGOY,  int.   A  form  of  oath  (Lan.). 

AIRIE,  sb.  A  hill-pasture;  a  level  green  among  the 
hills  (Sc.). 

ALLOW,  v.   To  order  (n.Irel.). 
ALMANAC,  sb.   A  diary  (Yks.). 

ALMARK,  sb.  An  animal  addicted  to  breaking  fences 
or  trespassing  (Sh.I.). 

ALWAYS,  adv.   Still,  at  the  present  moment  (Sc.). 
AMAUNGE,  sb.   A  muddle,  confusion  (Lan.). 
AMBUSH,  v.   To  hide  (Yks.). 

AMEND,  v.  In  phr.  amend  me,  a  mild  oath  (Oxf.  or 

AMIND,  v.    To  consider,  bear  in  mind  (Irel.). 
AMOVET,//.    Moved,  roused  (Sc.). 
ANCHOVY-DUCK,  sb.   ?  (Sc.) 

ANGLE,  sb.   A  large  hook  fixed  into  the  ceiling  (Lan.). 
ANGLER,  sb.     The    fish    Lophinus  piscatorius  (dial, 

ANKER,  sb.    The  angular  end  of  a  scythe-blade,  bv 
which  it  is  attached  to  the  pole  (Wm.). 
APPLE-CHAMBER,  sb.   A  spare  bedroom  (Suf.). 
APPLE-TWELIN,  sb.    An  apple-turnover,  q.v.  (e.An.) 
ARCELL,  sb.   A  kind  of  lichen,  Omphalodes  (Cum.). 
ARGUE,  v.   To  talk  to  oneself,  to  muse  (Yks.). 
ARICH  sb.   The  morning  (s.Wxf.). 

ARMED  BULL-HEAD,  phr.  The  fish  Aspidophorus 
europaeus  (dial,  unknown). 

ARMED  GURNARD,  phr.  The  fish  Peristedion  malar- 
mat  (dial,  unknown). 

ARN-LOIN,  sb.   Straightened  circumstances  (Lan  ) 
ARTDLLERY,  sb.   Baggage  (Yks.). 
ARUM,  adv.  Within  (s.Wxf.). 

ASHEAPLY,  adj.   Senseless,  stupid  (Not). 

ASSART,  sb.   Land  cleared  of  trees  (Hrf.). 

ASS-KIT,  sb.  A  portable  tub  for  removing  ashes 

ASTID,  conj.   As  well  as  (Sc.). 

ASTRID,  adv.    Inclined  (Suf.). 

AUDISCIENCE,  sb.    Hearing,  attention  (Abd.). 

AUMA,  sb.   A  kind  of  pancake  (Hrf.). 

AWID  [sic],  adv.    Anxious,  eager  (Sc.). 

A-WTTTTNS,  in  phr.  meawittins,  without  my  knowledge 

AYVISH,  adj.   Babyish,  foolish  (Wil.). 

BAAKER  [sic],  sb.   A  wood-louse  (Som.). 

BABBLE,  adj.    Half-witted  (Sc.). 

BACHILLE,  sb.   A  small  piece  of  arable  ground  (Sc.). 

BADDERLOCKS,  sb.   The  Hart's  tongue  fern  (Sc.). 

BADGER,  sb.   A  heavy  fall  in  sliding  (Not.). 

BADGER-SNAIL,  sb.   A  large  snail  (Not.). 

BADLINS,  adv.    Out  of  health,  unwell  (Sc.  Nhb.). 

BADOCK,  sb.  The  Arctic  Gull,  Lams  parasilicus ;  also 
the  common  Skua,  Stercorarius  catarrhactes  (dial, 

BAFFLE,  sb.    A  portfolio  (Sc.). 

BAL,  sb.   A  quarry  (Cor.). 

BALEEN,  sb.   Whalebone  (Sc.). 

BALL  AND  CAT,  phr.  A  game  played  by  children. 
Obs.1  (Lon.) 

BALLANT-BODICE,  sb.  A  lady's  bodice  made  of 
leather  (Sc.). 

BALLER,  sb.  An  implement  for  breaking  clods  of 
earth  (n.Dev.). 

BALLION,  sb.  A  reaper  who  assists  those  who  are 
falling  behind  in  the  work  (Sc.). 

BALLOON,  sb.   A  cylinder  for  drying  warps  (w.Yks.). 

BALLY-ACK,  sb.  In  phr.  to  knock  a  man  to  bally-ack, 
to  give  a  sound  beating,  to  get  the  better  of  a  fight 

Also  the  following  word,  which  was  accidentally 
omitted,  and  will  be  dealt  with  in  the  Supplement. 

A-BONES,  in  phr.  to  fall  a-bones  of  a  person,  to  assail, 
'fall  upon '(s-Chs.1). 



A    I.  Apart  from  the  influence  of  neighbouring  sounds, 
.    the  normal  development  of  OE.  ae  in  closed  syllables 
is  as  follows  : — 

1.  a  in  Sc.,  all  the  northern  and  midland  counties  to 
n.Hrf.,  Won,  n.Glo.,  n.Brks.,  Oxf.,  se.Hrt.,  s.Cmb.,  nw.Nrf., 

2.  The  sound  ae  has  remained  in  all  the  other  counties 
except  the  parts  of  counties  named  under  1,  and  the  parts 
of  the  country  named  under  3,  4. 

3.  It  has  become  a1,  a  sound  closely  approaching  ae,  in 
e.Suf.,  ne.Nrf.  and  parts  of  Hrf.,  Ess. 

4.  It  has  become  e  in  Mid.,  se.Bck.,  s.Hrt,  and  sw.Ess. 
II.  The  normal  development  of  OE.  ae  and  a  in  open 

syllables  is :  — 

1.  Long  close  e  in  Bnff.,  Frf.,  Lothian  and  Fif.,  se.Arg., 
s.Bte.,  n.Ayr.,  e.  and  s.Dmb.,  Lnk.,  Rnf.,  m.Nhb.  (Whitting- 
ham),  s.Yks.,  Lan.  (see  4,  5,  7),  ne.Chs.,  Stf.  (see  3,  4,  8), 
Der.  (see  2),  Not.,  Lei.,  ne.  and  sw.Nhp.,  e.War.,  s.Wor., 
n.,  me.  and  se.Shr.,  nw.Brks.,  nw.Hrt.,  s.Cmb.,  nw.Nrf., 
e.Suf.  (Orford),  w.Cor. 

2.  Long  open  £  in  Nai.,  Mry.,  Abd.,  Kcd.,  Per.,  s.Ayr., 
w.Dmf.,  Kcb.,  Wgt.,  Dur.  (Berwick-upon-Tweed,  Lanches- 
ter),  se.Yks.,  w.Yks.   (Huddersfield,   Halifax),   nw.Der., 
Rut.,  m.Nhp.,  Hrf.  (Ledbury),  Brks.  (Hampstead  Norris), 
m.Cmb.,  ne.  and  s.Nrf.,  n.  and  w.Suf.,  e.Suf.  (Framlingham), 
Hmp.(Andover),  e.Dor.,  s.Som.(Montacute),  n.Dev.  (North 
Molton),  s.Dev. 

3.  Long  T  in  nw.Fif.,  Chs.  except  ne.,  Stf.  (Stretton, 
Burton-under-Wood),  Shr.  (Market  Drayton). 

4.  e3  in  e.Dur.,  m.Nhb.  (Rothbury,  Embleton),  w.Yks. 
(Dewsbury,  Leeds,  Bradford,  Keighley,  Skipton,  Craven, 
Upper  Craven  with  Upper  Nidderdale),  e.Yks.  (S.  Ainsty, 
Holderness),  n.Lan.  (Furness  and  Cartmel),  s.Stf.  (Dar- 
laston,  Willenhall),  Lin.,  sw.Nhp.  (Badby),  m.Nhp.  (see 
2),  War.  (see  1),  n.w.  and  e.Wor.,  n.Hrf.,  s.Shr.,  se.Brks., 
Bck.,  m.Bdf.,  Hrt.  (Arderley),  e.Suf.,  nw.  and  e.Ken., 
ne.  and  s.Sur.,  w.  and  e.Sus.,  n.  and  sw.Dev.,  w.Som., 

5.  ia  in  Rxb.,  Slk.,  e.  and  m.Dmf.,  s.  and  sw.Nhb.,  n.Cum., 
Dur.  ( Weardale,  Teesdale,  Stanhope),  n.  and  e.Yks.,  n.Lan. 
(Coniston),  Hrf.  (Much  Cowarne,  Eggleton),  Glo.  (Vale  of 
Gloucester,  Shenington),  Oxf.  (Banbury),  se.Hrt.,  n.Ken. 
(Faversham),  e.Sus.  (Selmeston),  I.W.,  Wil,  e.Dor.  (Cran- 
borne,  Winterborne  Came),  e.Som. 

6.  ie  in  m.Nhb.  (Snitter,  Harbottle,  Warkworth).  Dur. 
(Annfield   Plain),  Wm.  (Crosby   Ravensworth,   Temple 
Sowerby).    In  se.Nhb.  (Stamfordham,  Newcastle,  North 

VOL.  i. 

Shields),  Dur.  (South  Shields),  Cum.  (Carlisle),  the  diph- 
thong seems  to  be  j6  rather  than  ie. 

7.  la  in  Dur.  (Sunderland),  Wm.  (see  6),  Cum.  (see  5), 
n.Yks.  (Muker,  Hawes),  w.Yks.  (Howgill,  Dent),  n.Lan. 
(Lower  Holker-in-Cartmel). 

8.  ei  in  s.Stf.  (Walsall,  Wednesbury),  m.Nhp.  (Lower 
Benefield),  e.Shr.  (Shiffnal),  Bck.  (Buckingham,  Chack- 
more,  see  4),  Bdf.  (Ridgmont),  Hrt.  (Hatfield,  Harpen- 
den),  Hnt.  (Great  Stuckley). 

0.  eei  in  Mid.,  Ess.,  and  parts  of  Hrt.,  se.Bck. 
III.  The  normal  development  of  OE.  a  is  :— 

1.  Long  close  e  in  Abd.,  BnfF.,  Mry.,  Nai.,  w.Dmf.,  Frf., 
Kcb.,  Wgt.,  se.Arg.,  s.Bte.,  Ayr,e.  and  s.Dmb.,  Lnk.,  Rnf., 
Lothian  and  Fif. 

2.  Long  open  f  in  Per.,  Frf.  (Dundee),  Kcd.,  Cai.  (Wick). 

3.  Long  close  6  in  m.Nhb.  (Warkworth,  Alnwick,  Whit- 
tingham),   se.Nhb.    (Stamfordham),    Dur.    (Sunderland), 
se.Lan.  (Oldham,  Rochdale),  w.  and  m.Chs.,  nw.Der.,  Stf. 
(see  5.),  Not.,  Lei.,  Rut.,  Shr.,  n.  and  e.Hrf.,  w.Oxf.,  m.  and 
s.Cmb.,  nw.  and  ne.Nrf.,  n.  and  w.Suf.,  n.Dev.  (Iddesleigh), 
s.Dev.,  w.Cor.,  e.Cor.  (St.  Columb  Major). 

4.  Long  open  5  in  m.Nhb.  (Rothbury,  Snitter,  Wooler), 
se.Nhb.  (North  Shields),  sw.Nhb.  (Hexham),  Dur.  (Lan- 
chester),  se.Yks.  (Sutton),  ne.  and  m.Nhp.,  s.Nrf. 

5.  Long  u  in  s.Chs.  (Farndon),  wm.  and  e.Stf.,  Der.  (see 
3.),  e.Suf. 

6.  es  in  m.Yks.,  e.Yks.  (Holderness),  w.Yks.  (Washburn 
river  district,   Skipton,   m.Craven,    Upper  Craven   and 
Upper  Nidderdale),  n.Lan.  (Broughton-m-Furness,  Lower 

7.  oa  in  se.Nhb.  (Whalton),w.Yks.  (Hurst),  I.  Ma., e.War., 
n.Wor.,  Hrt.  (Welwyn),  n.Cmb.,  e.Ken.  (Wingham),  e.  and 
w.Sus.,  s.Sur.,  I.W.,  e.Som. 

8.  93  in  Dur.  (see  3),  ne.Yks.  (Skelton),  se.Yks.  (Goole), 
n.Lin.,  m.Nhp.,  Won   (Hanbury),   Hrf.   (Ledbury),  Glo. 
(Tetbury),  Oxf.  (Banbury),  se.Brks.,  Bck.  (Chackmore), 
Ess.  (Great  Dunmow,  Maldon),  nw.Ken.,  ne.Sun,  e.Dor. 
(Handford),  e.Cor.  (Camelford,  Cardynham). 

9.  U3  in   m.Nhb.    (Embleton),    sw.Nhb.    (Haltwhistle), 
ne.Yks.  (Danby,  S.  Ainsty),  se.Yks.  (East  Holderness), 
w.Yks.  (Giggleswick,  Doncaster,  Halifax,  Keighley,  Brad- 
ford, Leeds,  Dewsbury,  Sheffield),  Lan.  (see  3, 6, 10),  Chs. 
(Pott  Shrigley),  s.Stf.  (Dudley),  n.  and  e.Den,  m.  and  s.Lin., 
sw.Nhp.,  w.  and  s.Wan,  e.War.  (Atherstone),  Glo.  (Vale  of 
Gloucester,  Forest  of  Dean,  Shenington),  Bck.  (see  8),  Hrt. 
(see  7),  Hnt.,  n.Ken.  (Faversham),  e.Sus.  (Marklye),  Hmp. 


(Andover).  Wil.,  e.Dor.  (Cranborne,  Winterborne  Came), 
w.Som.,  e.Som.  (Axe-Yarty),  n.  and  sw.Dev. 

10.  ia  in  Cum.  (Langwathby,  Ellonby,  Keswick,  Clifton). 
w.Cum.,  Wm.  (see  11),  n.Yks.  (Muker),  nw.Yks.  (Hawes, 
Dent,  Howgill,  Sedberg),  n.Lan.  (Coniston). 

11.  ie  in  sw.Nhb.  (Knaresdale),  Wm.  (Crosby  Ravens- 
worth,  Temple  Sowerby),  Cum.  (Bewcastle).      In  the 
Teviotdale,  Nhb.  (Newcastle),  Dur.  (South  Shields),  Cum. 
(Carlisle),  the  diphthong  seems  to  be  ie  rather  than  ie. 

12.  ia  in  Rxb.,  Slk.,  e.  and  m.Dmf.,  s.Nhb.,  Cum.  (Bramp- 
ton,  Holme  Cultram),  Dur.   (Weardale  and  Teesdale), 
ne.Yks.  (Whitby),  nm.Yks.   (Lower  Nidderdale,   South 
Cleveland),  nw.Yks.  (Upper  Swaledale,  The  Upper  Mining 

13.  911  in  Stf.  (Darlaston,  Codsall,  Willenhall),  m.Nhp. 
(Lower  Benefield),  e.Ken.  (Folkestone). 

14.  Eeua  in  Chs.  (Tarporley,  Middlewick),  s.Chs. 

For  further  details  see  The  Phonological  Introduction, 
and  Ellis,  E.  E.  Pr.,  v.  passim. 

A.  Although  the  following  examples  of  A  are  for  the 
most  part  merely  the  dialectic  pronunciation  of  common 
literary  words,  they  are  here  included  so  as  to  facilitate  the 
understanding  of  the  numerous  meanings  of  what  is  written 
a  in  the  quotations  throughout  the  Dictionary. 

[Pron.  I,  II,  V,  VIII,  IX  a;  III  stressed  form  a,  9,  un- 
stressed a;  IV  a;  VI  (1)  a,  (2,  3)  e,  a;  VII  (1)  5,  (2)  a; 
X  a,  when  strongly  emphasized  e;  XI  (1)  a,  e,  (2)  e.] 

I.  A,  indef.  art.    Van  dial. 

1.  Used  redundantly  with  sb.  or  adj. 

Sc.  Not  worth  a  sixpence,  Monthly  Mag.  (1800)  I.  238.  Ken.1 
A  bread  and  butter,  a  piece  of  bread  and  butter ;  Ken.2  A  good 
hair,  good  hair.  w.Som.1  I  sh'll  be  back  about  of  a  dinner-time, 
Introd.  xxiv. 

2.  Used  in  place  of  an  before  a  vowel  or  h  mute. 

Nhb.1  Not  a  oonce.  n-Yks.1  Top  ov  a  awd  rain  waiter  tub. 
w.Yks.2  A  idle,  ill-tempered  gossip.  Sur.1  Half  a  hour  agoo. 
Wil.1  The  article  an  is  never  used.  Gie  I  a  apple.  w.Som.1  He's 
same's  a  old  hen  avore  day. 

3.  Before  numerals,  and  nouns  of  multitude  and  quantity. 
Ir.  We'll  be  givin'  them  a  boil  in  a  one  of  the  little  saucepans, 

BARLOW  Lisconnel  (1895)  61.  N.Cy.1  A  many,  a  great  number. 
Nhb.1  Thor's  amany  at  dissent  knaa.  Thor's  not  a-one  on  ye  dar 
come.  Yks.  Ye've  each  on  ye  gotten  a  two  or  three  childer, 
TAYLOR  Miss  Miles  (1890)  i.  w.Yks.1  A  many.  sw.Lin.1  There's 
a  many  as  can't  raise  a  pie.  Nhp.1  A  many.  Sur.  There  be  a 
hundreds  of  'em,  JENNINGS  Field  Pat/is  (1884)  37;  There  be  a 
plenty  of  'em,  ib.  44.  Sur.1  w.Som.1  We  shall  have  a  plenty  o' 
gooseberries.  There  was  about  of  a  forty.  Purty  nigh  of  a  fifty. 
Som.  A  dree  or  fower  children,  LEITH  Lemon  Verbena  (1895)  45! 
nw.Dev.1  'Bout  a  nine  o'clock.  'Bout  a  vower  or  vive  miie. 

[There's  not  a  one  of  them  but  in  his  house  I  keep  a 
servant  fee'd,  SHAKS.  Much.  in.  iv.  131 ;  And  up  they 
rysen,  wel  a  ten  or  twelve,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  F.  383.] 

4.  Used  with  nouns  in  pi.,  to  denote  quantity. 

Nhb.1  What  a  bairns  thor  is  [what  a  number  of  bairns!  What 
a  picturs  he  hes  iv  his  hoose. 

II.  A.,  num.  adj.  One,  when  standing  before  sb..  but  not 
absolutely,  in  which  case  ane  or  van  is  used.  In  Yks 
Lan.  bom  and  occas.  so  written  in  other  dialects. 

ne-Yks1  A  one.  w.Yks.2  They're  just  about  a  size.  neXan.1 
—i.1  Same  s  the  crow  zaid  by  the  heap  o'  toads,  They  be  all  of 


°  " 

±°(  1859)  II     "28  °f£fUrHkeeP">S  f  kinds  of  goods,  RAMSAY 

s^SSfiS  •MS?  "-  --  -- 

RNS  £,;<,'  rto9(4™oy  H^T?"118.^  8°wd  for  a'  that> 

And  soon  fill  a'  our  creels,  Coquet  Dale  Sngs.  (1852)  46;  Aw've 
suppd  a'  the  milk  an'  wine,  ROBSON  Evangeline,  &c.  (1870)  6. 
Wm.1  Tha  were  a  there.  Lan.  There  is  na  a  fractious  choilt  i'  a' 
ar  yard,  BANKS  Mancli.  Man  (1876)  i.  Chs.  It's  worth  a'  the  brass 
to  yer  that,  BANKS  Forbidden  (ed.  1885 ;,  xiv. 

IV.  A,  pron.  I.     In  Irel.  n.Cy.  and  some  of  the  midl. 

N.I.1  A'm  sayin'.  Dur.1  A'l,  I  will.  Cnm.1  Wm.  A  caant  reetly 
tell  ya,  Specimens  Dial.  (1885)  pt.  iii.  i.  Yks.  A  wish  a'd  been 
theer !  GASKELL  Sylvia  (1863)'!.  v.  w.Yks.  A've  card  him  call  em 
legs,  PRESTON  Poems,  &c.  (1864)  3.  e.Lan.1  w.Wor.  A  dunna 
think  it  (W.  B.). 

V.  A,  pron.    Used  for  the  third  pers.  pron.  in  sing.,  and 
occas.  in  pi. 

1.  He.   Very  widely  distributed  through  the  dialects  (see 
quot.),  but  not  found  in  those  n.Cy.  districts  where  the 
aspirate  is  retained. 

w.Yks.1  Lin.  The  amoighty's  a  taakin  o'  you  to  'issen,  my 
friend,  'a  said,  TENNYSON  N.  Farmer,  Old  Style  (1864)  st  7.  Nhp.12, 
se.Wor.1  Shr.1  A  wuz  all  of  a  dither ;  Shr.2  There  a  comes.' 
Pern.1  A's  coming  tereckly,  a's  shoor  to  kum.  Brks.1  If  zo  be 
as  a  zes  a  wunt,  a  wunt  [if  he  says  he  won't,  he  won't],  Suf.1 
Hmp.  I  low  a  will  [expect  he  will]  (H.C.W.B.)  I.W.12  n.Wli. 
A  do  veed  amang  th'  lilies,  KITE  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  1860)  ii.  16.  Som. 
Moi  zowel  vailed  when  a'  speaked,  BAYNES  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  v.  6. 
w.Som.1  The  doctor've  a-do'd  hot  a  can  [done  what  he  can].  Dev. 
In  a  com  [in  he  came],  PETER  PINDAR  Key.  Visit  Exeter  (1795)  156. 

[A  fair  knyjt  a  was  to  see,  Sir  Ferumbras  (1380)  250.] 

2.  She.    In  a  few  midl.  and  sw.  counties. 

A  wanted  me  to  go  with  her,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M  ) 
Nhp.12,  se-Wor.1  Shr.,  Hrf.  Did  a  do  it?  BOUND  Prov.  (1876). 
Wil.1  A  zed  a  'oodden  bide  yer  no  longer,  fur  ef  a  did  her'd 
never  let  un  gwo.  Dor.  A's  getting  wambling  on  her  pins  [shaky 
on  her  legs],  HARDY  Tower  (1882)  124,  ed.  1895. 

3.  It.    Often  used  of  inanimate  objects,  when  it  probably 
represents  he  applied  to  things  as  well  as  to  persons. 
Chiefly  in  w.  and  sw.  counties. 

w.Wor.1  W'ahr  bin  a'  ?  may  mean  either  Where  is  he,  she,  or  it.' 
se.Wor.1  This  tree  a  got  a  good  crap  o'  opples  on  'im,  aant  a  ? 
Hrf.12,  Oxf.1,  w.Som.1  Dev.  He've  a  got  a  great  venture  on  hand, 
but  what  a  be  he  tell'th  no  man,  KINGSLEY  W.  Ho!  (1855)  120, 
ed.  1889. 

4.  They.     Lin.  Shr. 

Lin.  Doctors,  they  knaws  nowt,  fur  a  says  what's  nawways  true, 
TENNYSON  N.  Farmer,  Old  Style  (1864)  st.  2.  Shr.1  Whad  wun  a 
doin'  theer  ?  Shr.2  Whire  bin  a  ? 

VI.  A,  v.  Occas.  used  for  are,  has,  hath  ;  very  general 
in  place  of  have,  sing,  and  pi. 

1.  Are. 

e.Yks.1  What  a  ya  a  deea-in  on  there?  [What  are  you  doing 
there  ?] 

2.  Hath,  has. 

Shr.2  He  a  got  none.  w.Wor.1  'Er  a  gon'  awaay.  Hrf.2  Him 
a  gone  away. 

3.  Have. 

Sc.  Often  used,  in  vulgar  language,  as  an  abbreviation  of '  hae ' 
JAM.)  ;  For  they  were  a'  just  like  to  eat  their  thumb,  That  he  wi' 
her  sae  far  ben  should  a  come,  Ross  Helenore  (1768)  n.  Cnm. 
I  waddent  a  hed  sic  a  cloon  (M.P.).  w.Yks.1  You  mud  as  weel 
a  dunt  as  nut.  neXan.1,  Chs.i  Lin.  I  moant  'a  naw  moor  aale, 
^EtmvsonN.  Farmer,  Old  Style  (1864)  st.  i.  nXin.1,  Nhp.1  w.Wor.1 
A  done,  ool  ee  !  Shr.1  We  mun  a  this  oven  fettled.  Now,  Polly, 
yo'n  a  to  gCO.  Glo.  When  a  man's  owld  and  a-weered  out,  and 
begins  to  'a  a  summat  the  matter,  BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn 
(1890)  7.  Sur.  Plagued  if  I  builded  a  house  if  I'd  'a  a  front  door 
to  ee,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  II.  i.  Hmp.1  w.Som.1  Have, 
when  followed  by  a  consonant,  sometimes  written  ha,  but  seldom 
aspirated.  This  is  the  commonest  of  all  the  forms,  and  it  is 
occasionally  heard  even  before  a  vowel.  Dev."  Wull  yu  come  an' 
a  yer  brekzis,  Betty? 

VII.  A,  adv.  Seldom  found,  except  in  sense  1.  More 
usually  written  ae,  ah,  aw,  ay. 

1.  Ay,  always. 
N.Cy.1,  Cum.  Gl.  (1851). 

2.  How. 

w.Yks.  Wei  az  a  wa  se(a)in,  -sud  tel  ja,  a,  wiar  on  wen  sa  fan 
d  rukij  and  at  sa  koalz  ar  uzbn  [Well,  as  I  was  saying,  she'd  tell 
you  how,  where  and  when  she  found  the  drunken  hound  that  she 
calls  her  husband],  WRIGHT  Gr.  Wndhll.  (1892  172. 


VIII.  A,  prep.    In  very  general  use. 

1.  At,  denoting  place. 

w.Wor.1  'E  were  a  chu'ch  o'  Sund'y.  Hrf.2  Suf.1  'A  live  a'  bin 

2.  Of. 

Win.  T'lass  hersel  war  \  t'saame  way  a  thinkin',  JACK  ROBISON 
Aald  Tales  (1882)  3.  w.Yks.1  If  she  nobbud  could  git  a  bit 
a  naturable  rist.  n.Lan.  T'  beams  a  our  house  are  cedar,  PHIZAC- 

BKERLKY  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  i.  17.  Lin.1  Out  a  work.  nXin.1  Th' 
fraamc  a'  this  here  door.  Nhp.1  Out  a  doors.  Suf.1.  I.W.1 
A  lig  a  mutton.  w.Som.1  What  manner  a  man.  The  tap  a  the  hill. 
Dev.  Lets  drink  drap  a  ale,  NATHAN  HOGG  Poet.  Lei.  (1847)  49. 

3.  On ;  in. 

N.Cy.2  A  this  side.  Nhb.1  Wm.1  Et  wes  a  Monda  mornin. 
n.Yks.1  To'n  (turn)  doon  a  that  hand.  w.Yks.1  I'll  gang  wi  the 
a  Tuesday.  Lan.  I  don't  think  every  one  would  grieve  a  that 
way,  GASKELL  M.  Barton  (1848)  v ;  Lan.1  He  went  a-horseback. 
ne.Lan.1  Stf.1 1  shall  go  to  Litchfield  a  Tuesday.  Der.2  Dow  it  a: 
thissens.  He's  allys  a'  thatens.  n.Lin.1  Lei.1  A  the  t'oother  soide. 
Shr.2  A  Wednesday.  Snf.1  We'll  go  'a  Sunday.  Sur.1  Croydon 
Fair  is  a'  Monday.  w.Som.1  They  be  all  a  pieces.  Let-n  vail  out 
a  thick  zide  [on  this  side]. 

4.  To. 

w.Som.1  Down  a  Minehead.     I  be  gwain  in  a  town. 

5.  With. 

Wor.  I'm  goin'  a  Bill  Saunders  to  Redditch  tu-night  (J.W.P.). 
Nhp.2  Cam  in  a  me  [came  in  with  me]. 
[Cf.  athin,  athout] 

IX.  A,  conj.    Occas. 

1.  And  ;  also  when  used  in  the  sense  of  if. 

Suf.1  I'll  gi'  ye  a  dunt  i'  the  hid  'a  ye  dew  so  no  more.  Dev. 
Chem  a  laced  well-a-fine  aready  [well-a-fine  =  well  and  fine,  i.e. 
finely]  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  81. 

2.  Or. 

Suf.1  Wutha  'a  wool  'a  nae  [whether  he  will  or  no]. 

X.  A,  affirm,  part,   in  cotnp.  A-but,  Aye-but.    In  n. 
counties  to  Lin.  and  Chs.    Also  Shr.    Not  in  midl.  and 
s.  gloss. 

n.Yks.1  A !  but,  that  was  a  big  yan.  e.Yks.1  Abud.  w.Yks.  Ah'll 
bensil  him  !  A"  bud  he  happen  weant  let  theh,  BANKS  Wkfld.  Wds. 
(1865).  nXin.1  A!  But  Charlie  is  a  big  leear,  an  noa  mistaake. 
Shr.2  A  but. 

XI.  A,  int.    In  n.Cy.  Chs.  Lin.  Lei. 

1.  Ejaculatory  ;  oh  !  ah  ! 

N.Cy.2  A !  man  alive  !  n.Yks.1  A !  man  :  that  was  a  yarker ! 
w.Yks.  A'  tha  duz  lewk  bonny,  BINNS  Wihden  Orig.  (1889)  I.  i. 
Lei.1  A,  moy  surs  ! 

2.  Interrogatory;  eh? 

N.Cy.1  A?  what?  What  do  you  say?  Cum.  Gl.  (1851).  w.Yks.24, 

A,  pref.1  Before  prp.  and  vbl.  sb.,  repr.  OE.  an,  on.  Sc. 
Irel.  Not  found  in  Eng.  counties  n.  of  Pern.  Shr.  War. 
Nhp.  Rut-n.Cam.  Nrf.,  exc.  in  e.Lan.  n.Lin.  Lei.  (Belgrave 
and  Waltham);  also  not  found  in  Hnt.  nw.Nrf.  e.Ken. 

1.  Before  prp.  or  vbl.  sb.  used  with  vb.  to  be  to  form  con- 
tinuous tense. 

Ir.  I'm  a-thinkin',  BARLOW  Bog-land  (1892)  52.  Lin.  Git  ma  my 
aSle,  fur  I  beant  a-gawin',  TENNYSON  N.  Farmer,  Old  Style  (1864) 
st.  i.  n-Lin.1  A  consumptive  person  is  said  to  be  awearin'.  Rut.1 
I'm  a-goin'  whum.  Nhp.1  How  they  are  a-talking !  s.War.1  We 
are  a-coming  directly.  Wor.  I  don't  know  how  they'm  a-going 
now  (H.K.).  se.Wor.1  Shr.1  Bin  yo  agwine?  [going].  Glo.1 
He'll  be  a  puggin'  all  as  he  can ;  Glo.2,  Oxf.1  Brks.1  Thaay  be 
a-vightin.  Bdf.  '  Is  she  a-going? '  he  said,  WARD  Bessie  Costrell 
(1895)  8.  Ess.  Who  is  a  goin'  to  buy  ?  DOWNE  Ballads  (1895)  7. 
Ken.1  She's  always  a  making  mischief  about  somebody  or  another. 
Sur.  I've  been  a-draining  this  forty  year,  HOSKYNS  Talpa  (1852)  16. 
Sns.1  I  am  a-going.  I.W.1  n.Wil.  Who's  thus  a  comen  out  o'  th' 
weaste  ?  KITE  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  1860)  iii.  6.  Wil.1  They  wasa-zaayin'. 
Dev.  Who'm  a-gwain  for  to  kill'e?  BLACKMORE  Christowell  (1881) 
ii ;  I  know  what  I'm  a-saying  of,  O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  23.  e.Cor. 
The  mutton  is  a-roasting,  Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  421. 

2.  Before  vbl.  sb. 

Sc.  They  hae  taen  Yule  before  it  comes,  and  are  gaun  aguisarding 
[mumming],  SCOTT  Guy  Mannering  (1815)  xxxvi.  e.Lan.1  Gone 
a-working.  sw.Lin.1  The  birds,  they  start  a-whistling  of  a  morn- 
ing. Hrf.2  Measter's  got  seventeen  on  'em  out  a  yacorning  [pigs 
feeding  on  acorns].  Glo.1  A-chatting,  picking  up  chats  or  small 

A,pref.2  Before  pp.,  repr.  OE.  ge-.  In  all  the  sw.  counties, 
including  Wil.  Dor.  Som.  Dev.  Cor. ;  also  in  Pern,  and  parts 
of  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf.  Brks.  Sur.  Hmp. 

se.Wor.1 '  I  was  a-dreamea"  for  '  I  dreamt.'  Glo.  Ye  and  William 
Stretch  be  so  easy  a-gallowed  [frightened],  GISSING  Both  of  Ms 
Parish  (1889)  I.  117;  It  be  a-rooted  on  his  side  of  the  bruck, 
ib.  287 ;  Me  and  Mary  have  a-bin-a-doing  arl  us  can  for  'er, 
BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn  (1890)  iv.  Oxf.  You  see,  ma'am,  all 
this  time  she  is  adreamt  between  sleeping  and  waking  (HALL.). 
Brks.1  I've  a  zed  what  I've  a  got  to  zaay.  Sur.  Your  charity 
have  a-outrun  your  discretion,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  III.  vi. 
Hmp.  Ye  must  be  nigh  famished,  and  afrore  [frozen]  too,  VERNEY 
L.  Lisle  (1870)  xxiii ;  I'm  better  than  I  have  abeen  (H.C.M.B.). 
n.Wil.  You've  a  got  dove's  eyes,  KITE  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  1860)  i.  15. 
Dor.  The  zun  have  a-burnt  me  so  dark,  BARNES  Sng.  Sol. 
(1859)  i.  6;  I've  a  took,  YOUNG  Rabin  Hill  (1867)  3;  I  misdoubt 
if  the  hatches  be  a-hcven  [lifted]  down  yonder,  HARE  Vil.  Street 
(1895)  95.  Dor.1  Thy  new  frock's  tail  A-tore  by  hitch  en  in 
a  nail.  How  you,  a-zot  bezide  the  bank.  Som.  Th'  cooin  o'  th' 
turtle-doove  be  a-yeard  in  th'  Ian',  BAYNES  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  ii. 
12;  My  vingers  be  all  a-vraur,  JENNINGS  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1869); 
Avroze,  frozen.  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873).  w.Som.1  There's  a  good 
many  chores  [pieces  of  work]  I  'ant  a  put  down  at  all.  The 
gutter's  a-stapped  again.  Dev.  Sweel  out  thickee  glass  avore 
'e's  a-flsed  again,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892).  n.Dev.  A-slat,  cracked 
like  an  earthen  vessel,  GROSE  (1790).  s.Dev.  My  bread's  a-clit 
[made  heavy]  (F.W.C.).  Dev.1,  nw.Dev.1 

A,  pref.3  Repr.  the  OE.  prep.  on.  It  is  very  common 
as  a  prefix  of  state  or  condition.  In  var.  dial,  of  Sc. 
Irel.  and  Eng.  (For  distribution,  &c.  of  some  of  the  most 
general  instances  of  words  having  this  pref.  see  Aback, 
Aboon,  Agate,  Aneath,  Astead,  &c.) 

Sc.  At  length  when  dancing  turn'd  adwang,  BEATTIES  Parings 
(1801)  14;  The  best-laid  schemes  o'  mice  an'  men  Gang  a"ft 
a-gley,  BURNS  To  a  Mouse  (1785)  1.  39 ;  A-grufe, '  flat  or  grovelling' 
(JAM.).  S.  &  Ork.1  He  fell  dead  asoond  [in  a  swoon].  Ir.  The 
air  was  a-flutther  wid  snow,  BARLOW  Bog/and  (1892)  70 ;  When 
th'ould  master  had  tore  it  wid  his  hands  all  a-shake,  ib.  14.  Ant. 
The  chimney's  alow  [on  fire]  (W.J.K.).  N.I.1  Abreard  [of  corn,  in 
the  blade].  Wxf.1  Aveel ,  abroad  [in  the  field).  Agether,  together. 
N.Cy.1  Acow,  acaw,  crooked.  Nhb.  Enough  to  rive  atwee  the 
heart,  WILSON  Pitman's  Pay  (1843)  pt.  ii.  st.  17  ;  Nhb.1  He  couldn't 
run  acas  on  his  bad  foot.  '  Stan  aby  there '  is  a  familiar  shout 
in  a  crowd  when  a  way  is  to  be  cleared.  It  com  atwo  i'  me  hand. 
Dur.  Let's  see  ift  veyne  flurrish,  whedder  t'tender  grape's  aseat, 
MOORE  Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  vii.  12  ;  Whe's  this  'at  cums  up  frae 
t'wilderness,  leanen  atoppiv  hur  beluved  ?  ib.  viii.  5 ;  Dnr.1  Tek  the 
cows  afield.  Cum.  He's  nut  been  varra  weel  leately  an'  so  he's 
a-bed  (E.W.P.) ;  Nancy  sed  she  wad  set  off  for  Cockermuth  market 
afeut,  FARRALL  Betty  Wilson  (1886)  145 ;  Cum.3  Acoase  they  think 
he  kens  me.  Wm.1  Thoo  canna  gan  afeut.  n.Yks.  His  shoes  is 
trodden  a-cow.  Lift  it  up  a-height.  Old  John  gans  sair  astoop 
(I.W.) ;  n.Yks.1  Marget  an"  her  man  hae  getten  aquart  [at  variance] 
agen ;  n.Yks.2  Acant,  leaning  to  one  side.  Apeeak,  in  a  peak. 
e.Yks. Ah's  varry  tired;  Ah've  been  afeeat  all  day,  NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sp.  (1889)  89 ;  e.Yks.1  Is  kittle  aboil  d'ye  think  ?  w.Yks.1  Our 
lad's  quite  bobberous,  an  aw  a  roav  [on  the  rove,  stirring  about]  ; 
w.Yks.5  He  wur  afront  an'  we  wur  aback  on  him.  Tak  t'umbrella 
wi'  thuh  achonce  it  raans.  ne.Lan.1  It  went  awheels.  e.Lan.1 
Aback  o'  th'  hill.  s.Chs.1  Get  atop  o'  th'  bauks.  Not.1  A-two,  in 
two.  n-Lin.1  It's  that  mucky  and  torn,  it's  abargens  what  becums 
on  it.  Squire  Heala  an'  him  got  atwist.  Th'  wall's  nobut  a  brick 
abread.  Lei.1  [Work  is  done]  a-great,  by  the  piece.  Nhp.1  The 
house  is  afire ;  Nhp.2  Wheer's  maester  ?— Up  afield.  War.  Afire. 
Afoot  (J.  R.  W.).  s.War.1  Abed.  Wor.  I  can't  sleep  anights 
(H.K.).  w.Wor^'Er's  a  bed  mighty  bad,  wi'  a  paayn  a  top  o'  'er 
yud.  Shr.1  Fund  it  a-top  o'  the  cubbert  shilf.  Glo.  Down  er 
went  on  ers  back  arl  a-mullock,  BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn  (1890) 
vii;  Agig,  giggling,  excited  (F.H.).  Oxf.1  They  be  come  afresh. 
If  thee  beginst  any  o'  thy  eggerevatin'  ways  yer,  I'll  cut  tha 
clane  a-two-in-the-middle.  Brks.1  A  copse  is  said  to  be  '  amove 
wi'  gaayme."  Thee  get  on  avront  o'  I,  ther  yent  room  vor  us 
bwo-ath  in  the  paath.  e-An.1 1  saw  Mr.  Brown  a'top  of  his  new 
horse  yesterday.  Suf.1  Ta  crumble  all  'apieces.  Ken.1  The  pig- 
trade's  all  asprawl  now.  Sur.1  Abed.  Hmp.1  His  head  is  all 
agoggle  [i.  e.  of  a  person  with  palsy].  Wil.1  Put  the  door  ashard 
when  you  goes  out.  Som.  When  a  hen  is  sitting  on  her  eggs 
she  is  said  to  be  abrood,  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825). 
w.Som.1  The  primroses  be  all  ablow  up  our  way.  The  grass  is 
shockin  bad  to  cut,  tis  all  alie.  Thick  there  bisgy  stick's  a  put  in 

B  2 



all  atwist.  Dev.  Zes  I  tu  a  chap,  'What  dee  cal  thic  a-head?' 
[overhead]  NATHAN  HOGG  Poet.  Let.  (1847),  'Bout  tha  Balune; 
Like  a  'ouze  avire,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  48;  Polly  ought  tu 
bring  out  'er  chicken  til-day ;  her'tha  zot  a-brood  vur  dree  weeks, 
ib.  153.  nw.Dev.1  Alie,  in  a  recumbent  position.  Cor.1  She  rode 
ascrode  ;  Cor.2  The  door's  a-sam. 

A,  pref.*  Equiv.  to  of.  In  a  few  words  retained  in  var. 
dial.  See  Alate,  &c. 

Sc.  Adoun,  adown,  down,  poet.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) 
w.Yks.  Akin,  related  by  blood  (S.P.U.);  w.Yks.1  Alatt,  of  late, 
lately ;  w.Yks.5  Pleaz  mother  may  I  goa  out  adoors  a  bit  ? 
ne-Lan.1  Alayat,  of  late,  lately.  n-Lin.1  You're  alus  clattin'  in 
and  oot  a-doors.  Nhp.1  He's  gone  out  a-doors ;  Nhp.2  Athirst. 
se.Wor.1  A-hungry.  A-late,  lately.  Glo.  Affurst,  athirst,  thirsty, 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  Brks.1  I  be  a-veelin'  ahungerd. 
Cor.  Nor  drive  too  fast  adown  the  hills,  TREGELLAS  Farmer  Brown 

(1857)  22. 

A,  pref5    Equiv.  to  at. 

Sc.  I'll  hae  naething  ado  wi't,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  Lan. 
There's  no  peace  i'  th'  world  iv  there's  no  peace  awhoam,  WAUGH 
Sngs.  (1859)  Jamie's  Frolic.  Chs.1  Oo  made  much  adoo  abait  it. 
Stf.1  Is  the  doctor  a-whum  ?  War.2  Awum.  Nhp.1  They  always 
make  such  ado  with  me,  whenever  I  go  to  see  them. 

A,  pref?  Repr.  OE.  a-,  earlier  ar-,  orig.  implying  motion 
onward ;  hence  used  as  an  intensive  pref.  See  Afeard, 
Agast,  Agone. 

Sc.  To  come  alist,  to  recover  from  faintness  or  decay  (JAM.); 
But  well's  my  heart  that  ye  are  come  alist,  Ross  Helenore  ( 1 768)  15. 
N.Cy.1  Agrote,  surfeit,  cloy,  saturate.  Nhb.1  '  Let  yorsel  alowse ' 
[loose],  was  the  exhortation  of  a  pitman  to  a  friend  who  was 
batting  stiffly  at  a  cricket  match.  n.Yks.2  Akest,  cast  or  twisted 
to  one  side.  e.Yks.  It's  all  akest,  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  50 ; 
e.Yks.1  It  was  agin  [given]  to  me.  Lan.  To  aright  a  boat  (F.  H. ). 
Glo.  Very  many  years  agone,  GISSING  Vil.  Hampden  (1890)  I.  iv. 
Brks.1  Thaay've  a-bin  agone  this  dree  hour.  n.Dev.  Agush'd  and 
Gush'd,  used  for  Agusted,  dismayed,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 
Dev.3  The  frost  agives.  w.Cor.  He  went  to  Africa  some  time 
agone  (M.A.C.). 

A,  pref?  Repr.  OE.  and,  against,  opposite.  See  Along, 

A,  pref?  Repr.  OE.  an,  one,  in  oblique  case.  See 

A,  pref?    Repr.  an  int.  A ! 

Sc.  Aweel,  it's  the  worst  thing  I  ken  about,  SCOTT  Rob  Roy 
(1816)  vi.  S.  &  Ork.1  Alake  !  alas  !  Gall. '  Aweel,  aweel,'  soli- 
loquised the  considerate  Baillie,  '  this  is  a  matter  that  requires 
management,'  NICHOLSON  Hist.  Tales  (1843)  68.  w.Yks.4  Alack  ! 
Snf.1  Alawk,  alawkus !  w.Som.1  Alack-a-day !  [A-God-cheeld  ! 
Exclamation,  God  shield  you  !  God  forbid  !  GROSE  (1790)  MS. 
add.  (P.)] 

A,  pref.10  Of  uncertain  origin ;  in  many  cases  due  to 
analogy  with  one  or  other  of  the  above  prefixes. 

Sc.  Await  sheep,  one  that  has  fallen  down,  so  as  not  to 
be  able  to  recover  itself  (JAM.).  S.  &  Ork.1  To  go  a-gaairy,  to 
leave  one's  service  before  the  term  day.  Ir.  Poor  Mick  grabbed 
a-hould  of  me,  BARLOW  Idylls  (1892)  214.  N.Cy.1  Amackally, 
in  a  manner,  as  well  as  one  can.  Wm.  T'poor  fello's  pluck 
he  amackily  roosed,  BOWNESS  Studies  (1868)  80.  n.Yks.  God 
a-rest  you,  merry  gintlemen,  TWEDDELL  Clevel.  Rhymes  (1875)  6' 
n.Yks.2  A-craz'd,  wrong-headed.  Black-aviz'd,  dark  complexioned! 
ne.Lan.1  A-warrant,  to  assure,  to  warrant.  nXin.1  John'll  cum  hoam 
drunk  agean  to  neet  I'll  awarrant  it.  Wor.  It  be  a  lot  nigher  this 
away  [way]  (H.  K.).  se.Wor.1  Be  yer  'onds  acaowd  ?  come  ether 
an  warm  urn.  I  sh'll  come  afrawl  [a  +  for  all]  thee.  Shr.1  An  old 
man  .  .  .  speaking  of  his  schoolmaster,  said,  '  'E  used  to  amaister 
me,  Sir.  Glo.12  Adry,  thirsty.  Brks.1  I  be  a-veelin  acawld 
Ess.  John  was  a-dry  CLARK  /.  Noahs  (1839)  !8.  Sur.  I'd  like  to 
know,  not  a-wishful  to  be  prying,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  III 
';W'  ,?°!,Wl!.°0T- Wi,'  the  ™g°n  a.Ker  temPty].  Goo  into 

--   ------          . 

dtheold  woman,  MADOX-BROWN 

A  suff.   Occas.  used  redundantly  after  a  word  •  merelv 
euphonic     'A  is  sometimes  used  fn  songs  and 

g       °ut  a  line'  without  add'ns  to 

Ir.  Is  it  that-a-way  he  went,  did  you  notice  ?  BARLOW  Lisconntl 
(1895)  207.  w.Som.1  You  never  ded-n  ought  to  a  went-a.  It  is  very 
commonly  heard  after  proper  names  when  shouted  .  .  .  [or]  when 
calling  out  to  urge  on  horses  or  oxen  by  their  names.  Dev.  The 
Devonians  often  introduce  a  vowel  into  words,  as  Black-a-hook, 
for  Blackhook,  BRAY  Tamar  and  Tavy,  I.  121;  GROSE  (1790)  MS 
add.  (M.) 

A,  num.  adj.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Lan.  Written  ae  in  Sc. ; 
this  spelling  also  occurs  in  n.Cy.  Nhb.1  Cum.  n.Yks.2 
Also  written  ya  Cum.1  Wm.  Yks.  w.Yks.1  Lan.1 ;  yah 
Wm.  n.Yks.2 ;  yaa  Wm.  See  below,  [e.] 

1.  One. 

Sc.  Ae  swallow  disna  mak  a  simmer  (JAM.)  ;  Ae  good  turn 
may  meet  anither,  if  it  were  at  the  brigg  o'  London,  RAMSAY 
Prov.  (1737);  And  no  ae  halfhour  to  the  gospel  testimony, 
SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  xi.  Gall.  The  ae  legged  chuckie  wull  be 
clocking,  CROCKETT  Moss  Hags  (1895)  217.  Bwk.  Till  said  to 
Tweed,  Though  ye  rin  wi'  speed,  and  I  rin  slaw.  Where  ye 
drown  ae  man,  I  drown  twa,  HENDERSON  Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  27. 
n.Cy.  Ae,  one,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (D.  A.).  Nhb.1  Cum.  Fra 
ya  week  end  till  anudder,  FARREL  Betty  Wilson  (1886)  41.  Wm. 
Let  us  alaan  yaw  wee  bit,  HUTTON  Bran  New  Wark  (1785)  1.  242. 
n.Yks.2  Ae,  Yah,  one.  e.Yks.  Yaa,  one,  with  the  subs,  expressed  : 
as  yaa  man,  yaa  horse.  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  (1788).  w.Yks.  Price 
a  penny,  Dewsbre  Olm.  (cover) ;  Ea,  one,  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale 
(c.  1882) ;  w.Yks.1  He  didn't  knaw  his  awn  mind  fray  ya  minute 
to  another,  ii.  294.  Lan.1  Sooa  ya  day,  ther'  wos  sich  a  noration 
as  nivver  wos  seen,  MORRIS  Invasion  o'  U'ston  (1867)  4.  neXan.1 
Aa  cow  (s.v.  An). 

2.  Only. 

Sc.  Thou  kill'd  my  brethren  three,  Whilk  brak  the  heart  o'  my 
ae  sister  I  loved  as  the  light  o'  my  ee,  Jacob.  Rel.  (1819)  II.  33. 
Ayr.  I  am  my  mammie's  ae  bairn,  BURNS  Pm  Owre  Young. 

3.  Used  with  superlatives  in  an  intensive  sense  QAM.). 
Ayr.  The  ae  best  fellow  e'er  was  born,  BURNS  Elegy  on  Capt. 

Matthew  Henderson. 

4.  Comp.  Ae-beast-tree ;    -fur,  -fur-land,    see   below; 
-haunt,   single-handed  (JAM.);    -pointit  gairss  [grass], 
sedge-grass,  a  species  of  Carex. 

Or.I.  Ae-beast-tree,  a  swingle  tree  by  which  only  one  horse 
draws  in  ploughing  (JAM.).  S.  &  Ork.1  Ae-beast-tree.  Clyd.,  Slk. 
Ae-fur,  having  all  the  soil  turned  over  by  the  plough  in  one 
direction  ;  Ae-fur-land,  ground  which  admits  of  being  ploughed 
only  in  one  direction  (JAM.).  w.Sc.  They  wadna  be  a  jiffy 
o'  gripping  ye  like  a  gled,  they're  no  sae  ae-haunt,  Saint  Patrick 
(1819)  I.  220  (JAM.).  Sc.  Carex,  ae-pointit  gairss,  blue-grass 
(B.  &  H.).  Lnk.  Ae-pointit-gairss.  Sedge-grass,  a  species  of 
carex,  single-pointed  grass.  The  reason  why  this  tribe  of  plants 
is  denominated  Ae-pointit  Gairss,  is  because  the  points  of  its  blades 
are  sharper  and  much  more  stiff  than  those  of  rich  succulent 
grass  QAM.). 

[In  Sc.  ae  is  used  before  a  sb.  whether  beginning  with  a 
cons,  or  a  vowel.  Occurring  absolutely  ane  is  the  form. 
OE.  an.] 

A,  sb.  Wil.  Som.  (?)  Apparently  obs.  except  in  comp. 
A-harrow  or  -drag. 

s.Wil.  Ais  or  As,  harrows  or  drags,  DAVIS  Agric.  (1813),  quoted 
Archceol.  Rev.  (1888)  I.  34.  Wil.1  This  term  for  a  harrow  was  still 
occasionally  to  be  heard  some  thirty  years  ago,  in  both  Somerset 
and  Wilts,  but  is  now  disused. 

Hence  comp.  A-drag. 

Wil.  For  some  years  a  very  heavy  triangular  machine  was  used, 
called  an  A-drag,  with  its  tines  so  fixed  on  its  three  sides,  as  that 
when  drawn  by  one  point,  it  made  parallel  furrows  eight  or  nine 
inches  apart,  DAVIS  Gen.  View  Agric.  Wil.  (1811)  vii.  52-3.  The 
late  Mr.  Jas.  Rawlence,  a  great  authority  on  agriculture,  told  me 
it  [word  A-drag]  was  still  in  use  in  s. Wilts,  though  no  doubt  it 
would  be  an  improved  form  of  the  machine  (G.E.D.);  Wil.1 
A-Drag.  Still  used  in  s.Wilts  for  harrowing  turnips  before  the 
hoers  go  in. 

[This  term  is  derived  from  the  triangular  shape  of  the 
drag,  resembling  the  letter  A.] 

A,  AA,  see  Ea. 

AA,  see  Owe. 

AAM,  sb.  e.An.  Also  written  aim  e.An.1  The  chill ; 
only  found  in  phr.  to  take  the  aatn  off. 

e.An.1  Just  set  the  mug  down  to  the  fire,  and  take  the  cold  aam 
off  the  beer.  Suf.  To  take  cold  aam  off  the  beer  is  occasionally 




heard  (J.  H.) ;  The  cold  aam  of  beer  is  cold  sharpness  or  sting. 
Only  a  few  old  people  now  use  the  word  (F. H.). 

[This  is  prob.  a  Flem.  word;  cp.  w.Flem.  aam  =  adem, 
breath  (Dr.  Bo);  so  in  Saxony  aam  =  athem  (BERGHAUS). 
For  a  similar  expression  as  applied  to  beer  see  Air,  sb.  4.] 

AAM,  see  Harm. 

AAN,  see  Own. 

AANDORN,  see  Undern. 

AAR,  see  Arn. 

AARNIT,  see  Earth-nut. 

AARON'S  BEARD,  sb.  A  name  applied  to  several 
plants— (i)  Hypencum  calycinum  (Bwk.  Rxb.  Nhb.  n.Dur. 
Shr.  Glo.  Ess.  Dev.) ;  (2)  Linaria  Cymbalaria  (Edb.) ; 
(3)  Orchis  mascula  (Bwk.) ;  (4)  Saxifraga sarmentosa (Dev.) ; 
(5)  Spiraea  salicifolia  (Lin.  Lei.  n.Bks.).  [e'ranz-biad,  n. 

n.Lin.1.  Lei.1  Aaron's  Beard,  Spiraea  salicifolia.  Shr.  Aaron  s 
Beard,  St.  John's  wort  (G.  E.  D.). 

[The  name  contains  a  reference  to  Ps.  cxxxiii.  2.] 

AARON'S  ROD,  sb.  A  name  applied  to  several  plants— 
(i)  Solidago  Virgaurea  (Shr.  War.) ;  (2)  A  garden  species 
of  Solidago  (Hrt.) ;  (3)  Verbascum  Thapsus  (Sc.  Lin.  Glo. 
and  the  midl.  counties),  [e'ranz-rod.] 

Bnff.1  Aarons-rod,  mullein,  Verbascum  Thapsus.  Lin.1  Aaron's 
Rod,  Verbascum  Thapsus.  Shr.1  Aaron's-rod,  Solidago  Virgaurea, 
common  golden  rod.  Glo.1  Aaron's  Rod,  Verbascum  Thapsus. 
Var.  dial.  Aaron's  Rod,  from  the  tall  straight  stem,  and  connected 
with  Aaron  because  his  rod,  like  his  beard,  is  familiar  from  its 
mention  in  Scripture. 

[The  name  contains  a  reference  to  the  account  of  Aaron 
in  Numbers  xvii.  8.] 

AB,  sb.    Or.  I.    [ab.] 

Or.I.  Ab,  check,  hindrance,  impediment  QAM.  Suppl.}.  Not  in 
S.  &  Ork.i 

AB,  v.     Or.  I. 

Or.I.  To  Ab,  to  hinder,  keep  back,  place  at  a  disadvantage  ;  also 
to  pain,  cause  pain  (JAM.  Suppl.}.  Not  in  S.  &  Ork.1 

ABACK,  prep,  and  adv.  In  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties 
to  Lin.  and  Chs.,  Stf.  War.  [aba'k.] 

1.  prep.  Of  position :   behind,  to  the  rear  (usually  with 
prep.  of). 

Nhb.1  Howay  aback  o'  the  hoose  an'  aa'll  show  ye.  He  com' 
in  at  the  finish  just  aback  on  him.  Dur.1  Cum.2  Aback  o'  the 
fells.  Wm.  As  t'sun  sank  doon  aback  o'  t'hills,  WHITEHEAD  Leg. 
(1859^  17, 1.  4.  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  It  popp'd  oot  aback  o'  t'  stee. 
e.Yks.  Up-stairs  a-back  o'  bed,  Sike  a  riot  as  niwer  was  led, 
NICHOLSON  Flk-Specch  (1889}  40;  e.Yks.1  w.Yks.s  Think  o'  the 
divil  an'  he's  sure  to  be  aback  o'  yuh.  Lan.1  Just  as  aw  coom  up 
he  wur  hidin'  aback  o'  th'  hedge.  ne.Lan.1  Chs.1  Aw  seed  him 
aback  o'  th'  edge.  s.Chs.1  [with  meaning  of  beyond]  Aback  o' 
Nantweych  (Nantwich).  \ln_flg.  sense]  Owd  Dan  tells  some  awful 
lies,  bu'  yo  conna  ger  aback  on  him.  Stf.2  n.Lin.1  It's  aback  o'  the 
beer  barril.  War.  (J.R. W.) 

2.  adv.  Behind,  to  the  rear. 

Ayr.  The  third  that  gaed  a  wee  aback,  Was  in  the  fashion 
shining  Fu'  gay  that  day,  BURNS  Holy  Fair  (1785)  ver.  2. 

3.  Of  motion  :  back,  backwards. 

N.Cy.1  Nhb.1  Hadaway  aback,  aa  tell  ye.  Ye've  com"  ower  far 
on ;  gan  aback  ti  the  road  end. 

4.  Of  time  :  ago,  since. 

Abd.  Eight  days  aback  a  post  came  frae  himsel,  Ross  Helenore 
(1768)  37. 

5.  Aback  o'  Durham,  delayed,  thrown  back  from  the  be- 
ginning ;  aback  frae,  aloof  from  ;  to  take  aback,  to  surprise, 
astonish  (in  gen.  use). 

n.Yks.2  All  aback  o'  Durham  together.  Ayr.  O  would  they  stay 
aback  frae  courts,  An'  please  themsels  wi'  countra  sports,  It  wad 
for  ev'ry  ane  be  better,  BURNS  Twa  Dogs  (1786).  Frf.  This  took 
Sam'l,  who  had  only  been  courting  Bell  for  a  year  or  two,  a  little 
aback,  BARRIE  Licht  (1888)  159.  n.Yks.  Ah  wer  rayder  teean 
aback  when  it  com,  TWEDDELL  Clevel.  Rhymes  (1875)  62.  n.Lin.1 
I  was  ta'en  clear  aback  when  she  tell'd  me  on  it 

6.  Aback-d '-behind,  (i)  in  the  rear,  behind;  (2)  behind- 
hand ;  (3)  far  away,  remote. 

(i)  N.Cy.1  Aback-a-behint  where  the  grey  mare  foaled  the  fiddler 
[that  is,  threw  him  off  in  the  dirt].  Nhb.1  Aback-a-behint  the 
set  [the  very  last  wagon].  Get  up  aback-a-behint  [get  up  over 

the  horse's  rear].  Cum.  Aback  o'  behint,  behind,  in  the  rear, 
LINTON  Lake  Cy.  (1864)  295.  w.Yks.  Aback  o'  behind,  Hlfx.  Wds. 
ne.Lan.1  Aback-a-behint,  very  far  behind  or  in  the  rear,  (a)  Dur.1 
Behind  hand,  too  late.  (3)  Lan.1  Wheer  does  he  live? — Eh!  aw 
know  no';  aback-a-beheend,  wheer  nob'dy  comes. 
7.  Aback-o' -beyond,  (i)  'the  other  end  of  Nowhere/  in  the 
far  distance  ;  (2)  of  work  :  behindhand,  delayed,  thrown 
back  ;  (3)  behind,  in  the  rear  of. 

(i)  Nhb.1  Aback-a-beyont,  far  away  behind — out  of  ken.  Cum.1 
Nowhere,  lost  in  the  distance.  'Whoar  t'meer  fwoal't  t'fiddler.' 
n.Yks.2  They  live  aback  o'  beyont,  where  they  kessen  cawvs  and 
knee-band  lops  [christen  calves,  and  bind  the  fleas  by  the  legs]. 
ne.Yks.1  Ah  wadn't  mahnd  if  they  was  all  aback  o'  beyont  [at 
Jericho].  ne.Lan.1  Aback-o-beyont,  at  a  very  great  distance 
away.  n.Lin.1  \_ftg.  use]  A  man  is  aback  o'  beyont  his  sen,  when 
he  is,  through  his  own  fault  or  ignorance,  unable  to  perform  what  he 
has  undertaken.  (2)  n.Yks.1  We  were  all  thrown  aback  o'  beyont 
the  day  through  [could  never  recover  the  ground  lost  by  delay 
in  the  morning].  e.Yks.  That  slaw  beggar's  awlas  aback-o-beyont 
wiv  his  wahk,  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  49.  (3)  e.Yks.1  Where's 
Jack  ? — He's  just  geean  aback-o-beyont  there  [at  the  back  of  yonder 
house  or  stack]. 

[They  drewe  abacke,  as  halfe  with  shame  confound, 
SPENSER  Sh.  Cal.  June.  ME.  Therwith-al  a-bak  she  sterte, 
CHAUCER  Leg.  G.  W.  864.  OE.  on  bcecc.] 

ABACK,  adv.  n.Irel.  [aba'k.]  Of  the  position  of  a 
weight  or  load :  contracted  form  of '  on  the  back.' 

N.I.1  When  a  cart  is  loaded,  the  load  can  be  arranged  so  as  to 
press  very  lightly  on  the  horse,  this  is  having  it  '  light-a-back ' ; 
when  the  chief  weight  is  towards  the  front  of  the  cart,  and 
therefore  presses  on  the  horse,  the  cart  is  '  heavy-a-back.' 

[A-,  on  +  back.] 

ABARGAINS,  phr.  n.Lin.  [aba'ganz.]  Of  no  value  or 

Lin.  Among  Lincolnshire  phrases  one  may  hear,  '  It's  a  bargains 
on  it!'  or  'Oh,  a  bargains  on  (or  of)  him!'  when  one  would 
depreciate  a  man  or  a  thing,  N.  &  Q.  (1865)  3rd  S.  vii.  162. 
n-Lin.1  It's  that  mucky  and  torn,  it's  abargens  what  becums  on  it. 
It's  abargens  whether  he  cums  or  no  noo. 

[A-,  on  -f  bargains,  q.v.] 

ABASING,  vbl.  sb.    w.  and  s.Sc.  QAM.)     [abe'sin.] 

w.  &  s.Sc.Abaising,  abaisin,  abasin,  abusing,  hurting,  ill-treating 
by  word  or  act. 

[Abais(s)e,  v.,  is  a  northern  form  of  AFr.  aba'iss  (whence 
E.  abash),  prp.  stem  of  abair,  OFr.  esbair  (mod.  e'bahir).} 

ABATE,  v.  Nhp.  [abe't,  abea't.]  To  uncover;  to 
clear  away  the  superincumbent  soil  preparatory  to 
working  stone  in  a  quarry.  See  Bate  and  Unbate. 

Nhp.1.  To  make  bare  ;  to  uncover.  [In  e.An.  •  uncallow '  is  the 
corresponding  word.] 

[OFr.  abatre,  to  beat  down.] 

ABATE,  adv.  n.Lin.  [abea't.]  Accustomed  to,  in  the 
habit  of  doing  anything. 

n-Lin.1  He's  gotten  abate  o'  drinkin'. 

ABAWE,  v.    n.Cy.    [abijr.]    To  daunt,  astonish. 

N.Cy.1,  Nhb.1 

[ME.  abawen.  Found  in  R.  BRUNNE  Handlyng  Synne 
and  CHAUCER.  See  M.  &  S.,  HALL.  See  HATZFELD,  and 
Skeat's  note  to  CHAUCER  Duchesse,  614.] 

ABB,  sb.  Glo.  Wil.  Som.  n.Dev.  Also  written  ab 
Glo. ;  ob  Glo.  n.Dev.  [aeb  ;  Glo.  w.Som.  ob.] 

1.  The  weft,  woof,  yarn  woven  across  the  warp. 

Glo.  Ab,  Ob,  trama,  substramen,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 
w.Som.1  Abb,  weaver's  weft. 

2.  In  wool-sorting,  one  of  two  qualities  of  wool  known 
as  coarse  abb  and  fine  abb  respectively  (C.D.). 

w.Cy.  The  wool  of  the  sheep's  back  is  finer,  and  makes,  in 
druggets,  the  thread  called  abb,  LISLE  Husbandry  (1757).  w.Som.1 
Abb,  the  name  of  a  particular  sort  or  quality  of  short-stapled  wool, 
as  sorted,  usually  from  the  belly  part  of  the  fleece. 

3.  Comp.  Abb-chain,  a  carded  warp  ;  -wool  (C.D.). 
w.Som.l  The  abb  is  nearly  always  spun  from  carded  wool,  and 

hence  a  carded  warp,  such  as  that  used  in  weaving  blankets, 
is  called  an  abb-chain,  in  distinction  to  one  spun  from  combed 
wool,  such  as  that  used  in  weaving  serge,  which  is  a  worsted 

[OE.  aweb  (oweb,  ab).  A  cognate  OE.  form  was  awef, 
owef,  whence  E.  woof.] 




ABBAR,  ABBER,  see  Aye  bat. 

ABBEY,  sb.    Som.    The  abele  or  great  white  poplar, 

Populus  aiba. 

Sam.  The  great   white  poplar:    one   of  the   varieties  of  t 
Pofulus  alba,  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825);    W.  &  J.  Gl. 
(1873'  ;  Abbey-lug,  a  branch  of  the  abele  tree  (G.S.). 

ABBEY-LUBBER,  sb.  Yks.  Som.,  also  naut  [arbi-leba, 
n.  a'ba-lobair).]  An  idle  person,  a  loafer. 

Yks.  A  term  of  reproach  for  idle  persons,  WRIGHT.  Som.  A 
lazy,  idle  fellow,  JENNINGS  Obs.  DiaL  w.Eng.  (1825);  W.  &  J. 
Gl.  1873).  Hant  SMYTH  Sailor's  Wd-Bk.  (1867).  Colloq..  From 
deans  and  from  chapters  who  live  at  their  eases  .  .  .  And  lie  like 
abbey-lubbers  stewM  in  their  own  greases,  Libera  nos,  Domine. 
Jacob.  ReL  (1819)  393. 

\Archimarmitonerastique,  an  Abbey-lubber  or  arch-fre- 
quenter of  the  Cloyster  beefe-pot  or  beefe-boyler.  Ils 
estqyent  a  table  aises  comme  Peres  (a  phrase  whose  author 
by  Peres  meant  Abbey-lubbers),  COTGR.;  An  Abbey- 
lubber,  fucus  • . . .  Fucus,  a  Drone,  Sluggard,  an  Abby- 
lubber,  COLES  (1679) ;  Abbey-Lubber,  a  slothful  loiterer 
in  a  religious  house  under  pretence  of  retirement  and 
austerity  ('This  is  no  Father  Dominic,  no  huge  over- 
grown abbey-lubber;  this  is  but  a  diminutive  sucking 
friar,'  Dryden  Sp.  />.),  JOHNSON.] 

ABBUD,  ABBUT,  see  Aye  but 

ABBY,  sb.    S.  and  Ork.    [a'bL] 

1.  The  sea-gilliflower. 
S.  *  Ork.1 

2.  Contp.  Abby-root,  the  root  of  the  sea-gilliflower. 

S.  ft  Ork.1 

ABC,  also  in  pi.     In  gen.  colloq.  use. 

1.  The  English  alphabet ;  to  be  able  to  say  one's  A  B  C,  to 
be  able  to  read. 

w.Yks.  Can  he  say  his  A-B-C's  ?  BANKS  Wkfld.  Wds.  (1865). 
nw.Der.1  w.Som.1  Dhee  urt  u  puur-tee  skau'lurd,  shoa-ur  nuuf: 
wuy  kas-n  zai  dhee  ae-u.  bee,  see  [thou  art  a  pretty  scholar  sure 
enough,  why  thou  canst  not  say  thy  A  B  C].  Pop.  rhyme.  Dunce, 
dunce,  double  D,  Can't  say  his  ABC. 

2.  A  B  C  Book,  a  book  for  beginners  containing  the 
alphabet ;  in  A  B  C  fashion. 

w.Som.1  ABC  Book,  the  book  from  which  infants  are  first 
taught  ABC  Fashion,  perfectly ;  applied  to  things  known,  as 
a  trade,  a  lesson,  &c.  A  man  would  be  said  to  know  his  business 
or  profession  a-b-c  faar-sheen — i.  e.  as  perfectly  as  his  alphabet 

[L  To  sigh,  like  a  school-boy  that  had  lost  his  A  B  C 
(i.  e.  his  book  containing  the  alphabet),  SHAKS.  Two  Gent. 
11.  i.  23.  2.  And  then  comes  answer  like  an  Absey  book, 
ib.  K.  John,  i.  i.  196.] 

A-BE,  Sc.  Nhb.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Oxf.  See  below,  [abr.] 
L  In  phr.  to  let  a-be  (rarely,  to  leave  a-be),  to  leave  undis- 
turbed, to  let  alone ;  let  a-be,  not  to  mention.  Cf.  let-alone. 
Sc.  A  wheen  kilted  loons  that  dinna  ken  the  name  o'  a  single 
herb  or  flower  in  braid  Scots,  let  abee  in  the  Latin  tongue,  Kob 
Roy  (1817)  xxvii:  Get  up!  I  wadna  rise  out  of  my  chair  for 
King  George  himsell  let  abee  a  Whig  minister.  RAMSAY  Remin. 
(ed.  1859)  ist  S.  93.  Nhb.  Av'  let  a'  useless  sticks  a-bee, 
ROBSON  Evangtline  (1870)  363 ;  Nhb.1  Let's  away  and  he*  some 
yell,  and  let  sic  things  abee  man.  The  Keelman's  reasons  for 
attending  church,  ALLAN'S  Collection  (1863).  Lan.  I  niwer  wanted 
to  see  yore  face  again.  Leave  me  a-be.  BURNETT  Loarrus  '1877) 
rrii;  Aw  would  o  lett'n  it  obee  till  th'  weddin'  wur  o'er,  Abrum 
o  Fluf's  Quortin'  (1886)  8.  neXan.1  Let  me  abe.  let  me  alone. 
Cbs.1  Let  that  choilt  a-be.  wilt  ta.  s^tf.  Let  him  a-be.  PINNOCK 
Bit.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895!  s.Oxf.  Let  'im  a-be,  'ee  'ave  made  'is  bed, 
an  ee  d  best  lie  on  it,  ROSEMARY  Chilterns  \  1895)  na. 
2.  so.  Forbearance. 

Sc.  Ill  gie  you  let-a-bee  for  let-a-bee.  like  the  bairns  o'  Kelly 
HENDERSON  Prop.  (1832)  123 ;  I  am  for  let  a-be  for  let-a-be,  as  the 
boys  say,  SCOTT  Pirate  (1822)  xxxvii ;   Let-abe  for  let-abe,  mutual 
ice.      Let-abe  maks  mony  a  loon  [forbearance  increases 
the  number  of  rogues]  (JAM.,  s.v.  Let). 
[The  prefix  a-  is  difficult  to  explain.    N.E.D  has '  prob 
*t  be,  early  northern  infinitive=to  be,'  but  there  is  no 
evidence  of  the  existence  of  the  phrase,  or  of  the  con- 
struction of  let  with  at  in  ME.] 

ABEAR,  v.  Widely  diffused  through  the  dialects.  Also 

written  abeear  e. Yks.  ne.  Lan.1 ;  abeare  ne.Lan.1  See 
below,  [abeav),  abia'fr).]  To  endure,  tolerate :  usually 
with  the  verb  can  and  a  negative.  Cf.  abide. 

Jfhb.l  She  couldn't  abeer  to  sit  aside  him.  Wm.1  A  cannot 
abeer  et.  n-Yks.1  ne.Yks.1  Ah  can't  abeear  stooryin.'.  Lan.1 
I  conno'  abear  th'  sect  on  't.  s^tt  I  can't  abear  the  sight  on 
him,  PINNOCK  Bit.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895).  Hot1  s.Not  Non  of  uz 
can't  abear  non  o'  them  (J.  P.  K.).  Lin.  I  couldn  abear  to  see  it, 
i  TENNYSON  If.  Farmer,  Old  Style  1860)  st  16.  swXin.1  I  hate 
smoke-reek'd  tea,  I  can't  abear  it.  They  could'nt  abear  her ;  they 
rantanned  her  out  at  last.  Lei.1  Oi  cain't  abear  'er.  Nhp.i 
s.War.1  I  can't  abear  it.  w.Wor.1  'E's  'ad  the  tuthache  that 
desprit  till  'e  couldn't  scahrcely  abar  it  Snr.1  The  missis  toud 
me  I  wuz  to  sarve  them  pigs  an'  I  canna-d-abere  it.  Hrf.2 
GIo.  The  townsfolk  be  got  so  'nation  fmnicking,  thaay  can't  abear 
a  bit  o'  nize,  BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn  {i6f/o)v\.  Oxf.1  Brks.1 
I  can't  abear  zuch  a  vool  as  he  be.  n.Bck.  Abear  or  abeer,  to 
tolerate  (A  C.).  Mid.  I  can't  abear  it,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add. (M.) 
Hnt  (T.  P.  F. )  Ess.  I  earn  abear  it  when  the  salmon's  done,  DOWNE 
Ballads  (1895)  9.  Snr.1 1  can't  a-bear  their  goings  on.  Sus.1 
I  never  could  a-bear  that  chap.  Hnip.1  WU.1 1  can't  abear  to 
see  the  poor  theng  killed.  w.Som.1 1  can  abear  to  see  a  riglur  fair 
stand-up  fight,  but  I  can't  never  abear  to  zee  boys  always  a  naggin 
and  a  quardlin.  Uur  keod-n  ubae'ur  vur  tu  pae'urt  wai  ur 
bwuuy  [she  could  not  bear  to  part  with  her  boy].  Dev.  Get  thee 
gone  out  o'  my  sight,  Noll ! — I  can't  abear  the  daps  o'  thee, 
MADOX- BROWN  Dwale  Bluth  (1876)  Introd.  v.  Cor.1 1  caan't 
abear  what  I  caan't  abide;  Cor.3 Abear,  not  always  used  nega- 
tively :  I  don't  knaw  how  thee  cust  abear  un. 

[OE.  dberan,  to  endure,  suffer.  Although  the  word  is  so 
widely  diffused  in  the  dialects,  it  apparently  was  of  rare 
occurrence  in  the  literary  language  at  a  very  early  date. 
The  latest  quotation  for  the  word  in  Matzner  is  fromj  the 
Ancren  Riwle  (c.  1230).] 

ABED,  adv.  Widely  diffused  throughout  the  midland 
and  southern  counties,  [abe'd.]  In  bed  ;  confined  to  bed 
by  illness,  &c.  Cf.  slug-abed. 

Com.  If  I  is  abed,  its  better  nor  being  in  bed-lam.  CAINE 
Hagar  (1887)  I.  31.  s-War.1  se.Wor.' 'Ei^s  a  bed  mighty  bad, 
uv  a  bwile  a  top  uv  'er  yud.  Brks.1  If  a  lez  a-bed  o'  marnins  a 
wunt  never  graw  rich.  Ken.1.  Snr.1,  Sus.1.  Hmp.1  Dev.  I  were 
forced  to  lie  abed.  O'NEILL  Idylls  (i892s,  87. 

[You  have  not  been  abed  then  ?  SHAKS.  Oth.  HI.  i.  33  ; 
I  would  have  been  abed  an  hour  ago,  ib.  R.  &*J.  HI.  iv.  7. 
ME.  Some  wolde  mouche  hir  mete  alone  Ligging  a-bedde, 
CHAUCER  TV.  £->  Cr.  i.  915.  The  word  occurs  in  P.  Plow- 
man B.  v.  395,  417.  OE.  on  bedde,  Luke  xvii.  34.] 

ABEFOIR,  adv.    Obs.   Sc.  (JAM.)    Formerly,  before. 

Sc.  Abefoir  is  frequently  used  in  this  sense  in  ...  Pitscottie, 
i.e.  Lindsay's  (of  Pitscottie)  Chronicles  of  Scotland,  1768. 

[A-,  on  +  before.] 

ABEIGH,  adv.  Obs.  w.Sc.  Also  written  abeech  (JAM.). 
Away,  aside,  aloof. 

Sc.  The  wise  auld  man  was  blythe  to  stand  abeigh,  Auld  Gray 
Mare  (c.  1707)  in  Jacob.  Rel.  (1819)  I.  69.  Ayr.  Town's  bodies 
ran,  an'  stood  abeigh.  An'  ca't  thee  mad.  BURNS  To  his  Auld 
Mart.  Kcb.  The  lasses  turned  skiegh  man,  They  hid  themselves 
amang  the  corn  To  keep  the  lads  abeigh,  man,  DAVIDSON  Seasons 

[Pref.  A-,  on  +  -beigh,  the  etym.  of  which  is  uncertain; 
it  may  possibly  be  identical  with  Norse  beig  (beyg)  fear. 
(So  N.E.D.)  Cp.  ON.  beygr  fear,  beyeja  to  bend,  bow,  cogn. 
of  OE.  bugan  to  bend,  to  yield,  to  flee.] 

ABEIS,  prep.  Fif.  Also  written  abies.  [abrs.]  In 
comparison  with  OAM.). 

Fit  London  is  a  big  town  abeis  Edinburgh. 

[Prob.  Abeis=al-,  att  +  beis,  be  as,  to  be  as;  see  Beis.] 

ABER,  adj.  S.  &  Ork.  Also  written  aaber,  abir. 
[a-bar.]  Eager,  anxious. 

S.  &  Ork.1  Anxious  to  obtain  a  thing.  ShJ.  Abir,  eager  (Coll. 
L.L.B.).  Aaber  UAH.). 

ABERZAND,  see  Ampersand. 

ABEUN(E,  see  Aboon. 

ABIDE,  v.  In  gen.  use  in  Gt.  Brit,  and  Irel.  Not  in 
glossaries  of  e.An.  (Forby,  Nail,  Moor,  Charnock)  or  Cor. 
Also  written  aboide  Der.a  Freq.  by  aphaeresis  bide,  q.v. 



1.  To  stay,  remain,  tarry. 

Sc.  Abaid,  abade;  abode,  stayed,  GROSE  vI79°)  MS.  add.  (C.) 
Gall.  He  abode  to  see  what  should  happen,  CROCKETT  Bog-Myrtle 
(1895)  45.  e.Dev.  Yeue.  mai  dove,  that  abaid'th  in  th'  gaps  o'  th' 
rocks,  PULMAN  Sag.  Sol.  (1860)  ii.  14. 

2.  To  wait  for. 

Sc.  I  wad  e'en  streek  mysell  out  here,  and  abide  my  removal, 
SCOTT  Antiquary  (1616)  xxi.  [Abide,  [to]  expect  or  wait  for  (K.).] 

3.  To  endure,  tolerate.    (Used  nearly  always  with  the 

Per.  The  stour  is  mair  than  onybody  can  abide,  IAN  MACLAREN 
Brier  Bush  (1895)  117.  Ir.  My  belief  is  it's  left  something  at  the 
bottom  of  his  mind  that  he  can't  abide  the  looks  of,  BARLOW  Kerrigan 
(1894)  125.  Nhb.1  Aa  canna  abide  him.  It  is  generally  shortened 
to  Bide.  Cum.1  I  caa-n't  abide  sec  wark.  Yks.  Yo'  have  a'  the 
cow's  hair  in.  Mother's  very  particular,  and  cannot  abide  a  hair, 
GASKELL  Sylvia  (1863)  II.  i.  n-Yks.1  e.Yks.  Ah  can't  abide  to  see 
yo'  like  that,  WRAY  Nestleton  (1876)  52.  Lan.  I  can't  abide  the  chap, 
FOTHERGILL  Probation  (1879)  vi ;  Lan.1  He  wur  soa  ill  he  cudn't 
abide.  ne.Lan.1  Abode,  Abidden,  endured.  s.Chs.1  It's  noo  use, 
we  shan  ha'  to  abide  it.  s.Stf.  Her  could  never  abide  red-haired 
chaps,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895).  Der.2  I  conna'  aboide 
hur.  Not.1  s.Not.  There's  not  many  folk  I  can't  abide,  but  her 
I  can't.  Werkin'  a  Satdy's  what  ah  niver  could  abide  (J.P.  K.). 
n.Lin.1  I  can't  abide  no  bairns  nobut  my  awn.  Lei.1,  s.War.1 
w.Wor.1  Mother,  'er  never  could  abide  that  thahr  mon.  Hrf.2,  Glo.2 
Brks.1 1  can't  abide  such  me-un  waays.  Ken.1,  Sus.1,  Hmp.1  Wil.1 

1  can't  abide  un  nohow.      w.Som.1  I  never  can't  abide  they  there 
fine  stickt-up  hussies.       Dev.  I  can't  abide  the  notion  of  lying  in 
my  coffin  in  thiccy  coarse  black  stockings,  O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  n ; 
Dev.1 1  coud'n  abide  her  vather, — a  shoul-a-mouth'd,  hatchet-faced, 
bandy-legg'd  wink-a-puss. 

[Falstaff  says,  '  Never,  never,  she  would  always  say  she 
could  not  abide  Master  Shallow,'  SHAKS.  2  Hen.  IV,  in.  ii. 
215;  Ye  cannot  abyde  the  hearynge  off  my  wordes,TiNDALE 
John  viii.  43.  OE.  abidan,  to  abide,  tarry.] 

ABIER,  adj.    w.Som.    [abia'r.]     Dead,  but  unburied. 

w.Som.1  Poo'ur  saul!  uur  mae-un  duyd  uun-ee  but  tuudlrur  dai, 
un  naew  uur  luyth  ubee-ur  [poor  soul !  her  man  (husband)  died 
only  the  other  day,  and  now  she  lies  dead]. 

[A-,  on  +  bier.] 

ABILITY,  s*.    Sc.  Oxf.     [abi'liti.]    Wealth. 

Sc.  Nobility  without  ability  is  like  a  pudding  without  suet, 
RAMSAY  Prov.  (1737).  Oxf.1  Gentility  without  ability  is  like  a  pud'n 
without  fat,  MS.  add. 

ABIN,  conj.    Hmp.    |abrn.]     Because. 


[A-  pref.  (OE.  §e)  +  bin,  been,  pp.  of  be.  Cp. :  You  loiter 
here  too  long,  being  you  are  to  take  soldiers  up,  SHAKS. 

2  Hen.  IV,  n.  i.  199.] 
ABIN,  v.    S.  &  Ork. 

S.&Ork.1  Or.  I.  Abin(G.  P.);  Aabin  is  to  halve  the  sheaf  between 
man  and  beast  (JAM.  Suppl.};  Aabin,  abin,  to  half-thrash  a  sheaf 
before  giving  it  to  horses.  The  sheaf  being  held  in  the  hands  is 
raised  upwards ;  then,  by  a  sudden  downward  stroke,  against 
some  fixture,  the  bulk  of  the  best  grain  is  knocked  off  (ib.}. 

ABIN,  see  Aboon. 

ABIR,  sb.    S.  &  Ork. ;  cf.  abin. 

S.  &  Ork.1  Or.  I.  Abir,  a  sheaf  thrashed  for  giving  to  horses  (G.P.); 
Aabir,  aaber,  abir,  a  sheaf  of  grain  half  thrashed  (JAM.  Suppl.). 

ABITED,  pp.  Obs.  Ken.  Of  linen:  mildewed;  of  wood: 
rotten,  decayed. 

Ken.  Abited,  mildewed,  LEWIS  /.  Tenet  (1736);  Abited,  GROSE 
(1790);  Ken.1 

ABLACH,  sb.     Obs.    Sc.  (JAM.)     See  Aploch. 

1.  A  dwarf;  an  expression  of  contempt. 

2.  The  remains  of  any  animal  that  has  become  the  prey 
of  a  dog,  fox,  polecat,  &c.  (Abd.) 

3.  A  particle,  a  fragment  (Rnf.). 

Sc.  An'  a"  the  ablachs  glowr'd  to  see  A  bonny  kind  of  tulyie 
Atweish  them  twa,  SKINNER  Christmas  Ba'ing  (1805). 

[Gael,  ablach,  a  mangled  carcase,  carrion,  the  remains  of 
a  creature  destroyed  by  ravenous  beasts  (M.  &  D.).  Gael. 
abhac,  a  dwarf  (M.  &  D.).  Ir.  abhlach,  a  carcase ;  abhac,  a 
dwarf,  pigmy,  manikin,  a  sprite ;  abhach,  the  entrails  of 
a  beast  (O'REILLY).] 

ABLE,  adj.  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  Yks.  and  Lan. 
Also  in  Lin.  Lei.  War.  Hrf.  Rdn.  Som.  Also  written 

aiable  ne.Lan.1;  abable  n.Yks.1 ;  yable  Dur.'Cum.2  Wm. ; 
yabble  Cum.3  Wm.  n.Yks.2  m.  and  e.Yks.  Lan. ;  yabbable 
n.Yks.2  See  below,  [e'bl,  ea'bl,  ye'bl,  yea'bl.] 

1.  Of  sufficient  means,  well-to-do,  rich. 

N.Cy.1  Able,  wealthy :  an  able  man.  Nhb.  It  was  plain  as 
a  pike-staff  that  he  wad  syun  be  won  (one)  o'  the  yebbilist  men 
i'  the  country  side,  Keeltnin's  Annewal  (1869)  n;  Nhb.1  Obs. 
Dur.1  Able,  possessed  of  large  pecuniary  means.  Cum.3  Yan  o' 
t'yablest  men  i'  thur  parts.  Wm.  A  varra  yabble  man  i  heeh  life, 
CLARKE  Spec.  Dial.  (1868)  Jonny  ShipparcCs  Junta.  n-Yks.1 
Nanny  B.  is  nane  sae  needful ;  she's  a  yabble  body  eneugh. 
e.Yks.1  Yabble,  somewhat  wealthy,  '  Bob's  a  yabble  chap ;  he  can 
live  wfoot  wahkin  (working),'  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  w. Yks.  Able, 
wealthy,  an  able  man,  Hlfx.  Wds.  ne.Lan.1  Aiable,  wealthy. 
ne.Der.1  War.  (J.R.W.)  Hrf.  Able,  a  Herefordshire  word 
meaning  wealthy,  as  'An  able  man,'  BOUND  Prov.  (1876);  Hrf.1; 
Hrf.2  Able,  well-to-do  in  money  matters.  Rdn.  Able,  rich,  well- 
to-do,  MORGAN  Rdn.  Wds.  (1881). 

2.  Of  objects:  substantial. 

n.Yks.2  A  yabble  pie-crust,  one  of  substantial  construction. 

3.  Able  for,  fit  to  cope  with. 

Ir.  Ah,  he'd  never  be  able  for  the  attornies,  Paddiana  (1848; 
I.  28;  (G.M.H.) 

4.  Fit,  subject,  liable. 

Sc.  If  found  liable  or  fit  for  being  received  at  a  college,  Parish  of 
Mortlach  Statist.  Ace.  xvii.  433  (JAM.).  Cum.  [He]  is  noo  yeble  to  be 
beggared  if  folks  hevamind,  LINTON  Lizzie  Lotion  (1866)  III.  116. 

5.  To  spell  able,  to  perform  a  difficult  task  in  fulfilment 
of  a  boast.    (Cf.  Amer.  to  spell  baker.) 

N.I.1  Can  you  spell  able  ?  [are  you  sure  you  can  do  what  you 
are  bragging  about  ?]  Cum.,  Wm.  A  defiant  rustic  jeer,  at  boast 
of  future  achievements,  was,  'Thou  mun  spell  yable,  i'urst'  (M.P.). 

Hence  Ableless,  adj.  incompetent,  careless,  listless, 
awkward.  Ablement,  sb.  (i)  ability,  mental  power; 
(2)  bodily  strength.  Ableness,  sb.  strength,  agility.  Able- 
some,  adj.  wealthy,  well-to-do.  Ablisb,  adj.  somewhat  able. 

w.Yks.2  A  poor  abeless  thing.  Lin.  Abless,  careless  and 
negligent,  or  untidy,  or  slovenly  in  person  (HALL.).  ii.Lin.' 
Abless.  w.Som.1  A  plain-tee  u  ae-ublmunt  baewt  ee  [a  plenty  of 
ability  about  him].  [In  pi.  tools,  gear]  We  should  ha  finished 
avore  we  corned  away,  on'y  we  'ad-n  a-got  no  ablements  'long 
way  us.  I  'sure  ee,  mum,  I  bin  that  bad,  I  hant  no  more 
ae-ublmunt-n  u  chee'ul  [strength  than  a  child].  Saunvfeen  luyk 
u  fuul'ur,  sm-ae-ubl-nees  baewt  ee  [something  like  a  fellow,  some 
strength  in  him].  n.Yks.2  They're  varry  yabblesome.  A  yabblish 
lot,  people  of  wealth.  ne.Lan.1  Rather  able,  of  tolerable  pecuniary 
means.  niin.1  He's  an  ablish  chap  for  a  little  un,  but  he  can't 
hug  a  seek  o'  wheat  aboard  a  vessil.  Lei.1  Ablish,  tolerably 
strong.  w.Som.1  U  ae-ubleesh  soa'urt  u  yuung  chaap  [an  active, 
industrious  kind  of  young  fellow]. 

[1.  Able  (wealthy),  opulentus,  COLES  (1679);  To  be  able 
or  rich,  Estre  riche,  avoir  dequoi,  SHERWOOD  (1672) ;  It  was 
the  child  of  a  very  able  citizen  in  Gracious  Street,  PEPYS 
(N.E.D.).  3.  Be  able  for  thine  enemy,  SHAKS.  All's  Well 
\.  i.  74.  4.  A  sowe,  er  [before]  she  be  able  to  kyl,  FITZHER- 
BERT  Husbandry  (1534)  75 ;  To  fortune  both  and  to  infortune 
hable,  King's  Quair,  1.  xiv.  OFr.  able,  Lat.  kahilis,  fit,  able.] 

ABLE,  v.  m.Yks.  Written  yabble.  [yea'bl.]  To  enable. 

m.Yks.1  Yabble,  to  enable. 

[ME.  God  tokneth  and  assigneth  the  tymes  ablynge  hem 
to  nir  propres  offices,  CHAUCER  Boethius  i.  m.  vi.] 

ABLET,  sb.  Obs.  Wm.  (HALL.)  The  bleak,  Leuciscus 

Wm.  On  the  auth.  of  Hall.,  but  not  found  in  any  Wm.  books,  and 
according  to  our  correspondents  unknown. 

[Ablet  (a  local  word),  the  bleak,  a  small  river  fish,  ASH 
(1795).  Fr.  Ablette,  a  little  blay  or  bleak ; .  . .  Able,  a  blay 
or  bleak  fish,  COTGR.  Ablette  occurs  in  a  Fr.  text  dated 
1317;  see  HATZFELD,  and  GODEFROY  Suppl.  Fr.  able,  Rom. 
albulum,  means  '  the  little  white  (fish) ' ;  so  HATZFELD.] 

ABLINS,  adv.  In  Sc.  n.Irel.  and  all  the  n.  of  Eng.  to 
n.Yks.  and  n.Lin. ;  not  in  gloss,  of  Lan.  Chs.  Also  written 
aiblins  Sc.  N.I.1  Nhb.1  Lin. ;  able,  ablis  Sc.  (JAM.)  ;  aeblins 
Wm.  &  Cum.1  See  below,  [e'blinz,  ye'blinz.]  Possibly, 

Sc.  She  may  aiblins  hae  been  his  honour's  Squire  Thorncliff's 
in  her  day,  SCOTT  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xviii;  Kippletringan  was  dis- 
tant at  first  'a  gey  bit' ;  then  the  'gey  bit'  was  more  accurately 




described  as  '  ablins  three  mile,'  SCOTT  GuyM.  (1815)  '•  Abd.  We'l 
ablins  get  a  flyte,  and  ablins  nane,  Ross  Helenore  (1768)  142 
Ayr.  O  wad  ye  tak  a  thought  an'  men'  Ye  aiblins  might,  BURNS 
Address  to  the  DM  (1785).  Gall.  Ye  may  aiblins  come  to  a 
mishap,  CROCKETT  Moss  Hags  (1895)  386.  N.I.1  N.  Cy.1  Yables 
yeblins,  yeablesae,  yebblesee  ;  N.Cy.2  Yeable  sea.  Nhb.1  Wey 
aa  aiblins  hed  twee,  or  aiblins  hed  three  glasses  o'  whisky.  Cum 
Aiblins  I  wool,  and  aiblins  I  woonot,  LINTON  Lake  Cy.  (1864)  295. 
Wm.  Whya  thull  aiblin  ma  ha  forgitten,  GIBSON  Leg.  and  Notes, 
(1877)  66.  n.Yks.12  I  ablins  might.  ne.Yks.1  He'll  aablins  man- 
nish. n.Lin.  Aiblins  I  shall  do  it,  bud  belike  I  shan't,  I  really 
doant  knaw  (M.  P.)  ;  nXin.1 

[Able  +  -lings  (suff.).] 

ABLOW,  prep.    Sc.    [sbloir.]    Below. 

Sc.  A  troot  ablow  the  big  stane,  IAN  MACLAREN  Brier  Bush 
(1895)  141.  Gall.  I  pat  it  ablow  the  clock,  CROCKETT  Stickit  Mitt. 
(1893)  67. 

[A-,  on  +  below,} 

ABLOW,  adv.    w.Som.    [abloir.]  Blooming,  in  flower. 

w.Som.1  The  primroses  be  all  ablow  up  our  way. 

[A-,  on  (the  prefix  of  state  or  condition)  +  blow  ;  cp.  blow, 
v.,  to  bloom.] 

ABOARD,  adv.    Lin.  Dev.    Tabua'd.! 

1.  Drunk. 

nXin.1  He's  sum'uts  aboard  to-daay  ;  he  could  nobud  just  sit  e' 
his  gig  as  he  cum'd  fra  Brigg  market. 

2.  Aboard  on,  up  against,  in  contact  with  ;  to  be  aboard, 
to  be  in  confusion  ;  to  fall  aboard,  to  attack,  assault. 

n-Lin.1  He  runned  aboard  on  me  as  I  druv  doon  Ranthrup  Hill, 
an'  I  thoht  he'd  a'  tekken  a  wheal  off.  Her  things  is  ail-aboard. 
Dev.  'Tez  a  glide  job  yu  corned  when  yu  did,  or  I  shude  a-valled 
aboard  aw'n  in  quick-sticks,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1893). 

[1.  Aboard,  drunk.  This  means  he  has  got  more  than  he 
can  carry  in  the  way  of  drink.  The  phrase  was  used  to 
me  by  a  Bottesford  labouring  man  who  had  just  seen  a 
neighbouring  farmer  drive  by,  coming  from  market,  who 
had  great  difficulty  in  sitting  in  his  gig.  It  may  originally 
have  been  a  sailor's  term,  but  is  widespread  now.  1  have 
very  often  heard  it,  and  there  is  no  sign  of  its  dying  out 
(E.  P.).  2.  Antiochus  Epiphanes  would  often  .  .  .  fall 
aboord  with  any  tinker,  clowne  ...  or  whomsoever  he 
met  first,  BURTON  Anal.  Mel.  (1621)  351  (ed.  1836).  A-, 
on  +  board.] 

ABOIL,  adv.  Sc.  Yks.  [aborl.j  Boiling,  in  or  into  a 
boiling  state. 

Sc.  Aboil,  to  come  aboil,  to  begin  to  boil.  By  the  time  it  [the 
pot]  comes  aboil,  Agr.  Sun.  Kincard.  432  QAM.).  n.Yks.2  Com- 
ing aboil,  bubbling  up.  e.Yks.1  Is  kittle  aboil  d'ye  think  ? 

[A-,  on  +  boil.] 

ABOK,  sb.    w.  &  s.Sc.  QAM.) 

w.  &  s.Sc.  Abok,  Yabok,  a  name  given  to  a  gabbing,  talkative,  or 
impudent  child. 

ABOON,  adv.  and  prep.  In  Sh.  and  Or.  I.  Sc.  n.Irel.  and 
the  n.  counties  to  Chs.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  In  Wxf.  and 
sw.Irel.  Dev.  and  Cor.  the  -n  has  not  survived.  Also 
written  abun  e.Cum.;  aboun  Nhb.1;  abune  S.&Ork.1  Sc 
Dur.1;  abeun  Cum.  n.Yks.  ;  beun  Nhb.1;  abeune  Cum8- 
abeyun,  abyun,  byun  Nhb.1;  abuon  Wm.  &  Cum.1;  oboon 
w.Lan.;  abouDev.;  aboo  Wxf.  w.Som.1  Dev.  Cor.  •  abew 
Dev.  Cor.  See  below,  [abu-n,  abih] 
1.  adv.  Of  position  :  overhead;  in  the  sky,  aloft;  up- 
stairs. Alsojfcg-. 

Sc.  Aboon,  above,  MACKAY.  Ni»Abin,  aboon,  above.  w.Ir  He 
was  murthered  ...  and  threwn  into  the  lake  abow,  LOVER  Leg 
,1848)  I  40.  Wxf.1  Aboo,  above.  N.Cy.i  Aboon,  abuin,  above 
overhead  Nhb.  She  a'ways  keeps  maw  heart  abuin,  WILSON 
Pern's  Pay  (!843)  13;  Nhb.1  Dur.1  Abune.  Cum.1  Abeunn  c  • 

S^T'  TJ  Abw°?'  "'•  N  S'Wm-  L°rd  aboon  knaws>  HuTTON  Via'. 
Storthand  Ams>de(^f,0}  1.  47.  n.Yks.  She's  aboon  ith  Chawm- 
ber,  MERITON  Praise  Ale  (1684)  1.  252  ;  n.Yka.a  Gang  I'll  aboon 
f?K  "^  VE-  T;lark  ^oon  an'  them  below,  BaimslaAnn. 
(1862)7;  w.Yks.3  The  Man  aboon.  neXan.  Th'Almeetv's  name 

re  «  raorcehdsrn  ^  hoile  than  !t  is  up  aboon'  *™^* 

rewts   An        I    H  '         'I     Dev'  A  dwalin  drumble-drone  i>  th' 
?!E^  abu°°'  MAD°X-B*°WN  Dwale  Bluth  (1876) 
Abew,  above,  MS.  add 

ok    v  » 
bk.  iv.  n. 


thar-  u  >     Peror  o,     g 

than  ,  fig.  exceeding,  higher  than,  superior  to,  beyond. 

;  above>  suPerior  to,  higher 

Sc.  A  mile  aboon  Dundee,  Scorr  Redg.  (1824)  ii.  (Old  Song); 
As  lang  as  our  heads  are  abune  the  grund,  ib.  Midlothian  (1818)  xi. 
Ga).  Some  buiks  o'  Tammas  Carlj'le  .  .  .  hae  garred  ...  a  farmer 
body  lift  his  een  abune  the  nowt  an'  the  shairn,  CROCKETT 
Stickit  Min.  (1893)  Trials  for  License.  Kcb.  Wi's  bonnet  trigg 
aboon  his  ear,  DAVIDSON  Seasons  (1789)  15.  Nhb.  His  flag  abeun 
us  wis  love,  ROBSON  Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  ii.  4.  Dur.1  Cum.  A 
girt  flag  Happen  abciin  his  heed,  DICKINSON  Cumbr.  (1875)  5. 
Wm.1  It's  clean  away  abooan  Kendal.  n.Yks.1  The  Queen's 
aboon  us  all.  e.Yks. '  Nay,  baya,  that's  aboon  me,'  said  a  mother  to 
her  child,  who  had  asked  a  question  the  mother  could  not  answer, 
NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889).  w.Yks.  A  deal  better  nor  some 
'at  reckons  to  be  aboon  me,  BRONTE  Shirley  (1849)  v.  Lan.  Set 
hee  aboon  want  or  danger,  CLEGG  David's  Loom  (1894)  xxiv. 
e.Lan.1  n.Lin.1  If  he  duzn't  feal  paain  o'  th'  turpe'tine  aboon  paain 
o'  th'  inflammaation  it'll  be  to  no  ewse.  Dev.1  O  dear  me  ! 
the  bread  and  butter  that  many  a  poor  soul  woud  a  jump'd  abou 
ground  vor,  lied  smeeching  and  frizzing  in  the  vire,  pt.  i.  4; 
I  told  en,  but  that  whether  a  know  et  or  no,  that  my  dame  was 
abu  doing  ort  in  hugger-mugger,  ib.  pt  ii.  13. 

3.  More  than,  exceeding  in  quantity  or  number. 

Sc.  He  canna  get  it  wrought  in  abune  twa  days  in  the  week  at 
no  rate  whatever,  SCOTT  Waverley  (1814)  ix.  Nhb.1  An'  ower  abyun 
this  band  o'  men,  HORSLEY  The  Cuddies  an'  the  Horses  (1881). 
Wm.  &  Cum.1.  Wm.  For  aboon  twenty  years  I  hev  duly  tented 
the  flock  of  my  allotment,  HUTTON  Bran  New  Wark  (1785) 
1.  20.  n.Yks.  Ah's  abooii  eighty  year  awd,  TWEDDELL  Clevel. 
Rhymes  (1875)  39.  ne.Yks.1  There'll  be  aboon  a  scoore.  w.Yks.1 
He's  gaan  aboon  two  howers  sin.  Lan.  Mark  an'  oi,  an'  abooii 
twenty  moor'ull  be  nigh  yo,  KAY-SHUTTLEWORTH  Scarsdale  (1860) 
I.  168  ;  Lan.1  Wheer  hasto  bin  wortchin  at? — I've  druvven  for 
Owd  Copper  Nob  aboon  nine  year,  WAUGH  Sancho's  Wallet  in 
the  Sphinx  (1870)  III.  90.  sw-Lin.1  They'll  not  get  aboun  two 
loads  offen  it.  It's  aboun  a  twelvemonth  sin'.  Not.2  The  ramper 
is  not  aboon  a  mile  off.  w.Som.1  Dhur  waud-n  beo-  zab-m  u-laf 
[there  were  not  above  seven  left]. 

4.  In  phr.  Abune  a',  beyond  reason  ;  aboon-a-bit,  exces- 
sively; aboon  the  breath,  across  the  forehead;  abone-broe,  see 
quot. ;  aboon  grees,  upstairs ;  to  get  aboon  hands,  to  become 
supreme,  get  the  '  upper  hand ' ;  aboon  with  oneself;  aboon 
plum,  drunk ;   ower  (over)  and  aboon,  (i)  entirely,  alto- 
gether, (2)  into  the  bargain. 

S.  &  Ork.1  Abune  a'.  Sh.&  Or.I.  &  Sc.  Abune  a'  QAM.  Suppl.). 
w.Yks.  That  pleased  me  aboon  a  bit,  TREDDLEHOYLE  Trip  ta 
Lunnan  (1851)  7.  neXan.1  T'meer  dud  kick  aboon  a  bit.  nXin.1 
It  raain'd  aboon  a  bit  last  Brigg  fair.  Sur.  Poor  chap,  thee  do 
look  abon  a  bit  hot,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  I.  i.  ii.  w.Som.1  Ee 
gid  ut  tiie  un  ubeo-  u  beet  [he  gave  it  him  above  a  bit].  Bwk. 
Some  o'  thae  hags  they  burn'd  to  dead — And  some  aboon  the  breeth 
did  bleed,  HENDERSON  Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  59.  Sc.  Abone-broe, 
aboon-bree,  above  water.  Of  a  person  in  difficulty,  or  one  who  has 
a  very  small  income,  it  is  commonly  said, '  He  can  hardly  keep  his 
head  abone-broe '  (JAM.  Suppl.).  n.Yks.2  Aboon  grees  [upstairs]. 
They've  gitten  sair  aboon  hands  [much  beyond  control}  He's 
varry  far  aboon  hands  [he  has  abilities  beyond  his  teacher]. 
Cummer  gat  aboon  hands  on  'em  [debt  became  their  master]. 
Cum.1  Abeunn  wid  hissel,  rejoicing  beyond  reasonable  control. 
nXin.1  Aboon  plum,  drunken.  Yks.  I  isn't  ower  an' aboon  satisfied, 
WRAY  Nestleton  (1876)  50.  Cor.  Over  and  aboo,  into  the  bargain , 
Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  421. 

5.  Comp.  Aboon-head,  (i)  upper,  (2)  of  the  weather,  &c. : 
up  above,  overhead. 

n-Yks.1  It  wets  aboon-heead  ;  n.Yks.2  They  live  in  a  boon-heead 
•pot  [an  upper  room].  niin.1  It's  do'ty  under  foot,  but  dry  aboon- 

[ME.  abuven  (aboven),  A-,  on  +  buven,  OE.  bufan  (above)= 
be  +  ufan,  cp.  G.  oben.] 

A-BOOT,  adv.    Sc.    Into  the  bargain. 

Rxb.  Aboot,toboot,  the  odds  paid  in  a  bargain  or  exchange  (JAM.). 

[A-,  at  +  boot,  q.v.] 

ABOUT,  prep.,  conj.  and  adv.  In  gen.  use.  See  below. 
abu-t,aba-t,  abet,  abetrt] 

1.  prep.  Without ;  to  get  about  a  person,  see  below.     Also 
conj.  unless  :  usually  by  aphaeresis  Bout,  q.v. 

w.Yks.  Ah  wor  rairly  off  abaght  it,  TREDDLEHOYLE  Bairnsla 
Ann.  (1860)  39;  'E's  tekken  t'dthrink  w'ile  'e  can't  do  about  it 
F.  P.  T.).  Lan.  Aw  cannot  tell  lies  abeawt  aw  say  'at  he's  a 
pratty  un,  WAUGH  Owd  Bodlc  255.  Chs.8  To  get  about  a  person, 
s  to  get  without  him,  to  get  rid  of  him.  Stf.1  Abawt. 



2.  Nearly,  almost ;    of  number,  quantity :   near  to,  ap- 

e.An.1  Is  the  horse  worth  £40? — Nothing  about  it.  Is  he  a  mile 
off  ?— No,  nor  about  it.  Nrf.1  Nrf.,  Suf.,  Sus.  HOLLOWAY. 

3.  Upon  (the  person). 

w.Som.1  Aay  aa'n  u-gairt  u  vaardn  ubaewt  mee  [I  have  not  a 
farthing  about  me].  Dhee-s  au'rt  u  ae-u  dhu  stik  ubaewt  dhu  baak 
u  dhee  [thou  oughtest  to  have  the  stick  (beaten)  upon  thy  back]. 

4.  For  the  purpose  of. 

w.Som.1  Dhush  yuur  haar-ti-feesh  ul,  ud'n  neet  u  bee't  lik  geo-d 
oal  raat'ud  duung,  ubaewt  gifeen  voa'r  uv  u  kraap  wai  [this  new- 
fangled artificial  (manure)  is  not  nearly  as  effectual  as  good  old 
rotten  dung,  for  the  purpose  of  securing  a  crop].  That  there's 
a  capical  sort  of  a  maunger  'bout  savin'  o'  corn. 

5.  adv.    Unfinished,  in  process,  on  hand  ;  to  be  about,  to 
be  engaged  upon,  occupied  with. 

Nhb.  And  what  the  de'il  folks  war  aboot,  WILSON  Pitman's  Pay 
(1843)  113.  n.Yks.  About,  in  hand,  in  the  doing,  on  hand  (I.W.). 
n.Lin.1  We'd  a  three-weaks'  wesh  aboot  that  daay.  Chs.1  What's 
Marydoin'? — Oh!  oo's  about  th' butter.  About  th' beds  [making 
the  beds].  Nhp.1  Applied  to  the  domestic  and  other  culinary 
etceteras  resulting  from  a  pig  being  killed  for  family  use  :  We've 
got  a  pig  about  this  week.  War.  (J.R.W.)  w.Som.1  While  the 
harvest  is  about.  Shockin  hand  vor  to  keep  work  about.  Cor.3 
What  are  you  about  now  ? 

6.  Moving,  esp.  applied  to  the  resuming  of  bodily  activity 
on  recovery  from  an  illness. 

Lin.1  He  will  soon  be  about  again.  Not.1  Mester's  a  nice  bit 
better,  he's  getting  abaout  agen.  Wil.  Before  the  second  child 
died,  two  more  fell  ill  on  the  same  day.  Only  Abel  and  Jan  were 
still  about,  EWING  Jan  of  Windmill  (1876)  xxv.  Wil.1  My  missus 
were  bad  aal  last  wick  wi'  rheumatiz,  but  she  be  about  agen  now. 

7.  Near  at  hand. 

Not.1    Lei.1  An'  a  shillinswuth  o'  arringes,  if  yo've  got  any  abaout. 

8.  Intensive  or  otiose  in  about  now,  about  right,  about  what, 
and  just  about. 

Wm.  You're  aboot  right  there,  sir,  WARD  Elsmere  (1888)  bk.  i. 
vii.  e.Yks.1  It's  tahm  ti  set  taties  aboot  noo,  MS.  add.  (T.  H.) 
w.Yks.  Abaht  reight,  BANKS  Wkfld.  Wds.  (1865).  n-Lin.1  He's  a 
straange  good  hand  at  tellin'  taales  an'  hinderin'  uther  foaks  walkin' 
wi'  lis>tenin'  to  him,  an'  that's  aboot  what  he's  fit  for.  Hmp.1  She 
war  just  about  mad.  Wil.1 'Twer  just  about  cold  s'marnin.  [Amer. 
To  do  a  thing  about  right  is  to  do  it  well.  I  fell  foul  of  the  old  mare, 
and  if  I  didn't  give  it  to  her  about  right,  then  there's  none  o'  me, 
that's  all,  BARTLETT.] 

9.  About  nowt,  good  for  nothing ;   about  of,  'bout  house, 
see  below  ;  about  what,  the  upshot  of  an  affair ;  all  about, 
(i)  nearly,  (2)  in  confusion,  disorder,  (3)  lightheaded  ;  all 
about  it,  the  whole  matter ;  to  be  about,  to  stroll  idly ;   to 
have  nothing  about  one,  to  be  useless ;  to  put  about,  to  upset, 

n.Yks.  He's   aboot   nowt  (I.W.).  Glo.1  About   of   zixteen. 

I.W.2  Bout  house,  on  the  floor  or  on  the  ground.  Don't  dro  the 
things'bout  house.  He  up  vist  and  I  vound  myself  bout  house. 
Cum.1  They  bodder't  t'poor  lad,  for  they  wantit  to  git  shot  on  him, 
and  that's  about  what,  and  nowder  mair  nor  less.  e.Yks.1  Maisther 
bullyragg'd  ma  aboot  nowt  at  all ;  bud  he  wants  te  be  shut  o'  ma, 
an  that's  aboot  what,  (i)  w.Yks.  Ah've  all  abaht  eniff  apple-trees 
i'  t'gardin  (^E.B.).  (a)  n.Yks.  All  about,  scattered,  in  disorder 
(I.W.).  w.Wor.1  To  think  as  the  missis  should  come  to  see  me. 
an'  my  'ouse  ahl-about  like  this !  Hrf.2  Our  'ouse  be  all  about  just 
now.  Glo.1  All  about,  in  a  state  of  confusion.  Hmp.  I'm  all  about 
the  place  [my  house  is  untidy]  (H.C.M.B.).  w.Som.1  Dhai  bee 
ugoo'  un  laf'  dhur  dhingz  au'l  ubaewt  [they  are  gone  and  (have) 
left  their  things  (i.e.  tools)  scattered  about].  (3)  War.  (J.R.W.) 
Hrf.1  To  get  all  about  in  his  head,  to  become  light-headed  ;  Hrf.2 
n-Lin.1 1  weant  gie  the  anuther  farden.  so  that's  all  aboot  it.  w.Wor.1 
Thee  canna  go  to-daay ;  thee  mun  stop  at  oaiim,  an"  that's  ahl- 
about-it.  Hrf.1  That's  all  about  it.  w.Som.1  Lae'uzee  fuul'ur,  ee-z 
au-vees  ubaewt  [lazy  fellow,  he  is  always  idly  strolling].  Necf 
uun-ee  aay  kud  yiiez  mee  an-,  aay  sheod-n  bee  ubaewt  [if  only  I 
could  use  my  hand,  I  should  not  be  walking  about  idly].  sw.Lin.1 
When  a  woman  has  nothing  about  her,  it's  a  bad  job  for  a  man. 
Not.1  I  wor  that  put  abaout  I  didn't  know  what  way  to  turn. 

10.  Bide-about,  (i)  to  loiter,  (2)  to  be  given  to  drinking  ; 
lie-about,  drunken ;    run-about,   (i)  adj.  wandering,  rest- 
less, (2)  sb.  a  pedlar,  itinerant  trader,  a  gossip,  (3)  v.  to  go 

(i)  w.Som.1  Leok  shaarp-n  neet  buyd  ubaewt !  [make  haste,  and 
VOL.  I. 

do  not  loiter].  (a)  Ee  du  buyd  ubaewt  maus  aul  dhu  wik  laung 
[he  stays  drinking  in  public-houses  nearly  all  the  week  long]. 
Dhai  du  zai  aewe  e-z  u  tuur^ubl  luy-ubaewt  fuul'ur  [they  say 
how  he  is  a  terribly  drunken  fellow],  (i)  Aay-v  u-yuurd  aew 
ee-z  u  tuurubl  urn-ubaewt  fuul-ur  [I  have  heard  that  he  is  a  very 
roving  fellow].  (2)  Aay  niivur  doa'un  dae-ul  war  noa  urn-ubaewts 
[I  never  deal  with  pedlars].  We  be  ter'ble  a-pestered  way  urn- 
abouts.  Uur-z  u  rig-lur  urn-ubaewt  [she  is  a  thorough  gossip]. 
(3)  Her  do  urn-about  most  all  her  time. 

ABOUTEN,  adv.  and  prep.  Irel.  e.Yks.  Suf.  Sus.  Hmp. 
[abe'tan,  abetrtan.]  About,  in  its  various  lit.  senses. 

Wxf.1  Abut,  Abouten,  about  e.Yks.1  Abootan,  around,  round 
about,  MS.  add.  (T.  H.)  Suf.  Obsol.  Only  in  phr.  as  'Abouten  ten ' 
(F. H.).  Sus.1 1  was  abouten  going  out,  when  Master  Noakes  he 
happened  along,  and  he  kep' me;  Sns.2  Hmp.1  Abouten,  about, 
near  to. 

[ME.  abouten,  abuten,  OE.  a-,  on-butan.  Hence  E.  about, 
which  is  merely  a  contracted  form.  Abouten  occurs  in 
CHAUCER  and  P.  Plowman  (see  SKEAT'S  Glossaries).] 

ABOVE,  prep.  Van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  and  Eng.  [abu'v, 

1.  In  addition  to,  after ;  too  much  for,  beyond. 

Edb.  Couple  above  couple  dating  the  day  of  their  happiness,  MOIR 
Mansie  Wauch  (1828)  n.  Lin.  She  had  a  sleeping-draught,  but 
the  pain  was  above  it  (R.  E.C.). 

2.  Above  of. 

Som.  The  'urd  rhoofs  .  .  .  peepen'  above  the  apple  orchards,  an' 
a  bit  o'  the  grey  church  tow'r  rhisen'  above  o'  them,  LEITH  Lemon 
Verbena  (1895)  92. 

3.  Above-a-bit,  more  than  a  little,  exceedingly,  to  a  great 

Lan.  I'm  above  a  bit  behind  hand,  GASKELL  M.  Barton  (1848) 
v.  Chs.1  Eh,  Polly!  aw  do  love  thee  above  a  bit.  s.Chs. ', 
Stf.1,  War.2  Wor.  When  we  came  out  of  church,  it  peppered 
down  above  a  bit,  I  fancy  it  rained  all  church-while  (H.K.). 
w.Wor.1  These  'ere  bad  times  werrits  me  above-a-bit,  thaay  do; 
I  dunno  w'at  to  do,  no  more  than  the  dyud.  se-Wor.1,  s.Wor.1 
Shr.1  'E  fund  as  'e'd  got  all  the  work  to  do  'isself,  so  'e  off  wuth 
'is  smock  an' went  into  it  above-a-bit.  Hrf.2  I  like  that  man  above 
a  bit.  Glo.1,  Oxf.1,  Brks.1  Sur.  You  do  look  above  a  bit  better, 
BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  III.  xvi.  w.Som.1  Maister  let-n  'ave  it 
s-morning  'bove  a  bit,  but  I  widn  bide  to  hear  it ;  I  baint  no  ways 
fond  o'  the  vulgar  tongue.  [Aus.,  N.S.W.  He  could  handle  the 
ribbons  above  a  bit,  BOLDREWOOD  Robbery  (1888)  II.  xvi.] 

4.  Above  bank. 

Nhb.,  Dur.  Above  bank — the  surface,  NICHOLSON  Coal  Tr.  Gl. 

[ME.  above(n),  abuven;  OE.  abufan=on  +  be  +  ufan  (cf. 
G.  oben).] 

ABRAHAM,  ISAAC,  AND  JACOB.  Lin.  A  name 
of  Symphytum  ojfficinale  (N.O.  Boraginaceae),  as  well  as  of 
other  plants  having  different  shades  of  colour  among  the 
flowers  on  the  same  stem. 

n.Lin.  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  Borago  orientalis;  n.Lin.1 
Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  (i)  the  Garden  Comfrey,  Symphytum 
ojfficinale,  (2)  Pulmonaria  officinalis,  (3)  Borago  orientalis. 

ABRAID,  v.1    [abre'd.]    To  reprove,  upbraid. 


[I  abrayde  one,  I  caste  one  in  the  tethe  of  a  matter, 
PALSG.  415.  The  same  word  as  below.] 

ABRAID,  v?  Cum.  Yks.  Lin.  [abre'd,  abrea'd,  abria'd.] 
To  rise  nauseously  in  the  stomach. 

N.Cy.1  Abraid,  to  rise  on  the  stomach.  Cum.  Abraide,  to  have 
the  acid,  LINTON  Lake  Cy.  (1864)  295.  Yks.  The  grossness  of  the 
food,  as  some  say,  upbraids  him :  properly  it  abraids,  HAMILTON 
Nugae  Lit.  (1841)  340.  w.Yks.  This  term  is  applied  to  articles 
of  diet,  which  prove  disagreeable  to  the  taste,  and  difficult  of 
digestion,  WILLAN  List  Wds.  (1811).  Lin.1 

[ME.  abreyden,  to  wrench,  to  start;  OE.  abregdan,  to 
twist,  to  draw  a  sword.  The  dialect  sense  is  found  in 
ELYOT'S  Castel  of  Helth  :  An  appetite  to  eate  or  drynke 
mylke,  to  the  extent  that  it  shal  not  arise  or  abraied  in  the 
stomake  (N.E.D.).] 

ABREARD,  adj.    n.Irel.    [abria'd.] 

N.I.1  Abreard ,  the  condition  of  a  field  when  the  crop  appears. 

[A-,  on  +  braird,  q.v.] 

ABREDE,  adv.  Sc.  and  the  n.  counties  to  Yks.  and 
Lin.  [abre'd,  abrrd,  abria'd.] 




1.  In  breadth  ;  to  spread  abrede,  to  expand. 

Ayr.  Spread  abreed  thy  well-fill'd  brisket,  Wi'  pith  an'  power 
BuRNs(ii&riTofiisAuMMare.  N.Cy.1  Abrede,  in  breadth.  Nhb.1 
n.Yks.2  Quite  full  abrede  [sufficient  in  breadth].  The  wall  was  onlj 
a  brick  abrede  [a  single  brick  in  thickness].  ne.Yks.1  T'wall  was 
nobbut  a  brick  a-brede  (s.v.  Brede).  e.Yks.1  Abreed.  n-Lin.1  Tlv 
wall's  nobut  a  brick  abread. 

2.  In  a  loose  or  scattered  manner  ;  spread  or  cast  about. 
N.Cy.1  Abrede,   spread  out.        Dur.1       Cum.  Sad  wedder,  an' 

sea  mickle  hay  liggan  abreed  (M.P.).  Win.1  T'rain  hes  catch'd 
t'hay  abreed.  Tha  mun  scale  that  muck  abreead.  n.Yks.1  [Ol 
corn  not  yet  shocked]  When  Ah  passed  i'  t'moorn,  'twur  liggin' 
abreead  ;  but  'twur  led  afoore  neeght.  w.Yks.1  T'hay's  abreed. 
ne.Lan.1  His  hay  is  o  abrede. 

3.  Apart  ;  in  pieces,  asunder. 

Rxb.  Haud  your  legs  abreid  till  I  creep  through  QAM.).  Cum. 
T'pye-dish  is  flown  abreed  i'  t'yubbem  (M.P.). 

[ME.  a  brede,  on  brede  (CHAUCER)  ;  OE.  on  brcede,  in 

ABREDE,  v.     Sc.  Cum.     To  publish  widely. 

Sc.  Abrede,  to  spread  abroad  (JAM.).  Cum.2  Abreed,  to  spread 
or  extend. 

[ME.  abreden,  OE.  abrcedan,  to  broaden,  expand.] 

ABRICOCK.s*.  Chs.  Som.  [ea'brikok.]  The  apricot. 
See  Apricock. 

Chs.13  Abrecock,  an  apricot.  Som.  (B.  &  H.);  w.Som.1  Our 
abricocks  'out  be  fit  to  pick  vor  another  fortnight. 

[Malus  armeniaca  is  called  in  Greeke,  Melea  armeniace, 
in  highe  duche  Land  ein  amarel  baume,  in  the  dioses  of 
Colo  Kardumelker  baume,  in  frech  Vng  abricottier,  & 
some  englishe  me  cal  the  fruite  an  Abricok,  W.  TURNER 
Names  of  Herbes  (1548),  52  ;  The  fruit  is  named  ...  in 
English,  Abrecoke,  Aprecock,  and  Aprecox,  GERARD 
(1636)  1449.  Port,  albricoque,  Sp.  albaricoque,  It.  albercocca, 
albicocca,  Arab,  al-burquq,  Gr.  trpaiKuKiov  (Byzantine  /3epi- 
KOKKia,  pi.},  Lat.  praecoquum,  early  ripe.] 

ABROACH,  v.    Yks.     [abrua'tj.] 

n.Yks.  Commonly  used  in  Cleveland  (R.  H.  H.)  ;  n.Yks.2 
Abroach'd,  set  afloat  as  a  report. 

[ME.  abrochen,  to  pierce  a  cask  so  as  to  let  the  liquor 
flow  out  ;  also,  to  give  utterance  to.  So  in  Allit.  Poems, 
i.  1122  :  Then  glory  and  gle  watz  newe  abroched.  OFr. 
abrocher,  to  broach  a  cask.] 

ABROAD,  adv.  Sc.  Irel.,  gen.  throughout  the  midl. 
and  s.  counties,  but  not  in  gloss,  of  n.Cy.  [abroad, 

1.  Out  of  doors,  out  in  the  air,  away  from  home  ;  up  and 
about  ;  out  to  sea. 

Frf.  He  was  seldom  seen  abroad  in  corduroys,  BARRIE  Thrums 
(1890)  no.  Gall.  He  went  less  frequently  abroad,  CROCKETT 
Bog-Myrtle  (1895)  236.  Ir.  God  save  you,  Mrs.  M'Gurk  ;  you're 
abroad  in  great  ould  polthers,  BARLOW  Idylls  (1892)  95.  War.2 
Drive  them  chickens  abroad.  Shr.1  That  peckled  'en's  al'ays  about 
the  door  66th  'er  chickens  ;  I  wish  'er'd  tak'  'em  abroad  awilde. 
Glo.  When  a  man's  owld,  .  .  .  and  can't  get  abroad  as  er'd  used  to, 
BUCKMAN  Dai-he's  Sojourn  (1890)  ii.  Brks.  '  A  farmer  is  sometimes 
described  as  gone  abro-ad  when  walking  in  the  fields.  e^n.1 
Abroad,  out  to  sea,  outside  the  house.  Suf.  There's  a  rare  waterpot 
abroad  [it  was  raining  heavily]  (C.T.).  Sur.i  We  wants  a  torn 
turkey  very  bad  ;  perhaps  when  you're  abroad  you  may  hear  of 
one.  Dev.  You  don't  mean,  carrier,  that  you  surmise  it's  the  '  old 
gentleman  abroad,  O'NEILL  Told  in  Dimpses  (1893)  43.  Slang. 
When  a  boy  returned  to  school  work  after  sick  leave,  he  was  said 
to  'come  abroad,'  Winchester  Sch.  (L.L.S.) 

2.  Lying  scattered,  spread  about  ;  in  different  directions 
dispersed  ;  ail-abroad,  in  great  confusion. 

Brks.1  Corn  or  hay  is  said  to  be  layin'  abro-ad  when  scattered 
about,  and  neither  in  cocks  nor  zwaths.  Sur.1  Sus.1  Abroad,  in 

hnn'  H°"S'  a^ab°^  (&V-  Abusefu"y)  He  threw  abroad  all  her 
shop-goods  Hmp.1  Scattered.  w.Som.1  Dee  -ur,  dee-ur!  dhu 
raayn-z  u  kaunreen,  un  aul  dh-aay-z  ubroa-ud  [dear,  dear'  the 
ram  is  coming  and  all  the  hay  is  lying  loose1  and  scattered! 

draw  they 

3.  In  pieces,  asunder. 
Carria8e  has 


ah™  a.       Glo.  The  brim's  broke 

abroad  m  a  please  or  two,  look'ee  ...  but  what  I  says  is   Never 
buy  no  new  un  |  wear  th'owld  un  till  the  crownd  draps'  omon 

un;  wear  un  till  the  zides  vail  nbroad,  BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn 
(1890)  iii.  Dor.1  The  vu'st  time  he  [a  wagon]  's  a-hauled  out 
in  the  zun,  he'll  come  all  abroad.  w.Som.1  V-utir  u-teokt  dhu 
klauk  ubroa-ud?  [has  he  taken  the  clock  to  pieces?]  Ees  !  keodn 
diie  noart  tiie  un,  voar  u  wuz  u-teokt  aul  ubroa-ud  [yes,  (he)  could 
not  do  anything  to  it,  until  it  was  taken  all  to  pieces].  Shauk-een 
bwuuy  vur  braik  ubroa-ud-z  kloa-uz  [shocking  boy  for  tearing  his 
clothes  to  pieces].  Dev.  'Tez  a  bit  ov  mutton  ;  I've  a  bowled  it 
an'  I've  a  bowled  et,  I've  a  chowed  et  an'  I've  a  chowed  et,  me  an" 
my  ole  man  tu,  an'  us  cOdden  git  et  abroad,  chow  za  hard's  us 
cilde,  HEWETT  Pens.  Sp.  (1892)  62";  Jelly  so  stiff  that  if  you  were 
to  throw  it  over  the  house  'twouldn't  fall  abroad,  SHARLAND 
Dev.  Village (1885)  54.  nw-Dev.1  Abroad,  in  pieces.  w.Cor.  I  ca-ant 
mend  this  '  umberella '  afore  its  taken  abroad  (M.A.C.) ;  I'll  tear  it 
abroad,  Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  421. 

4.  Open,  apart. 

w.Som.1  My  head's  splittin  abroad.  I.aur  Jiin  !  dhee  frauk-s 
aul  ubroa-ud  [law,  Jane  !  thy  frock  is  all  unfastened].  Dev.  Yd 
mid  be  zartin  Brownie  want  val  coming  down  hill.  Dreckly  'er 
veel'th  'erzel  a-slipping,  'er  spraddleth  'er  legs  abroad  and  stapp'th 
dead-still!  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  126.  nw.Dev.1  Abroad,  un- 
fastened, open.  Cor.  Why  I  never  heard  et  at  all,  but  I  kept  my 
eyes  abroard,  FORFAR  Kynance  Cove  (1865)  43 ;  Cor.1  The  door  is 
all  abrawd. 

5.  Confused,  mistaken, '  astray,'  wide  of  the  mark,  esp.  in 
all  abroad. 

Nhp.1  All  abroad,  an  expression  used  when  any  undertaking  has 
failed,  and  the  person  is  at  a  loss  what  fresh  steps  to  pursue; 
equivalent  to  'all  at  sea.'  Mid.  He  isn't  off  his  head,  exactly,  but 
— you  know  that  we  all  get  a  little  abroad,  when  we  lie  on  our 
backs  so  long  as  not  to  know  our  legs,  BLACKMORE  Kit  (1890)  II.  ii. 
Cor.2  He's  all  abroad  there.  Colloq.  All  abroad,  wide  of  the  mark 
(FARMER).  [Amer.  Abroad,  confused,  staggered  (FARMER).] 

6.  Boiled,  cooked,  or  squeezed  to  pieces,  to  a  mash,  or 
liquid  condition. 

w.Som.1  Skwaut  ubroa'ud  dhu  ving-ur  oa  un  [squeezed  his  finger 
quite  flat].  Dhai  bee  fae-umus  tae-udees,  dhai-ul  bwuuy -ul  ubroa-ud 
sae-um-z  u  dust  u  flaawur  [those  are  splendid  potatoes,  they  will 
boil  to  a  mash  like  a  dust  of  flour].  Dev. '  Be  they  tatties  a  ctlked 
'et?'  "Ess.'  'Well,  than,  drain  urn  off  or  they'll  be  bowled  all 
abroad,'  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  55;  Ef  theyse  yer  tatties  do 
bowl  inny  longer  they'll  val  awl  abroad,  ib.  45.  w.Cor.  The  sugar 
is  gone  abroad  (M.A.C.). 

[1.  Abroad  (in  the  open  air,  from  home,  or  not  within), 
fan's,  sub  dio,  in  publico  or  aperto.  As,  they  often  sup 
abroad,  forts  saepe  coenanl.  There  must  be  a  fit  place  taken 
abroad,  Idoneus  sub  dio  sumendus  locus.  He  lay  abroad 
all  night,  pernoctavit  in  publico,  COLES  (1679) ;  I  am  glad 
to  see  your  lordship  abroad  (not  confined  to  your  sick- 
chamber),  SHAKS.  2  Hen.  IV,  \.  ii.  108.  ME.  For  thorw  his 
breth  bestes  wexen  and  abrode  jeden,  P.  Plowman  (B.)  xiv. 
60.  3.  ME.  His  brayne  fyl  alle  abrode,  CAXTON  G. Leg.  165.] 

ABROAD Y,  adv.  Nhp.  Oxf.  A  child's  word  for  abroad, 
out  of  doors. 

Nhp.1  Come,  let's  go  abroadey,  or  '  all  abroadey.'  Oxf.1  [Said  to 
children]  Come  an'  go  abroady  along  o'  I. 

ABRON,  adj.    Obs.     Shr.     Auburn. 

Shr.1  'Er  wuz  a  sweet  pretty  babby,  66th  nice  abron  ar,  but  too 
cute  to  live. 

[This  is  a  i6th-cent.  form.  Cp.  A  lustie  courtier,  whose 
curled  head  With  abron  locks  was  fairly  furnished,  HALL 
Virgidemarium  (1597)  III.  Sat.  v.  8.  ME.  aborne,  OFr. 
auborne,  Lat.  alburnus.} 

ABROOD,  adj.  w.Som.  Dev.  [abroe'd.]  In  the  act  of 

w.Som.1  Uur  zaut  ubreo-d  uur  veol  tuym  [she  sat  on  her  eggs 
her  full  time].  Dh-oa-1  ain-z  ubreo-d  tu  laas  [the  old  hen  is  sitting 
at  last].  Still  the  common  word  used.  Dev.  When  tha  ducks  a 
brood  wis  zot,  NATHAN  HOGG  Poet.  Let.  (1847)  52,  ed.  1865 ;  Polly 
ought  til  bring  out  'er  chicken  tu-day ;  her'th  a  zot  a-brood  vur 
dree  weeks,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  153. 

[A-,  on  +  brood.] 

ABSENT,  <K#    Stf.    Obsol.    Intoxicated. 

Stf.  Monthly  Mag.  (1816)  I.  494. 

ABUD,  see  Aye  but. 

ABUNDATION,  sb.  In  Chs.  Shr.  Stf.  Wor.  Hrf. 
Glo.  Also  written  bundation,  Glo.1  Hrf.2  [abunde-Jan, 
abBnde-Jan.]  Abundance. 



Cns.1  Abundation.  in  frequent  use  at  Middlewich  thirty-five 
years  ago.  s.Chs.1  There'll  be  very  fyow  (few)  turmits  this  'ear. 
bu' we  shan  have  abundation  o' teetoes.  Shr.1  Stf.1  Abundation. 
a  large  quantity.  Wor.  PORSON  Quaint  Wds.  (1875).  Hrf.1,  Glo.1 

[A  late  dialect  formation,  composed  of  abund-  (in  abun- 
dance) +  the  suffix  -ation.  The  word  does  not  seem  to  have 
been  used  at  any  time  in  the  literary  language,  although 
the  formation  has  the  perfect  analogy  of  inundation.} 

ABUSEFUL.  adj.  Yks.  Lin.  War.  Shr.  Hrf.  Glo. 
[abiirsful,  abiu'sfslj.  Abusive. 

n. Yks.2  Abuseful,  insolent.  m.Yks.1.  iLLin.1,  War.  (J. R.W.), 
Shr.1  Hrf.12  Abuseful,  abusive.  Glo.1  Abuseful,  abusive. 

Hence  Abusefully,  adv.  in  an  abusive  manner. 

Sus. '  As  my  missus  was  a-going  home  a  Saddaday  night,  she  met 
Master  Chawbery  a-coming  out  of  the  Red  Lion,  and  he  treated 
her  most  abusefully,  and  threw  abroad  all  her  shop-goods. 

[A  late  formation.  Abuse,  sb.  +full.  The  word  was  not 
uncommon  in  I7th  cent,  literature ;  for  instance,  it  occurs  in 
BARLOW'S  Remains  (1693)  397  :  He  scurrilously  reviles  the 
King  and  Parliament  by  the  abuseful  names  of  Hereticks 
and  Schismaticks  (N.E.D.).  It  must  have  been  but  rarely 
used  by  later  writers,  for  it  does  not  appear  in  Gouldman, 
Coles,  Bailey,  or  Johnson.] 

ABY,  v.  Obs.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Also  written  abie,  N.Cy.1  To 
pay  (dearly)  for  an  offence,  to  expiate,  atone. 

Sc.  I  trust  he  should  dearly  abye  his  outrecuidance,  SCOTT 
Waverley  (1814)  I.  58.  N.Cy.1  Ye  shall  dearly  abie  it, 

[If  I  catch  him  in  this  company ...  he  dearly  shall  abye, 
SPENSER  F.  Q.  in.  vi.  24 ;  Lest  to  thy  peril  thou  aby  it  dear, 
SHAKS.  M.N.D.  in.  ii.  175.  ME.  abyen,  to  buy,  purchase  ; 
OE.  abycgan.'] 

ABY,  adv.    Nhb.  Wm.    [abai'.j    On  one  side. 

Nhb.1  Aby,  aside,  that  is,  a-by  or  a-oneside.  '  Stan'  aby  there ' 
is  a  familiar  shout  in  a  crowd  when  a  way  is  to  be  cleared.  Wm.1 

[A-,  on  +  by.] 

ACABO,  p/tr.   Nrf.  Suf.    [ake'bo.] 

Nrf.  That  would  puzzle  Acabo,  COZENS-HARDY  Broad  Nrf.  (1893) 
68.  Suf.  It  would  puzzle  Acabo  (F.  H.).  Slang.  He  beats 
Akeybo,  and  Akeybo  beat  the  devil,  HOTTEN  Slang  Diet.  (1865). 

ACAMY,  sb.  adj.  Sh.  &  Or.  I.  and  w.  &  s.Sc.  A  diminu- 
tive thing ;  also  altrib.  diminutive. 

Sh.I.  Often  used  for  a  weakly  young  creature  of  any  kind  (K.  I.). 
Or.  I.  (G.P.)  S.  &  Ork.1  Or.  1.,  w.  &  s.Sc.  Acamy,  applied  to  any 
small,  diminutive  person  or  animal.  Acamy,  acamie,  small,  diminu- 
tive (JAM.  Sltppl.). 

[Prob.  the  same  word  as  atomy,  a  diminutive  being ;  so 
in  SHAKS.  :  Drawn  with  a  team  of  little  atomies  Athwart 
men's  noses,  R.  &°J.  i.  iv.  57.] 

ACANT,  adv.    n.Yks.    [aka'nt.] 

n.Yks.  A  box  is  acant  when  it  is  not  level  with  the  ground 
(G.W.W.);  n. Yks.2  Acant,  leaning  to  one  side. 

[A-,  ou  +  cant,  edge,  slope.] 

ACAST,  adv.  Yks.  [aka'st,  ske'st]  Crooked,  twisted, 

n.Yks.2  Akest,  cast  or  twisted  to  one  side.  e.Yks.It's  all  akest, 
NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  5°  I  e.Yks.1  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[A-,  on  +  cast.] 

ACAUSE,  conj.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  Not.  Lin. 
Lei.  Brks.  Sus.  Dev.  [akcrs.]  Because.  Also  in  phr. 
acause  on,  because  of. 

Nhb.1  He  wadn't  gan  acas  he  wis  (laid.  He  couldn't  run  acas  on 
his  bad  foot.  Cum.3  For  noute  at  o'  else  but  acoase  they  think  he 
kens  me.  n.Yks.  Akaws  t'sup  o'  milk's  getten  scattert,  TWED- 
DELL  Clevel.  Rhymes  (1875)  36.  ne.Yks.1  Acoz.  ne.Lan.1  Acos. 
e.Lan.1  Ocose.  Der.  Happen  I'm  slow  acos  it's  an  owd,  owd  tale 
wi'  me,  and  you're  quick  acos  it's  a  new  story  to  you,  GUSHING 
Voe (1888)  I.  ix.  Not1  n.Lin.1Acos.  Let1  Acoz.  Brks^Awunt 
come  acause  thee  bist  yen  Sus.  Acus  all  de  family  be  troubled 
wud  sich  bad  eyes,  LOWER  Tom  Cladpole  (1831)  pt  iv.  Dev.  Her's 
a  pining  acause  you  be  so  long  away,  BARING-GOULD  J.  Herring 
(1888)  325. 

[A-,  on  +  cause.] 

ACCABE.zVz/.  s.Pem.  [a'kabl.]  An  expression  of  disgust. 

s.Pem.  Accabe !  there's  a  doorty  owld  shanty  Maary  keeps 

[Prob.  of  LG.  origin,  the  expression  being  due  to 
the  Flemish  colonists  in  Pembroke.  SCHUERMANS  gives 

(s.v.  Aak)  ake-puu  !  The  Holstein  Idiotikon  (s.v.  Akkeu) 
has  akkefi.'  akkefu  !  an  expression  of  disgust  employed 
by  nurses  to  dirty  little  children.  So  alike  puf  in  the 
Bremen  Wtbch.] 

ACCASPIRE,  see  Acrospire. 

ACCESS,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Ken.  Sus.  Also  written  aixies, 
exies  Sc.  N.Cy.1 ;  axes  S.  &  Ork.1  Ken. ;  axey  Sus. 

1.  An  ague  fit. 

Sc.  The  cookmaid  in  the  trembling  exies,  SCOTT  Br.  of  Lam. 
(1819)  xi;  Shiverin  an'  shakin  wi'  the  trem'lin  aixies,  HUNTER 
/.  Inwick  ( 1895)  xvi.  S.  &  Ork.1,  N.Cy.1  Nhb.  GROSE  ( 1790^  Ken. 
N.  &>  Q.  (1885)  6th  S.  xi.  308.  Sus.1 

2.  Hysterics. 

Sc.  Jenny  Rintherout  has  ta'en  the  exies,  and  done  nothing  but 
laugh  and  greet,  SCOTT  Antiquary  (1816)  xxxv. 

[The  access  of  an  ague  is  the  approach  or  coming  of 
the  fit.  ...  In  Lancashire  they  call  the  ague  itself  the 
access,  as  'such  a  one  is  sick  of  the  access,"  BLOUNT  (1670). 
The  word  occurs  as  early  as  Chaucer  in  the  sense  of  an 
ague  fit:  A  charme  .  . .  The  whiche  can  helen  the  of  thyn 
accesse,  Tr.  &-°  Cr.  n.  1316.  Fr.  acce's,  cp.  un  acces  defievre 

ACCOMIE,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  (JAM.)  Also  written  accumie. 
A  species  of  mixed  metal. 

Sc.  His  writing  pen  did  seem  to  me  to  be  Of  harden'd  metal,  like 
steil  or  accumie,  SCOT  (of  Satchell)  Hist.  Name  of  Scot  (1776)  34. 

[This  word  is  a  form  of  alchemy,  used  in  the  sense  of  a 
metallic  composition  imitating  gold,  as  if  by  the  art  of  the 
alchemist.  In  byrnist  gold  and  finest  alcomye,  DOUGLAS 
Aeneis  xn ;  Alkamye,  metalle,  alkamia,  Prompt. ;  Alca- 
namy,  corinthium,  Cath.  Angl.  The  form  ockamy  (or 
occamy)  was  also  once  in  use.  Skinner  says  :  Ockamy, 
Metallum  quoddam  mistum,  colore  argenti  aemulum,  sed 
vilissimum,  corruptum  a  nostro  Alchymy.  Steele  mentions 
'an  occamy  spoon,'  Guardian,  No.  26;  see  NARES.] 

ACCORA-EARTH,  sb.  n.Cy.  w.Yks.  ne.Lan.  Also 
written  accorah-  n.Cy.  w.Yks.  ne.Lan. ;  acora-  w.Yks. 
[a'kara-iajj.]  Green  arable  earth  ;  a  field. 

n.Cy.  Accorah-earth,  green  arable  earth,  GROSE  (1790)  ;  HOLLO- 
WAY.  w.Yks.  HUTTON  Tour  to  Caves  (1781);  LUCAS  Stud.Nidderdale 
(c.  1882)  228.  neXan.1 

ACCORD,  v.  Sc.  Wor.  Hrf.  [ako'rd,  aka'd.]  To  agree, 
come  to  an  agreement. 

Sc.  Proceed  as  we  accorded  before  dinner,  SCOTT  Waverley  (1814) 
xix  ;  The  Queen  accorded  with  this  view  of  the  matter,  CARLYLE 
Fted.  Gt.  (1865)  X.  57.  w.Wor.1'Im  an'  'er  can't  accard  together 
no  waay.  s.Wor.1  Hrf.2 

[My  consent  and  fair  according  voice,  SHAKS.  R.  6r>J. 
1. 11.  19.  ME.  acorden,  to  agree :  If  evesong  and  morwe- 
song  acorde,  CHAUCER  C. T.  A.  830.  OFr.  acorder.] 

ACCORDING,  adv.  Wor.  Glo.  Som.  and  van  dial, 
[akoa-din,  aka'din.]  Comparatively,  in  proportion  to; 
dependent  upon  (in  gen.  use). 

se.Wor.1  It's  as  much  bigger  accardin'  as  my  fut  is  nur  that 
there  young  un's  [it  is  as  much  larger  comparatively,  as  my  foot 
is  than  that  child's].  Glo.1  He's  the  biggest  according  [i.  e.  in 
proportion  to  his  age].  w.Sora.1  D-ee  dhingk  ee-ul  bee  ae-ubl  vur 
kau-m?  Wuul,  kaa-n  tuul  ee  nuzaa'klee,  t-aez  koa-rdeen  wuur 
aayv  u-fun'eesh  ur  noa  [Do  you  think  you  will  be  able  to  come? 
Well,  (I)  cannot  tell  you  exactly;  it  is  dependent  upon  whether  I 
have  finished  or  not]. 

ACCORDINGLY,  adv.  Yks.  Lin.  [akoadinlai'.]  In  pro- 
portion. See  According. 

n.Yks2.  e.Yks.1  Thoos  deean  varry  lahtle  (little),  an'  thoo  may 
expect  to  be  paid  accoadinlye.  This  word  is  hardly  ever  heard  in 
the  sense  of  consequently.  w.Yks.  Jack's  tallest,  but  Tom's  taller 


Oh,  they're  a  lot  cheaper  accordingly.   It's  accordinglyas  they  do  it. 

ACCOUNT,  in  phr.  Sc.  Brks.Sus.Wil.Dev.  [Sc.akirnt; 

To  lay  one's  account  with,  to  assure  one's  self  of,  make 
up  one's  mind  to,  to  reckon  on ;  to  make  account  of,  to 
value,  esteem  ;  to  set  account  by,  to  value  ;  to  take  account 
of,  to  pay  attention  to,  value. 

Sc.  I  counsel  you  to  lay  your  account  with  suffering,  WALKER 

C  2 




Peden.  (1827)  56  QAM.);  You  may  lay  your  account  with  oppo- 
sition, Scotic.  (1787)  51.  Brks.  '  Most  young  men  would  have 
been  crippled  for  life  by  it.'  'Zo  'em  would,  the  young  wosbirds  ; 
I  dwon't  make  no  account  on  'em,'  said  Simon,  HUGHES  T.  Brown 
Oxf.  (1861)  xxxiii.  Sus.  They  don't  seem  to  make  much  account 
of  parsons  up  here,  sir,  EGERTON  Flks.  and  Ways  (1884)  106. 
Dev.3  I  dawnt  zit  no  account  by  'n,  'e  idden  vit  vor  much.  n.Wil. 
She  do  take  a  turrible  deal  o'  'count  o  that  viewer  as  you  give  her 
(E.H.G.).  nw.Dev.1  Doan  ee  take  no  'count  o'  'n,  my  dear;  he 
waan't  aurt  ee.  I  caan't  tell  ee  'ow  many  there  waz ;  I  did'n  take 
no  count  o'  min  [i.  e.  I  did  not  observe  them  closely]. 

[I  must  lay  my  account  with  such  interruption  every 
morning,  SMOLLETT  R.  Random,  I.  176;  To  make  great 
(little)  account  of,  magnifacio,  parvi  aut  nihili  pendo,  COLES 
(1679) ;  Estimer,  to  set  by,  make  much  account  of,  COTGR.  ; 
Or  the  son  of  man,  that  thou  makest  account  of  him, 
BIBLE  Ps.  cxliv.  3 ;  A  Icon  in  his  rage  Which  of  no  drede 
set  accompt,  GOWER  C.A.  HI.  267 ;  I  set  it  at  no  more  accompt 
Than  wolde  a  bare  straw  amount,  ib.  u.  286.] 

ACCOUTREMENTS,  sb.  pi.  w.Cor.  [aku'taments.] 
Things  strewn  about. 

w.Cor.  Pick  up  your  accouterments  (M.A.C.). 

[In  SHAKS.  accoutrements  is  used  of  a  person's  dress, 
apparel :  Point-device  in  your  accoutrements,  As  You,  in. 
ii.  402 ;  In  habit  and  device,  exterior  form,  outward  ac- 
coutrements, K.John,  i.  i.  2ii.] 

ACCROSHAY,  sb.     Cor.    A  kind  of  leap-frog. 

Cor.1  A  cap  or  small  article  is  placed  on  the  back  of  the  stooping 
person  by  each  boy  as  he  jumps  over  him ;  the  one  who  knocks 
either  of  the  things  off  has  to  take  the  place  of  the  stooper :  the 
first  time  he  jumps  over  the  boy  says  '  Accroshay,'  the  second 
'  Ashotay,'  the  third  '  Assheflay,'  and  lastly  '  Lament,  lament 
Leleeman's  (or  Lelena's)  war ' ;  Cor.2  MS.  add. 

[On  inquiry  of  some  of  our  Board  School  boys  I  learn 
that  here  (at  Redruth)  they  occasionally  play  leap-frog 
with  the  'pillar  boys'  arranged  in  two  lines,  boys  starting 
on  each  line  simultaneously,  and  this  they  call  '  Crossy,' 
as  my  informants  the  boys  say,  from  crossing  each  other 
continually  (T.  C.  P.).] 

ACCUSE,  ZA  w.Som.  [akii'z.]  To  appoint,  invite,inform. 

w.Som.1  Uvoar  uur  duyd  uur  ukeo'z  dhai  uur  weesh  vur  tu  kaar 
ur  [before  she  died  she  appointed  those  she  wished  to  carry  her]. 
Ee  wuz  maa-yn  jul-ees  kuz  ee  waud-n  ukeo-z  tu  dhu  suup-ur  [he 
was  very  jealous  because  he  was  not  invited  to  the  supper].  Dhai 
wu  zukeo'z  uvoar  an-,  un  zoa  dhai  wuz  u-prai-pae-ur  [they  were 
informed  beforehand,  and  so  they  were  prepared]. 

[Cf.  Fr.  accuser,  'signaler,  rendre  manifested  'J' accuse  la 
reception  de  votre  lettre.'  See  HATZFELD.] 

ACCUSSING,  see  Hackaz. 

ACE,  sb.  Nrf.   [e's.]    In  ace  and  douce,  wholly,  entirely. 

Nrf.  He  baat  the  'Merricans  ace  and  douce,  SPILLING  Giles's 
Trip  (1872)  23.  w.Nrf.  Bate  it  ace  an'  douce  if  yow  can  find  it, 
ORTON  Beeston  Ghost  (1884)  9. 

ACELET,  see  Harslet. 

ACH,  int.    s.Pem.    In  phr.  ach  upon  you. 

s.Pem.  Ach  upon  you,  LAWS  Little  Eng.  (1888)  419. 

ACHANCE,  conj.  w.Yks.  [atjb'ns.]  In  case  that,  for 
fear  that,  lest. 

w.Yks.  Achonce,  in  case  that,  Leeds  (F.  M.  L. ) ;  w.Yks.5  Let 
me  tak  care  on't  achance  tuh  loises  it.  Tak  t'umbrella  wi'  thuh 
achonce  it  raans. 

[A-,  on  +  chance.} 

ACHE,  sb.1  Chs.  Shr.  Written  aitch.  [etj.]  A  sudden 
pain  or  attack  of  illness ;  paroxysms  in  an  intermittent 
disorder.  Cf.  access. 

Chs.1  Hot  aitches  are  flushings  in  the  face ;  fainty  aitches  are 
fainting  fits.  [Also]  Fainty  haitches,  slight  indisposition ;  Chs.2 ; 
Chs  a  Used  to  express  a  paroxysm  of  an  intermitting  disorder. 
s.Chs i.1  I  ye  had  some  despert  bad  feenty  (fainting)  aitches  leet- 
wheiles  (lately).  Hot  aitches  are  flushings  of  heat.  Shr1 'They 
tell  n  me  as  poor  owd  Matty  Roberts  is  mighty  bad  '  '  Aye  'er^s 

faSinttin°atitcehesaitCheS  ^^  SP""S  *"'  fa'L>     '  du"na  lik*  these 

[OE.  cece,  ache,  pain.] 

ACHE,  sft »  Cor.  [ek  eak.]  A  large  and  comfortless 
place ;  used  of  a  room  or  house. 

Cor.2  MS.  add.  [Perhaps  a  special  sense  of  Ache1  (T.C.P.).] 

ACHE,  sb.3    Cor.    [etj,  eatj.]     A  plant-name,  Bryony. 

Cor.2  Ache,  bryony.    Ache-mor,  bryony  root,  MS.  add. 

[In  BRITTEN  £  HOLLAND'S  English  Plant-names  ache  ap- 
pears as  the  name  of  the  three  following  plants  :  (i )  Apium 
graveolens,  L.  (2)  Ranunculus  sceleratus,  L. ;  in  Turn.,  Lib., 
from  its  celery-like  leaves.  (3)  Fraxinus  excelsior,  L.  ('This 
seems  to  be  its  meaning  in  the  Plumpton  correspondence, 
p.  188,'  Hall.)  The  application  of  the  name  to  bryony 
seems  to  be  peculiar  to  Cornwall.  COLES  (1679)  has  ache 
for  smallage  (herb),  apium.  ME.  ache,  smallage ;  OFr. 
ache,  celery  ;  Rom.  apia  (for  Lat.  apium}.} 

ACHE,  v.    Ken.  Sus. 

1.  To  be  weary,  tired. 

Sus.1  I  am  afraid  you'll  ache  waiting  so  long. 

2.  To  long  for,  desire  anything. 

Sus.1  Nancy  just  will  be  pleased,  she  has  ached  after  a  dole  I 
don't  know  the  time  when. 

Hence  Aching-tooth,  comp. 

Ken.1  To  have  an  aching-tooth  for  anything,  is  to  wish  for  it  very 
much.  Muster  Moppett's  man's  got  a  terr'ble  aching-tooth  for  our 
old  sow. 

[To  have  an  aking  tooth  at  one,  Indignor,  infensum  esse 
alicui,  COLES.] 

ACHE-BONE,  see  Aitch-bone. 

ACHER,  see  Icker. 

ACK,  v.    A  mistaken  form  for  Rack,  q.v. 

ACKADUR,  v.    S.  &  Ork.    To  persevere,  endeavour. 

Sh.  or  Or.  I.  Akkadur,  to  persevere  (Coll.  L.L.B.).  S.  &  Ork.1 
Ackadur,  to  endeavour. 

ACKER,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Yks.  e.An.  Also  written  aiker,  Sc. 

1.  A  ripple  or  dark  streak  on  the  surface  of  water,  a 
'  cat's  paw '  or  '  curl.' 

n.Cy.  Sailors  at  sea  name  it  when  seen  on  a  larger  scale  by  the 
expressive  term  'cat's-paw.'  The  North-country  peasant,  how- 
ever, knows  it  by  the  name  '  acker,'  implying,  as  it  were,  a  space 
ploughed  up  by  the  wind,  Cornh.  Mag.  (July  1865)  34 ;  N.Cy.1, 
Nhb.1,  ra.Yks.1,  w.Yks.1  e.An.1  Aker,  a  turbulent  current,  a  com- 
motion of  a  river. 

2.  The  break  or  movement  made  by  a  fish  in  the  water 


[This  word  occurs  in  ME.  in  the  sense  of  a  strong  cur- 
rent in  the  sea :  Akyr  of  the  see  flowynge.  impetus  man's, 
Prompt. ;  An  aker  is  it  clept  I  understonde  Whos  myght 
there  may  no  shippe  or  wynd  wyt  stonde,  MS.  poem 
(c.  1500),  quoted  by  WAY  ;  Aker  of  the  sea  whiche  pre- 
venteth  the  flowde  or  flowynge,  impetus  man's,  HULOET.] 

ACKER,  v.     Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.    [e'kar,  a-ka(r).] 

1.  To  ripple,  curl,  as  water  ruffled  from  wind. 
N.Cy.1,  Nhb.1     Cum.  LINTON  Lake  Cy.  (1864)  295. 

2.  Of  the  hair. 

m.Yks.1  The  hair  is  said  to  acker  when  in  wavy  outline. 

[See  Acker,  sb.] 

ACKER,  see  Acre. 

ACKEREL,  sb.    w.Yks.  Not.    An  acorn. 

w.Yks.  Hlfx.  Wds.  ;  Ackerils  [in  Calder  Vale],  Yks.  N.  &  Q. 
(1888)  II.  13;  Ackeril  was  in  general  use  when  I  was  a  lad,  in 
Halifax  and  district.  .  .  .  Not  very  often  used  now  (Letters,  per 
S.K.C.).  Not  This  word  is  still  used  (S.O.A.). 

ACKERMETUT,  sb.    w.Yks.    Liquid  manure. 

w.Yks.2  Ackermetut,  Ackermetoota,  Ackermantut :  the  word  is 
well  known  to  old  farmers  about  Sheffield. 

ACKERSPRIT,  see  Acrospire. 

ACKNOW,  v.    Obs.    n.Cy.    To  acknowledge,  confess. 

n.Cy.Acknown,  acknowledged,  GROSE  (1790)  ;  N.Cy.1     Nhb.1 

[ME.  aknowen,  OE.  oncnawan.] 

ACKNOWLEDGE,  v.  e.An.  [aknolidz.]  To  give  a 

e.An.1  Acknowledge,  to  tip.  Nrf.,  Suf.  I  hope  you  will  acknow- 
ledge me  (F.H.). 

Hence  Acknowledgement,  pecuniary  gift,  without  re- 
ference to  services  rendered  (F.H.). 

ACKWARDS,  see  Awkward. 

ACLITE,  adv.  Rxb.  Nhb.  [aklai't]  Out  of  joint, 

Rxb.  Aclitc,  ackleyt,  awry  to  one  side  (JAM.\  Nhb.1  Newcastle's 
now  a  dowly  place,  all  things  seems  sore  aclite.  For  here  at  last 




Blind  Willie  lies,  an  honest,  harmless  wight,  GILCHRIST  Blind 
Willie's  Epitaph  (c.  1844). 

[A-,  on  +  elite,  q.v.] 

ACOCK,  adv.1    Yks.  Lan.  Glo.     [ako'k.] 

Astride ;  Jig.  elated,  triumphant. 

w.Yks.5  Acock  o'  t'horse.  Acock  o'  t'bezom.  Acock'n  a  raal. 
Glo.  To  get  a-cock  of  the  house,  and  sit  a-cock,  GROSE  (1790)  MS. 
add.  (M.)  Colloq.  Ride  acock  horse  To  Banbury  Cross,  Nursery 
Rhyme.  All-a-cock,  highly  elated,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M.) 

Hence  A-cock-horse,  adj.  triumphant. 


[A-,  on  +  cock,  a  heap,  a  hay-cock.] 

ACOCK,  adv.*  Colloq.  To  knock  (a  person)  a  bit  acock, 
to  disable  him ;  hence,  fig.  to  surprise,  discomfit. 

War.2  Colloq.  I  can  remember  axin'  my  feyther  how  it  was  as 
some  folks  was  rich  an'  some  was  poor.  It  knocked  him  a  bit  acock, 
my  axin'  him  that,  MURRAY  Nov.  Note-bk.  (1887)  259- 

[A-,  on  +  cock.  Cp.  cock  used  in  the  sense  of  an  upward 
turn,  as  in  a  cock  of  the  eye,  a  cock  of  the  nose,  a  cock  of 
a  hat.] 

ACOLD,  adj.  Won  Brks.  Cmb.  I.W.  Som.  [akou'ld, 
akoird.]  Cold. 

se.Wor.1  Be  yer  'onds  acaowd  ?  come  ether  an'  warm  um. 
Brks.1 1  be  a-veelin  acawld.  Cmb.  (M.  J.B.)  I.W.1  Acoolde,  very 
cold.  w.Som.1  I  be  a-cold  sure  'nough  z-mornin. 

[A-  (pref.10)  +  cold.  This  word  is  sometimes  used  as  a 
quasi-archaic  word  by  the  poets  of  the  igth  cent. :  The 
owl  for  all  his  feathers  was  a-cold,  KEATS  St.  Agnes'  Eve. 
The  word  is  best  known  from  its  occurrence  in  SHAKS., 
Tom's  a-cold,  K.  Lear,  HI.  iv. 59.  ME.  Thus  lay  this  pouer 
in  great  distresse  Acolde  and  hongry  at_the  gate,  GOWER 
C.  A.  in.  35.  Perhaps  the  repr.  of  OE.  acolod,  pp.  ofacolian, 
to  cool.] 

ACORN,  sb.     Lan.  Chs.  Lin.  Lei.  War.  Won  Hrf.  Hmp. 

1.  In  phr.  right  as  an  acorn,  honest,  fair ;    sound  as  an 
acorn,  without  a  flaw,  free  from  imperfection ;  a  red  pig 
for  an  acorn ;  a  horse  foaled  by  an  acorn,  the  gallows. 

Lan.  Come,  aw  think  o's  reel  an'  square.  Reel  as  a  hatch-horn, 
WAUGH  Besom  Ben  (1865)  i ;  Lan.1  Lan.  An' seaund  as  an  achurn, 
BRIERLEY  _/<«£-o  (1878)9.  Chs.1  As  sound  as  a  atchern.  w.Wor.1 
'  As  sound  as  an  ackern '  is  a  local  proverb,  applied  to  everything 
from  a  horse  to  a  nut.  Hrf.2  Chs.1  A  red  pig  for  a  atchern. 
Slang.  A  horse  foaled  by  an  acorn,  the  gallows,  GROSE  Diet.  Vulg. 
Tong.  (1811),  (FARMER)  ;  As  pretty  a  Tyburn  blossom  as  ever  was 
brought  up  to  ride  a  horse  foaled  by  an  acorn,  LYTTON  Pelham  (1827) 

Hence,  of  pigs,  Yackery,  adj.,  q.v. 

2.  Comp.  Acorn-mast,  acorns,  or  acorns  mixed  with  mast ; 
Acorn-tree,  the  oak. 

Hmp.  Akermast,  a  collective  name  for  acorns  and  mast,  WISE 
New  Forest  (1883)  82  ;  Hmp.1  n.Lin.  Acorn-tree,  Quercus  Robur; 
n-Lin.1,  Lei.1,  War.3 

ACORN,  v.  Chs.  War.  Shr.  Hrf.  Brks.  Sun  Hmp.  Wil. 
Also  written  ackern  War. ;  yacorn,  atchorn  Hrf. ;  see  be- 
low. To  pick  up  acorns ;  to  feed  on  acorns.  Usually  in  prp. 

Chs.1 ;  Chs.2  The  pigs  are  gone  o'  aitchorning ;  Chs.3  To  go 
atchorning  is  to  go  picking  up  acorns.  s.Chs.1  I've  sent  the 
children  a-atchernin.  War.  (J.R.W.)  Shr.1  The  childern  bin 
gwun  achernin ;  Shr.2  The  pigs  gween  a  akkering  (or  o'  aitchorn- 
ing). Hrf.1 ;  Hrf.2  Measter's  got  17  on  'em  out  a  yacorning  [i.  e. 
pigs  in  the  woods].  Brks.1  When  the  acorns  fall  pigs  are  turned 
into  the  woods  aaykernin.  Sur.1  Pigs  when  turned  out  in  the 
autumn  are  said  to  be  akyring.  Hmp.1  The  children  be  all  gone 
akering.  Wil.  The  old  country  proverb,  '  Ah,  well,  we  shall  live 
till  we  die,  if  the  pigs  don't  eat  us,  and  then  we  shall  go  acorning,' 
JEFFERIES  Hdgrow.  (1889)  65. 

Hence  Akering-time. 

Hmp.1  Akering-time,  the  autumn,  when  acorns  fall,  and  are 

ACOW,  adv.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Also  written  acaw  N.Cy.1 
[akair.]  Crooked,  askew,  awry  ;  alsoyfp-. 

N.Cy.1  n.Yks.  Hisshoes  is  trodden  a-cow  (I.  W.);  n.Yks.2A-cow, 
on  one  side,  twisted.  His  mind's  a-cow,  he  is  crotchety. 

[A-,  on  +  cow ;  see  Cow,  v.] 

AC9UAINT,  ppl.  adj.  Sc.  n.Irel.  I.Ma.  [akwe'nt.j 

Sc.  He  is  weel  acquent  wi'  a'  the  smugglers,  thieves,  and  banditti, 
SCOTT  Midlothian  Xi8i8  xv.  Inv.  Acquent,  acquainted  (H.E.F.). 

Ayr.  John  Anderson  my  jo,  John.  When  we  were  first  acquent, 
BuRNsyoA;;  Anderson.  Gall.  The  lassie  micht  no  be  acquant  wi' 
the  name.  CROCKETT  Bog-Myrtle  ^1895)  173.  N.I.1  I'm  well  acquant 
with  all  his  people.  I.Ma.  But  James  and  me  Was  well  acquent, 
BROWNE  Doctor  (1887)  28. 

[ME.  aqueynt.  With  such  love  be  no  more  aqueynt,  Rom. 
Rose,  5200.  AFr.  aqueynt.  OFr.  acoint,  personally  known.] 

ACQUAINTANCE,  sb.  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Glo. 
[akwe'ntans.]  A  sweetheart. 

War.2,  s.Wor.1  Shr.1  •  Molly,  do  you  know  that  Miss  F —  is 
going  to  be  married  ? '  •  Well,  sir,  I  thought  I  sid  'er  66th  an 
acquaintance.'  Hrf.2,  Glo.1 

ACQUAINTED,  ppl.  adj.  Rut.  Hrf.  Nrf.  [akwe'ntid, 
-ad.]  To  be  acquainted,  to  be  '  keeping  company.' 

Rut.1  Acquainted,  in  the  first  stage  of  courting.  Hrf.2  They've 
been  acquainted  a  good  while.  Nrf.  Acquented  with,  engaged 
to  be  married  (E. M.). 

ACRAZED,  pp.    n.Yks.    [akri'zd.] 

n.Yks.2  A-craz  d,  wrong-headed. 

[From  OFr.  acraser  (mod.  e'craser),  to  break  in  pieces. 
The  E.  erase  is  probably  an  aphetic  form  of  acrase.] 

ACRE,  sb.  ^Various  dial,  uses  in  Great  Britain  and  Irel. 
See  below,  [e'ka(r),  e3'ka(r),  ya'ka(r).] 

1.  Any  piece  of  land,  arable  or  tilled,  a  field  ;  chiefly  con- 
fined to  names  of  fields,  whatever  their  extent  may  be. 

w.Yks.1  Acker,  fine  mould.  Nhp.2  Fields  of  much  larger  extent 
than  an  acre  are  called  by  this  name,  as  Green's-yacker,  Rush-yacre. 
Nrf.  Acre,  a  field,  as  Castle  Acre  in  Norfolk  (K.). 

2.  A  measure  of  land,  differing  in  various  parts  of  Great 
Britain  and  Ireland  from  the  normal  statutable  piece  of 
40  poles  long  by  4  broad =4840  sq.  yds.    This  variation 
sometimes  coincides  with  the  different  nature  of  the  crop, 
&c.,  which  the  land  yields. 

Sc.  A  Scotch  acre  commonly  -  6084  square  yards,  ROBERTSON 
Agric.  in  Per.  (1799)  (N. E. D.);  The  Scotch  acre  was  nearly  one 
acre,  one  rood,  two  perches  of  Eng.  measure,  Libr.  Agric.  (1830). 
Ir.  121  Irish  acres  do  make  196  English  statute  acres,  PETTY  Pol. 
Anat.  (1691)  52.  Wm.  The  acre  [has]  6760  yards  (C.  D.).  s.Lan. 
Chs.1  The  acre  is  10,240  sq.  yards,  and  is  still  in  constant  use 
amongst  farmers,  especially  in  the  northern  half  of  the  county, 
and  in  s.Lan.  Chs.  land  measure  is  as  follows: — 64  square  yards 
=  i  rood  (i.e.  rod),  40  roods  =  i  quarter,  4  quarters  =  i  acre.  Lin. 
Among  the  customary  English  acres  are  found  .  .  .  200  [perches] 
for  copyhold  land  (C.D.).  Lei.  The  acre  has  2308!  yards  (C.D.). 
Wales.  A  Welsh  acre  is  usually  two  English  acres,  WORLIDGE 
Syst.  Agric.  (1681) ;  In  Wales  different  measures,  theberw,  the 
stang,  the  paladr,  are  called  acres  (C.D.).  Cor.  [5760  yards]  Libr. 
Agric.  (1830).  Var.  dial.  An  acre  sometimes  is  estimated  by  the 
proportion  of  seed  used  on  it ;  and  so  varies  according  to  the 
richness  or  sterility  of  the  land,  WORUDGE  Syst.  Agric.  (1681) 
321.  Among  the  customary  English  acres  are  found  measures 
of  the  following  numbers  of  perches— 80  or  90  (of  hops),  107,  no, 
120  (shut  acre),  130,  132,  134,  141,  180  (forest  acre),  212,  256  (of 
wood)  (C.D.). 

3.  A  lineal  measure. 

Not.  Acre  is  28  yards  running  measure  (W.W.S.). ;  Not.1  The 
word  '  acre '  is  occasionally  used  by  elderly  men  here  instead  of 
'  chain ' — 22  yards — for  the  measurement  of  hedging  and  ditching, 
but  it  is  not  in  common  use,  nor  is  it  known  as  a  lineal  measure 
by  the  majority  of  country  people  in  this  district.  n.Lin.1  Acre,  a 
measure  of  length.  An  acre-length,  40  poles  or  a  furlong.  An 
acre-breadth,  4  poles  or  22  yards.  Midi.  Acre,  a  species  of  long 
measure,  consisting  of  32  yards ;  four  roods,  MARSHALL  Rur. 
Econ.  (1790)  II.  Lei.  Acre  is  24  yds.  running  measure  (W.W.S.) ; 
Lei.1  In  addition  to  its  ordinary  meaning,  [acre]  is  used  as  a 
measure  of  length  in  two  distinct  senses.  In  one  it  is  equal  to 
220  yards  :  in  the  other  it  is  equal  to  four  rods  of  8  yards,  or  32 
yards.  In  measurements  of  hedging,  ditching,  and  draining  it  is 
.  .  .  used  in  the  latter  sense. 

4.  In  his  acres. 

Cor.1  In  his  acres,  in  his  glory. 

5.  Comp.  Acre-breadth,  see  3 ;   Acker-dale,  applied  to 
land  apportioned   in  acre  strips  ;    Acre-length,  see  3 ; 
-mould,  finely  tilled  earth,  see  1 ;  -painting,  easy  paint- 
ing of  which  a  great  quantity  can   be  quickly  done ;  ' 
-stones,  field  stones,  see  1 ;  -tax,  see  below. 

Sc.  Wad  Phillis  loo  me,  Phillis  soud  possess  Sax  acre-braid  o' 
richest  pasture  grass.  Pickcn  Poems  (1788)  104  (JAM.);  Gillmer- 
toune  .  .  .  being  all  of  it  acker-dale  land.  Somcrvills  Mem. 




I.  168  (JAM.).  N.Cy.1  Acker-dale  lands,  common  fields  in  which 
(Mill-rent  proprietors  Imlil  portions  of  greater  or  less  extent. 
Nhb.1  Acre-dale  or  acre-deal  lands,  land  apportioned  in  acre  strips.^ 
nXIn.1  Acre-length.  w.Yks.1  A  nice  birk  at  grew  atop  o'  th 
Ealand,  on  some  acker  moud ;  w.Yks.  Ah'm  dewin'  a  bit  o'  acre- 
p.-imiin'  .KB.'.  nw.Dcv.1  Acre-stones,  loose  stones,  such  as  are 
picked  up  in  fields.  n.Lln.'  Acre-tax,  a  draining  tax  on  the  An- 
cholme  Level  [for  maintaining  sea-banks]. 

Hence  Ackery,  adj.  abounding  in  finely  tilled  earth. 

w.Yks.1  Ackery,  abounding  with  fine  mould. 

[OE.  cecer,  field  +  </«•/,  a  portion,  share.] 

ACRE,  v.  Sc.  To  make  payment  at  a  fixed  rate  per 
acre  the  basis  of  any  transaction,  csp.  to  pay  labourers 
at  this  rate  to  gather  the  harvest  in.  Of  a  labourer  :  to 
work  under  these  conditions. 

Sc.  Acre,  Ackre,  Aikur,  to  buy,  sell,  let,  deal,  or  work  ...  at  a 
fixed  rate  per  acre  (JAM.  Sttf>pl.\  Bnff.1  Ma  ain  servan's  arc  nae 
t'wirk  at  the  hairst  wark  this  hairst :  a'm  gain'  t'ackre  'ta'.  A'm 
nae  gain  t'fec  this  hairst :  a'm  t'ackre. 

Hence  Acrer,  one  who  acres ;  Acreing,  the  act  of 
harvesting  grain-crops  at  a  stated  sum  per  acre. 

Bnff.1  Ackrer,  one  who  undertakes  to  harvest  crops  at  a  fixed 
sum  per  acre.  Sc.  Acrcin',  Ackrin'  (JAM.  Suf>j>l.}.  Bnff.1  Ackran. 

ACRE,  see  Icker. 

ACRE-A-BUNG,  sb.    S.  or  Ork. 

S.  or  Ork.  Acre-a-bung,  fog  grass,  holcus  mollis  (Coll.  L.L.B.). 

ACRER,  sb.    s.Sc.    A  very  small  proprietor  (JAM.). 

s.Sc.  The  provincial  name  of  acrerers,  portioncrs,  and  feuars, 
Agr.  Sun.  Rxb.  15  (JAM.). 

ACRIMONY,  sb.  Lei.  War.  [a-krlmonl.]  The  deli- 
quescence of  putrefying  animal  matter. 

Lei.1  The  acrimony  run  out  o'  the  jintcs  o'  the  coffin  all  down  me. 

[The  effect  of  the  acrimony  of  the  putrid  blood,  ABER- 
NETHY  (N.E.D.).] 

ACROOKED,  adj.  Yks.  Lan.  Also  written  acreeak't 
n.Yks. ;  acreak'd  nc.Lan.1  [akriu'kt,  akrn'kt]  Crooked, 
twisted,  awry,  askew. 

n.Yks.2  A-crewk'd.  e.Yks.1  Acrewkt,  askew.  w.Yks.  Thi  billy- 
cock's akrewkt !  (^C.B.) ;  w.Yks.1  Acrook'd,  awry.  ne.Lan.1 

[A-  (pref.l°)+ crooked.} 

ACROSPIRE,  sb.1  w.Yks.  Also  written  accaspire.  A 
kind  of  stone. 

w.Yks.  Accaspire,  a  sort  of  hard  stone  containing  particles  of 
flint,  Hlfx.  IVtis. ;  Accaspire,  Acrospirc,  Acklespire,  Ochrcspire, 
used  in  Halifax  district,  to  denote  hard  nodules  of  unworkable 
stone,  occasionally  met  with  in  the  rock  of  the  lower  coal-measures 
from  which  the  Yorkshire  stone  is  quarried.  Called  Iron-stone 
round  Bradford  (W.H.V.). 

[Etym.  unknown.] 

ACROSPIRE,  sb?  Sc.  n.Cy.  Lan.  Stf.  Der.  Lin.  Nhp. 
c.An.  Also  in  the  form  ackersprit  N.Cy.1  Der.1  Lan.1;  acre- 
spiren.Lin^Nhp.'Nrf^Suf.1  [a-kr3spaie(r),a-kaspaia(r).| 

1.  The  sprouting  of  corn  ;  csp.  of  barley  in  the  process  of 

Sc.  When  [barley]  shoots  at  the  higher  extremity  of  the  grain 
...  it  is  the  acherspyre  that  forms  the  stalk  (JAM.).  N.Cy.1  Der.1 
Corn  shooting  at  both  ends  ;  Der.2  n.Lin.1  The  sprout  of  corn 
before  the  cars  come  forth.  Nhp.1  We  restrict  the  use  of  this 
word  to  the  germ  of  barley  in  the  process  of  malting — the  chitting 
or  sprouting  at  that  end  of  the  grain  from  which  the  stalk  rises. 
>•.  A II.1  Acre-spire,  or  Acre-spit,  the  sprouting  or  '  chicking'  of  barley 
in  malting.  Nrf.1  The  sprouting  of  barley.  Suf.1  The  sprouting  or 
chicking  of  barley  in  the  process  of  germinating  into  malt. 

2.  Of  potatoes  or  turnips  :  premature  sprouting. 

n.Cy.  Ackersprit,  a  potato  with  roots  at  both  ends,  GROSE  (1790); 
N.Cy.1  The  premature  sprouting  of  a  potato.  Lan.1  A  potato, 
turnip,  or  other  root,  with  roots  at  both  ends.  Stf.1  Akerspirl  [sic], 
the  shoot  of  a  potato.  e.An.1  Acre-spire,  or  Acre-spit,  the  sprout- 
ing or  'chicking'  of .  .  .  stored  potatoes. 
[1.  Acherspyre,  in  making  of  Malt . .  .  Dicitur  de  liordeo, 
ibt  in  praeparatione  RVVTJS  seu  Brasii  niniium,  Sf  ab  utraque 

extretnitate,  gerntinat,  SKINNER  (1671)  L  111  2.  Cp.  JOHN- 
SON :  Acrospire,  a  shoot  or  sprout  from  the  end  of  seeds 
before  they  are  put  in  the  ground  ('  Many  corns  will  smilt 
or  have  their  pulp  turned  into  a  substance  like  thick  cream, 
and . . .  send  forth  their  substance  in  an  acrospirc,'  Mortimer 

Husbandry).    Etym.  doubtful.     Prob.  spin  repr.  OE.  spTr, 
a  spike,  blade. 

ACROSPIRE,  v.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Chs.  Wor.  Shr.  Suf.  Also 
written  ackerspier  N.Cy.2;  ackerspyre  Chs.1;  ackerspire 

1.  Of  barley  in  the  process  of  malting :  to  send  out  the 

first  leaf-shoot. 

Sc.  Barley  is  said  to  acherspyre  when  it  shoots  at  the  higher 
extremity  of  the  grain,  from  which  the  stalk  springs  up  (sec  Come). 
In  the  operation  of  malting,  ...  it  shoots  first  at  the  lower  end,  a 
considerable  time  before  it  acherspyres  JAM.).  N.Cy.1  For  want 
of  turning,  when  the  malt  is  spread  on  the  floor,  it  comes  and 
sprouts  at  both  ends,  which  is  called  to  acrospyro.  MORTIMER 
Husbandry;  N.Cy.2  Used  when  the  blade  in  mault  growes  out  at  the 
opposite  end  to  the  roote.  Nhb.1  Cum.1  When  the  malting  pro- 
cess is  too  long  continued  and  both  root  and  sprout  are  visible,  the 
barley  is  yakkerspircd  and  injured  for  malting.  Chs.121 

2.  Of  potatoes  :  to  sprout  or  put  forth  fresh  tubers  pre- 

w.Wor.1     Shr.1  I  doubt  the  tittoes'll  ackerspire  wuth  this  wet 

Hence  Ackerspired,  Ackersprit, />/>/.  adj.  having  sprouts 
or  acrospires. 

Chs.1  Potatoes  are  said  to  be  ackersprit  when  the  axillary  buds 
on  the  stem  grow  into  small  green  tubers,  as  is  often  the  case  in 
wet  seasons ;  Chs.2 ;  Chs.3  The  potatoes  were  very  generally 
ackcrspriL  s.Chs.1  Shr.1  Potatoes  are  ackcrspired,  when  after 
a  dry  season  heavy  rain  sets  in,  and  the  super-abundant  moisture 
causes  them  to  put  forth  new  tubers,  instead  of  increasing  them  in 
size,  thus  spoiling  the  growth.  Suf.1  Acre-sprit. 

ACROSS,  prep,  and  adv.  Yks.  Lin.  Brks.  Dev.  Also 
written  acrass  Brks.1  [akro's.] 

1.  prep.   Of  time  :  about. 

e.Yks.1  He  awlas  cums  across  tea  time. 

2.  adv.  On  bad  terms,  unfriendly,  at  variance. 

e.Yks.1  Jim  an  me's  rayther  across  just  noo,  MS.  add.  (T.  H.) 
sw.Lin.1  They'd  gotten  a  little  bit  across.  Brks.'Gaarge  an'  his 
brother  hev  a-bin  a  bit  acraas  laaytely. 

3.  Hence,  to  fall,  get  acrass,  to  disagree,  quarrel. 

Dev. 'Why,  pity  on  us!'  said  a  little  cattle-jobber  with  a  squint, 
'  when  folks  who  look  straight  before  them  fall  across,  how  am 
I  to  keep  straight  with  my  eyes  askew  ? '  BARING-GOULD  Spitttr 
1,1887)  vii ;  The  two  who  have  got  across,  ib. 

ACROUPED,  ppl.  adj.    Dor.     [skru-pt]    Crouched. 

Dor.  [The  pheasants]  are  a-croupied  down  nearly  at  the  end  of 
the  bough,  HARDY  Woodlandcrs  (.1887)  I.  ix. 

[OFr.  s'accnwpir,  to  crouch  :  Les  poults  s'accroupissent 
pour  dorntir.] 

ACT,  sb.    w.Yks.    A  practical  joke ;  cf.  act,  v.  2. 

w.Yks.  Thowt  he'd  hcd  a  act,  Dewsbrt  Olm.  (1865)  4. 

ACT,  v.  Irel.  Yks.  Stf.  Der.  Not.  Wor.  Oxf.  Brks.  Cmb. 
Suf.  Ess.  Ken.  I.W.  Som.  Cor.  [akt,  sekt] 

1.  To  do,  perform  (usually  the  action  is  of  a  reprehensible 

s.Stf.  Wot  bin  ycr  actin'  at  wi  my  tculs?  (T.P.)  s.Wor. 
F.W.M.W.)  w.Som.1  Haul  bee  aa-kteen  oa?  [What  are  you 

2.  Hence,  to  act  mischievously ;  to  tease,  play  tricks  ;  to 
act  on  (?  of)  /'/,  to  do  wrong. 

s.Not  Act,  to  behave  skittishly.  A  driver  will  say  to  a  skittish 
horse,  '  Now  then,  what  arc  yer  acting  at?'  (J.P.K.)  Brks.1 
Zo  you  bwoys  hcv  a-bin  actin  on't  agin,  hev  'e  ?  Suf.  Don't  act 
[of  a  person,  or  animal,  such  as  a  horse,  creating  a  disturbance 
or  acting  in  an  unusual  manner]  (C.T.) ;  Leave  off  acting  with  me 
VF.H.).  I.W.2  Act,  to  play  tricks. 
8.  To  set  about  any  work. 

nw-Der.1  Act,  to  '  shape '  or '  frame,'  either  (i)  at  a  particular  job 
of  work  ;  or  (a)  at  the  duties  of  a  new  situation  or  calling.  How 
docs  he  act?— O,  very  weel.  Ess.  Gl  (1851). 

•1.  To  behave  in  an  affected  or  artificial  manner;  to 
'show  off.' 

Hrf.a  Acting  (of  children),  showing  off.       Oxf.1  Thar  Mary  do 
act,  scnce  "er  'a  lived  at  Oxford.       I.W.2  Dedn't  he  jest  about  .»•(. 
5.  To  pretend,  simulate  ;  to  act  lame,  to  sham  lameness ; 
in  this  sense  in  gen.  use. 

Brks.1  w.Som.1  EC  aa'k  bac-ud  un  zoa  dhai  lat  un  goo  [he  pre- 
tended to  be  ill,  and  so  they  let  him  go].  [Of  an  old  dog  wliicli 
was  going  along  limping]  He  idn  on'y  acting  lame;  he  always 
do,  hon  he  reckonth  he've  ado'd  enough. 




8.  To  act  Dan' I,  to  keep  one's  own  counsel,  to  '  lie  low'; 
lo  act  about,  to  act  oneself,  to  play  the  fool. 

s.Stf.  He  could  hardly  help  loffin'  out,  but  he  kep  on  actin  Dan'l 
all  thru,  PINNOCK  Bk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895).  Ken.1  He  got  acting-about, 
and  fell  down  and  broke  his  leg.  w.Cor.  He  was  tipsy  and  acting 
himself  fine  (M.A.C.). 

Hence  Acting,  vbl.  sb. ;  gossoons'  acting,  children's  play, 
or  '  make-believe.'  Action,  sb.  unruly  or  '  skittish  '  be- 
haviour, pretence,  conceits,  see  2,  4. 

w.Yks.  Drop  your  acting,  and  come  here  (F.M.L.).  s.Not. 
A  mother  will  say  to  a  wilful  child  '  Stop  that  acting,  and  be  off 
to  bed  with  yer  like  a  good  gell'  (J.P.K.).  Cmb.  None  of  your 
acting  [rough  behaviour]  (J.D.R.).  Oxf.1  Na  then!  lens  'a  no 
actin'.  Ir.  It's  only  gossoons' actin'.  Suf.  None  of  your  actions 
(C.TA  Cor.  He's  like  a  merry  antic  full  of  his  actions  (M.A.C.). 

ACTIONABLE,  adj.  Cum.  [a'kjanabl.]  Of  a  horse  : 
having  good  action,  agile. 

Cum.  A  nice  actionable  pony  (M.P.). 

ACTION  SERMON,  sb.  Sc.  The  designation  com- 
monly given  in  Sc.  to  the  sermon  which  precedes  the 
celebration  of  the  ordinance  of  the  Supper  (JAM.). 

Sc.  I  returned  home  about  seven,  and  addressed  myself  to  write 
my  action  sermon,  IRVING  (,i(525)  in  OLIPHANT  Life,  I.  xi.  Per. 
About  the  middle  of  the  'action'  sermon,  IAN  MACLAREN  Brier  Bnsli 
(1895)  57- 

AD,  see  Od. 

ADAM-AND-EVE,  sb.    [a'dam-an-iv.] 

1.  A  name  applied  to  several  plants :  (i)  Aconitum  napel- 
lus  (Nrf.) ;   (2)  Arum  maculatum,  Cuckoo-pint  (Yks.  Lin. 
Lei.  Som.);  (3)  Orchis  mascula  (Som.  Dev.  Cor.);  (4)  Pul- 
monaria  offidnalis  (Cum.  Wm.  Hmp.). 

(i)  Nrf.  Adam  and  Eve,  Aconitum  napellus.  On  lifting  the  hood  of 
the  (lower,  the  upper  petals  appear  as  two  little  figures,  (a)  n.Yks. 
Adam-and-Eve.  The  dark  spadices  represent  Adam,  and  the  light 
ones  Eve.  Lei.1  Adam  and  Eve,  lords  and  ladies,  the 
flower  of  the  Arum  maculatum.  w.Som.1  (3)  Ib.  Adam  and  Eve, 
the  plant  wild  orchis  —  O.  mascula.  Dev.  Adam  and  Eve,  the  male 
and  female-handed  orchis,  if  I  conceive  rightly,  Monthly  Mag. 
(1808)  II.  421.  Cor.  The  dark  flower-spikes  represent  Adam,  and 
the  pale  ones  Eve.  w.Cor.  (M.A.C.)  (4)  Cum.  Adam-and-Eve, 
Pulmonaria  offidnalis ;  from  the  two-coloured  flowers.  Wm.1  The 
flowers  are  red  and  blue,  and  the  country  folk  call  the  red  Adam 
and  the  blue  Eve.  Hmp.  Lungwort,  called  Adam-and-Eve  by  gipsies 
and  others  about  the  New  Forest,  no  doubt  from  the  two  colours 
in  its  flowers  (G.  E.D.). 

2.  The  tubers  of  Orchis  maculata  (Yks.  Lan.  I.Ma.  Nhp.) ; 
the  tubers  of  Orchis  mascula  (?)  (Nhb.). 

w.Yks.1  Adam  and  Eve,  the  bulbs  of  Orchis  maculata,  which  have 
a  fancied  resemblance  to  the  human  figure.  One  of  these  floats  in 
the  water,  which  nourishes  the  stem,  the  other  sinks  and  bears  the 
bud  for  the  next  year.  ne.Lan.1  I.Ma.  The  tubers  of  O.  maculata 
(spotted  orchis).  Nhp.1  The  two  bulbs  of  the  O.  maculata,  one  of 
which  nourishes  the  existing  plant,  the  other  the  succeeding  one. 
Nhb.1  Adam  and  Eve,  the  tubers  of  O.  latifolia;  the  tuber  which  sinks 
being  Adam  and  that  which  swims  being  Eve.  Cain  and  Abel  is 
another  name  for  these  tubers,  Cain  being  the  heavy  one,  JOHNSTON 
Bot.  f.  Bord.  (1853)  193.  (Prob.  meant  for  O.  mascula,  B.  &  H.) 

3.  A  particular  pair  of  legs  in  a  shrimp  (Lin.  Wor.  Ess.). 
nXin.1  Adam  and  Eve,  a  particular  pair  of  legs  in  a  shrimp,  so 

called  from  a  fancied  resemblance  to  two  human  figures  standing 
opposite  to  one  another.  Wor.  (J.  W.P.)  Ess.  There's  an  Adam 
and  Evein  every  brown  shrimp,  BARING-GOULD  Mehalah(  1885) 296. 

ADAM'S  ALE,  sb.  Dial,  slang  in  gen.  use.  [a'damz-el, 
-eal.]  Water. 

Var.  dial.  HOLLOWAY. 

[A  Rechabite  poor  Will  must  live,  And  drink  or  Adam's 
ale,  PRIOR  Wandering  Pilgrim  (DAV.).] 

ADAM'S  FLANNEL,  sb.  [a'damz-nanil.]  A  plant- 
name  applied  to  (i)  Dipsacus  sylvestris  (Lei.) ;  (2)  Ver- 
bascum  thapsus  (Yks.  Chs.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.). 

Lei.  Adam's  flannel,  teasel.  (2)  w.Yks.1  Adam's  flannel,  white 
mullein,  Verbascum  thapsus.  It  may  have  obtained  this  name  from 
the  soft  white  hairs  with  which  the  leaves  are  thickly  clothed  on 
both  sides.  Chs.1  3,  nXin.1  Nhp.1  Adam's  flannel,  great  mullein. 
War.  (J.R.W.) 

ADAM'S  NEEDLE,  sb.  Nhb.  [a'damz-nidl.]  A  plant- 
name  :  Scandix  pecten  veneris,  so  called  from  the  long 
needle-like  fruits. 

Nhb.1  Edom's  needle,  Adam's  needle,  or  Shepherd's  needle,  the 
Srandix  pecten  veneris.  Called  also  Witch's  needle,  and  Deil's 
darnin  needle. 

ADAM'S  WINE,  sb.  Dial,  slang  in  gen.  use.  [  a'domz- 
wain.]  Water.  A  cant  phrase  for  water  as  abeverage  (JAM.). 

n-Lin.1     w.Som.1  Adam's  wine,  water,  never  called  Adam's  ale. 

ADAPTED,  ppl.  adj.  Hmp.  [adae'ptad.]  Accustomed 
to,  experienced. 

Hmp.1  A  man  adapted  to  pigs,  i.e.  experienced  in  the  breeding 
and  care  of  swine. 

AD  ASHED,  ppl.  adj.    Yks.    [ada-Jt.]     Put  to  shame. 

m.Yks.1 1  felt  fair  [quite]  adashed. 

[Adashed,  ashamed,  COLES  (1677).] 

ADAWDS,  adv.  Obs.  Yks.  Also  written  adauds.  In 

Yks. '  To  rive  all  adauds,'  to  tear  all  in  pieces  (K.).  n.Yks.  Ise 
seaur  weese  rive  up  all  adawds,  MERITON  Praise  Ale  ( 1684)  1.  104. 

[A-,  on  +  daw d,  q.v.] 

A-DAYS,  adv.  Obs.  e.An.  and  var.  dial.  At  present, 

e.An.1  Flour  sells  cheap  a-days.  I  seldom  see  Mr.  Smith  a-days  ; 
e.An.2  I  never  heard  this  word  used,  as  given  by  Forby,  in  either 
Norfolk  or  Suffolk.  Var.  dial.  A-days,  now,  abbreviation  of  now- 
a-days,  HOLLOWAY. 

[In  TOONE  (1834)  s.y.  A,  the  word  adays  is  cited  among 
other  words  containing  the  pref.  a-,  in  which  it  is  still 
retained  by  the  vulgar.] 

ADBUT,  see  Headbut. 

ADDER,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Dur.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Lin.  Shr. 
Wil.  Cor.  Also  written  ather,  edder,  ether ;  see  below, 
[a'da(r),  also  e'da(r),  etSa(r).] 

1.  In  dial.,  besides  the  usual  meaning  of  adder,  the  use  of 
the  word  is  extended  to  any  kind  of  snake. 

Shr.2  Edder,  ether,  of  general  application  for  any  kind  of  snake. 

Comp.  Adder-bead,  the  stone  supposed  to  be  formed  by 
adders  (JAM.) ;  -broth,  broth  made  from  the  flesh  of  an 
adder;  -pike,  the  fish  Trachinus  vipera :  (CD.) ;  -stone,  a 
perforated  stone  (see  below) ;  -stung,  bitten  by  an  adder ; 
-thing,  a  serpent. 

Dmf.  [Adders  are  said  to]  assemble  to  the  amount  of  some  hun- 
dreds in  a  certain  time  of  summer,  to  cast  off  their  sloughs  and 
renew  their  age.  They  entwist  and  writhe  themselves  among 
each  other  until  they  throw  off  their  last  year's  sloughs,  half 
melted  by  their  exertions.  These  are  collected  and  plastered  over 
with  frothy  saliva,  and  again  wrought  to  and  fro  till  they  are  con- 
densed and  shaped  into  an  adder  bead,  Rem.  Nithsdale  Sng.  m 
(JAM.).  nXin.1  Hetherd-broth,  a  broth  made  of  the  flesh  of  an 
adder  boiled  with  a  chicken.  A  specific  for  consumption.  It  was 
till  about  fifty  years  ago  the  custom  for  certain  wanderers  to  come 
yearly  during  the  hot  weather  of  summer  from  the  West  Country 
(q.v.)  to  search  on  the  sand-hills  for  hetherds  which  they  said  they 
sold  to  the  doctors  for  the  purpose  of  making  hetherd-broth.  Sc. 
Adder-stane,  the  same  as  adder-bead  (JAM.).  The  glass  amulets  or 
ornaments  are,  in  the  Lowlands  of  Scotland,  called  adder-stanes, 
TOLAND  Hist,  of  Druids  (ed.  1814)  Lett.  I.  §  16  (JAM.).  Rnf.  [A 
family  was]  in  possession  of  a  so-called  adder-stone  and  four 
Druidical  beads,  some  of  which,  or  all  conjunctively,  had  been 
efficacious  in  curing  various  complaints,  but  more  particularly  those 
in  cattle.  .  .  .[The  adder-stone]  is  not  unlike,  in  form  and  size,  to 
the  whorls  which,  in  conjunction  with  the  distaff,  were,  only  a 
century  or  two  ago,  in  general  use  in  spinning  yarns,  ./V.  &Q.  (1873) 
4th  S.  ix.  155.  N.Cy.1  Adder-stone,  also  called  self-bored  stone; 
a  perforated  stone — the  perforation  imagined  by  the  vulgar  to  be 
made  by  the  sting  of  an  adder.  Nhb.  A  charm'd  sword  he  wears, 
Of  adderstone  the  hilt,  RICHARDSON  Borderer's  Table-bk.  (1846) 
VII.  164  ;  Nhb.1  Adder-styen,  a  stone  with  a  hole  through  it  [hung 
behind  doors  and  in  fishing  boats  as  a  charm].  And  vain  Lord 
Soulis's  sword  was  seen,  Though  the  hilt  was  adderstone,  The 
Cout  of  Keeldar.  n.Yks.2  Addersteeans,  the  perforated  fragments 
of  grey  alum  shale,  the  round  holes  [of  which]  tradition  assigns  to 
the  sting  of  the  adder.  As  lucky  stones  they  are  hung  to  the 
street  door-key,  for  prosperity  to  the  house  and  its  inmates,  just 
as  the  horse-shoe  is  nailed  at  the  entrance  for  the  same  purpose. 
Suspended  in  the  stables,  as  are  also  the  holed  flints  that  are  met 
with,  they  prevent  the  witches  riding  the  horses,  and  protect  the 
animals  from  illness.  nXin.1  Hetherd-stone,  that  is,  an  adder- 
stone,  an  ancient  spindle-whorl.  It  is  still  believed  that  these 
objects  are  produced  by  adders,  and  that  if  one  of  them  be  sus- 
pended around  the  neck  it  will  cure  whooping-cough,  ague,  and 




adder  bites.  Hetherd-stung,  bitten  by  an  adder.  When  a  swelling 
suddenly  arises  upon  any  animal  without  the  cause  being  known 
it  is  said  to  be  hetherd-stung.  Hedgehogs  and  shrews  are  also 
said  to  bite  animals  and  produce  all  the  symptoms  of  the  •  sting' 
of  the  hetherd.  Dur.  She  let  some  kind  ov  an  etherthing  venom 
'er,  EGGLESTONE  Betty  Podkins'  Let.  (1877)  8. 

[Adder-stung,  said  of  cattle  when  stung  with  venomous 
reptiles,  as  adders,  scorpions,  or  bit  by  a  hedge-hog  or 
shrew,  BAILEY  (1721).] 

2.  A  slow-worm. 

Wil.  It  is  curious  that  in  places  where  blindworms  are  often  seen 
their  innocuous  nature  should  not  be  generally  known.  They  are 
even  called  adders  sometimes,  JEFFERIES  Hdgrow.  (1889)  201. 

3.  A  newt. 

Cor.1  The  newt  is  so  called  in  the  neighbourhood  of  St.  Mellion 
[e.Cor.]  ;  Cor."  MS.  add. 

4.  A  dragon-fly,  or  large  fly ;  also  called  flying  adder,  &c. 
N.Cy.1  Tanging-nadder.        Nhb.1  The  dragon-fly  is  called  Bull 

ether,  or  Fleein  ether,  flying  adder.  m.Yks.1  Ether,  a  large  light 
kind  of  fly.  eXan.1  Edther,  the  dragon-fly. 

Comp.  Ather-bill,  Adder-bolt,  -cap,  the  dragon-fly ; 
-feeder,  the  gad-fly ;  -fly  (C.D.),  -spear,  the  dragon-fly  ; 
Ether's  mon,  -nild,  a  large,  long-bodied  dragon-fly. 

Cld.  Ather-bill  (JAM.).  Lan.  A  chapter  on  the  natural  history 
uv  cockroaches,  edderbowts,  un  crickets,  STATON  B.  Shuttle  Boviton, 
64 ;  Lan.1  It'll  sting  like  an  edder-bout.  Chs.1  Edther  Bowt,  the 
dragon-fly.  Fif.  Ather-,  or  natter-cap,  the  name  given  to  the  dragon- 
fly (JAM.).  Chs.1  Edder  feeder,  a  common  name  for  the  gad-fly. 
[The  ploughboy  next  knocked  down  what  he  called  a  •'  gurt  adder- 
spear,'  that  is,  a  dragon-fly,  Standard  (Aug.  23,  1887)  3.]  Shr.1  It 
is  believed  that  this  dragon-fly  [  Cordulegnster  annulatus\  indicates 
by  its  presence  the  vicinity  of  the  adder,  whence  its  local  names 
— Ether's-mon  and  Ether's-nild  [needle]. 

ADDER-AND-SNAKE  PLANT,  sb.  n.Dev.  Silene  in- 
flafa  (Bladder  Campion). 

ADDERCOP,  see  Attercop. 

ADDER'S  FERN,  sb.     Hmp.    Pofypodium  vulgare. 
Hmp.  It  will  be  observed  that  most  of  the  plants  connected  with 
the  adder  appear  in  spring,  when  snakes  are  most  generally  seen  ; 
Hmp.1  Adder's-fern,  the  common  polypody  ;  so  called  from  its  rows 
of  bright  spores. 

ADDER'S  FLOWER,  sb.  The  name  given  to  (i)  Lychnis 
diurna  (Hrt.) ;  (2)  Orchis  mascula  (Hmp.). 

(2)  Hmp.  O.  mascula,  early  purple  orchis,  probably  from  the 
spotted  leaves  (G.E.D.). 

ADDER'S  GRASS,  sb.  The  name  given  to  (i)  Orchis 
maculata  (Nhb.) ;  (2)  Orchis  mascula  (Nhb.  Chs.). 

Nhb.1  Adder-grass,  the  spotted  orchis,  O.  maculata  ;  called  also 
Hens,  Hen's-kames,  and  Deed-man's  Hand.  (2)  Chs.1  The  orchis 
which  Gerard  distinguishes  as  adder's  grass  is  O.  mascula;  Chs.3 

ADDER'S  MEAT,  sb.  A  name  given  to  several  plants, 
most  of  which  are  poisonous :  (i)  Arum  maculatum  (Dev. 
Cor.);  (2)  Mercurialis perennis  (Hrt.);  (3)  Stellaria  holostea 
(Cor.) ;  (4)  Tamus  communis  (Som.  Dev.) ;  (5)  a  kind  of 
fern  (Som.). 

(i)  Dev.4  Adder's  meat,  Ammmaculatum,  applied,  not  to  thespathe 
in  its  early  stages,  but  when  the  bright  red  colour  of  the  berries 
shows  itself.     The  same  name  is  applied  to  other  red  berries  . 
regarded,  whether  correctly  or  otherwise,  as  being  poisonous  ;  as 
for  example  the  fruit  of  Tamus  communis.    (5)Som. Fern, commonly 
known  as  Adder's  meat,  and  accordingly  feared  and  avoided  bv 
country  children,  PULMAN  Sketches  (1842). 
ADDER'S  POISON,  sb.     Dev.     Tamus  communis. 
n.Dev.  Adder's  poison,  Black  Briony.     Dev.4 
ADDER'S  SPEAR, sb.  Sur.  Sus.  Ophioglossumvulgatum. 
Sur.  &  Sus.  Adders-spear  ointment  is  made  from  it  in  parts  of 
Sur.  and  Sus. 

ADDER'S  SPIT  or  ADDER-SPIT,  sb.  The  name  given 
to  (i)  Pteris  aquilina  (Sus.) ;  (2)  Stellaria  holostea  (Cor.). 

ADDER'S  TONGUE,  sb.  Also  written  edder- Cum.  The 
name  given  to  several  plants  :  (i)  Arum  maadatum  (Som 
SwU  (2)  G%a?ium  Robertianum  (Ess.)  ;  (3)  Listera  ovata 
( Wil.) ;  (4)  Ophtoglossum  vulgatum  (Cum.  Dev.) ;  (5)  Orchis 
mascula  (Chs.) ;  (6)  Pteris  aquilina  (Brks.) ;  (7)  Sagittaria 
sagtttifoha  (Dev.) ;  (8)  Scolopendrium  vulgare  (Dor.  Dev.). 

w.Som.1  Adder's  tongue,  wild  arum,  A.  maculatum.  (3)  Wil  The 
Tway-blade  is  at  Farley  Adder's  tongue,  Sarum  Dioc.  Gas.  (Jan 
1891)  14,  col.  2;  WiUAdder's-tongue.LKifcra  ovata,  Twayblade." 

(4)  Cum.  Edder's-tongue,  Ophioglossum  vulgatum.  Dev.*  (5)  Chs.1 
(6)  Brks.1  The  leaf  of  the  common  bracken.  (7)  Dev.*  The  old 
people  say  that  a  cupful  of  tea  every  day  made  of  nine  leaves  of 
this  plant  [Sagittaria  sagittifolia]  ...  is  a  good  strengthening 
medicine.  (8)  Dor.  Adder's  tongue,  Scolopendrium  vulgare,  Hart's- 
tongue  (G.E.D.).  Dev.* 

ADDER  WORT,  sb.    Wil.     [ae'dawat] 

Wil.1  Adderwort,  Polygonum  bistorta,  bistort. 

ADDICK,  sb.    Som.  Dev.    [ae'dik.]    Adder. 

w.Som.1  Whether  this  means  adder  or  haddock,  or  what  besides, 
I  do  not  know,  but  it  is  the  deafest  creature  known.  '  Su  dee-f-s 
u  ad'ik'is  the  commonest  superlative  of  deaf.  n.Dev.  Thart  so 
deeve  as  a  haddick  in  chongy  weather,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  123. 
nw.Dev.1  Deeve's  a  addick. 

ADDLE,  sb.1  and  adj.  Sc.  and  widely  diffused  throughout 
the  Eng.  dial.  See  below,  [a'dl,  Nhb. ;  also  ya'dl,  e'dl.j 

1.  sb.  Putrid  or  stagnant  water :  usually  in  comp.  Addle- 
dub,  -gutter,  -pool,  see  below. 

Sc.  Adill,  Addle,  foul  and  putrid  water  (JAM.);  Aidle,  ditch- 
water,  MACKAY.  Ayr.  Then  lug  out  your  ladle,  Deal  brimstone 
like  adle.  And  roar  every  note  of  thedamn'd,  BURNS  Kirk's  Alarm 
(1787).  Nhb.1  Eddie,  putrid  water  [applied  specially  to  the  liquid 
manure  drained  from  a  dunghill  (R.O.H.)].  Sc.  Addle-dub,  a 
hole  full  of  foul  putrid  liquid.  He  kens  the  loan  frae  the  crown 
o'  the  causey  as  weel  as  the  duck  does  the  midden  hole  frae 
the  addle-dub,  HENDERSON  Prav.  (1832)  76,  ed.  1881.  Dev.1  The 
ale  was  worse,  ...  a  had  as  leve  drink  the  addle-gutter,  ii.  13. 
nw.Dev.1  Addle-gutter,  a  stagnant  or  putrid  gutter  or  pool ;  [as  in] 
Addle-gutter  mud.  s.Pem.  Addley  pulke,  a  stagnant  pool,  LAWS 
Little  Eng.  (1888)  419.  s.Cy.  Addle-pool,  a  pool  or  puddle  near  a 
dunghill,  for  receiving  the  fluid  from  it  (HALL.).  Cor.  They  carr'ed 
Nick  hum .  .  .  and  thrawed  un  in  the  addle  pool,  TREGELLAS  Tales 
(1868)88;  Cor.12  Addle-pool,  a  cesspool. 

2.  Cf.  addle,  v.1  B. 

Rnf.  The  urine  of  black  cattle  (JAM.). 

3.  An  abscess  containing  pus,  a  swelling,  tumour;  a  blister. 
Som.  Addle,  a  swelling  with  matter  in  it,  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial. 

w.Eng.  (1825) ;  It  all  come  up  in  addles  [blisters]  (G.S.).  w.Som.1 
Ee-vu-gaut  u  guurt  ad-1  pun  uz  nak,  su  beg-z  u  ain  ag  [he  has  a  great 
tumour  on  his  neck  as  large  as  a  hen's  egg]. 

4.  adj.  Rotten,   putrid,  esp.   applied  to  a  decayed  or 
barren  egg ;  cf.  1. 

Cld.  Addle,  foul,  applied  to  liquid  substances  (JAM.).  Lan.  Addle, 
rotten,  DAVIES  Races  (1856)  226.  Shr.1  I've  'ad  despert  poor  luck 
66th  my  'en's  this  time.  I  set  three  66th  duck  eggs  an'  two  66th 
thar  own  ;  an'  three  parts  on  'em  wun  aidle.  Hrf.2  I  be  most 
afeared  as  the  eggs  be  all  adle.  Ken.2  Sus.1  Eddel,  rotten. 

5.  Fig.  Weak  in  intellect,  confused  :  esp.  in  comp.  Addle- 
cap,  -head,  -headed,  -pate,  -pated. 

Ken.1  My  head's  that  adle,  that  I  can't  tend  to  nothin'.  e.Sus. 
Adle. weak  orgiddyinthe  head.  I  am  very  adle  to-day,  HOLLOWAY. 
Hmp.1  Addle,  stupid.  Slang.  Addle  cove,  a  foolish  man,  an  easy 
dupe,  FARMER.  n-Lin.1  Addle-cap,  Addle-head,  a  weak,  silly 
person.  He's  such  a  waffy  addle-head,  he  duzn't  knaw  blew  fra 
red.  w.Som.1  Addle-head.  N.Cy.1  Addle-headed.  e.Yks.1  Addle- 
heeaded,  of  obtuse  intellect.  ne.Lan.1  Chs.1  He's  a  addle-yedded 
think.  Der.2  War.(J.R.W-)  Brks.1  Sus.1  He's  an  adle-headed 
fellow.  w.Som.1,  Dev.1  Wm.  My  addle  paate,  HUTTON  Bran  New 
Wa> k  (1785)!.  88.  nXln.1  Addle-pate.  Cor."  Dev.1  Addle-pated, 
doltish,  thickheaded. 

[1.  OE.  adela,  liquid  filth,  foul  water ;  cf.  G.  adel,  mire, 
puddle.  2.  Cf.  OSw.  adel  in  ko-adel,  cow-urine.  5.  Cf. 
HOOKER:  Concerning  his  preaching  their  very  by-word 
was  Aoyos  (t;ovd(vr)/j.eiios,  addle  speech,  empty  talk,  Eccl. 
Pol.  in.  101 ;  Thy  head  hath  bin  beaten  as  addle  as  an 
egge  for  quarreling,  SHAKS.  R.  &>J.  (159 

ADDLE,  adj.     Hrf.  e.An.  Ken.  Sur.  S 

1.  Ailing,  unwell. 

e.An.  Adle,  unwell  (HALL.).  Ken.1  Adle.  Sus.1  Adle,  slightly 
unwell.  My  little  girl  seemed  rather  adle  this  morning,  so  I  kep' 
her  at  home  from  school. 

2.  Tumble-down,  loose,  shaky. 

Hrf.  Adle,  loose,  shaky,  applied  to  a  paling  (W.W.S.).  e.An. 
Adle,  unsound  (HALL.).  Ken.  The  word  is  used  to  denote  anything 
that  is  in  a  ricketty  or  shaky  condition.  Dat  waggin  be  turrbul  adle 
(P.M.).  Sur.1  Adle,  weak,  shaky,  said  of  a  fence  the  posts  or 
pales  of  which  have  become  loose.  You  shan't  have  that  idle  thing 
i.e.  an  old  gate]  any  longer  (s.v.  Idle). 
[OE.  Ml,  MLG.  adel,  disease.] 

2)  in.  i.  25.] 



ADDLE,  si.2  Nhb.  w.Yks.  [a'dl,  e'dl.]  Earnings,  wages, 
usually  with  in ;  in  good  addle,  receiving  good  wages. 

Nhb.1  Eddie,  money  earned.  Savin's  good  eddle.  w.Yks.1  A 
poor  daital.  wheea's  i'  naa  girt  addle,  ii.  340;  He's  i"  good  addle. 

ADDLE,  sb?     Nhp.     An  adding  or  addition. 

Nhp.1  Two  pence  and  three  pence,  is  five  pence :  and  two  groats 
and  two  pence  is  ten  pence.  This  specimen  of  village  arithmetic 
is  called  '  the  old  woman's  addle.' 

ADDLE,  v.1    In  gen.  use. 

A.  To  make  abortive,  as  eggs,  by  allowing  to  get  cold 
during  incubation  ;  fig.  to  confuse,  muddle. 

Ir.  They  had  also  lost  a  fat  pig,  and  had  a  clutch  of  eggs  addled 
in  an  August  thunderstorm,  BARLOW  Idylls  (1892)  45.  Yks.  It's 
no  use  addling  your  brain  with  so  much  learning,  it  won't  make 
the  pot  boil  (M.N.).  ne.Lan.1  Addle,  to  coagulate.  Not.  Addle, 

make  putrid  (T.H.B.).  Ken.  Dang'd  ould  hen  as  addled  dem 
heggs  (H.M.).  Som.1  Hens  which  sit  badly  are  said  to  addle 
their  eggs.  Nauyz  unuuf  vur  t-ad'l  uneebau'deez  braa-nz  [noise 
:nough  to  addle  one's  brains].  Dev.  'Twas  the  hard  times  addled 
his  brains,  O'NEILL  Told  in  Dimpses  (1893)  116. 

[See  Addle,  sb.1  4.] 

B.  Sc.  To  water  plants. 

Rnf.  Toaddle,to  water  the  roots  of  plants  with  the  urine  of  cattle 


[See  Addle,  sb.1  2.] 

ADDLE,  v?  In  all  the  n.  counties  to  Chs.  Stf.  Der. 
Not.  Lin. ;  also  in  Rut.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  e.An. ;  not  in  Sc. 
Not  in  gloss,  of  s.Chs.  and  Shr.  Also  written  adle  N.Cy.2 
Lin.  SKINNER  ;  aadle  Suf.1 ;  eddle  N.Cy.1  Nhb.1  Cum.1 3 
w.Yks.  WILLAN;  yeddle  Chs.123;  aidle  N.Cy.1  Nhb.1 
Cum.  Lin.1  e.An.1 ;  aydle  c.Cum. ;  eddil  Nhb. ;  adel  Cum. 
e.  and  w.Yks.  [a'dl.  Besides  a'dl  there  occur  e'dl  in  Nhb. 
Cum. ;  e'dl  in  Nhb.  c.Cum.  Lin.  e.An.  ;  ye'dl  in  Chs.] 

1.  To  earn,  acquire  by  one's  labour. 

N.Cy.12  Nhb.1  He  addles  three  ha'pence  a  week,  That's  nobbut 
a  fardin'  a  day,  Song,  Ma  Laddie.  Dur.1  Cum.3  I's  gan  to  eddle 
me  five  shillin'  middlin'  cannily.  s.Wm.  Ye  dunnet  addle  as  mickle 
ta  day,  HUTTON  Dia.  Storth  and  Arnsiile  (1760)  1.  29.  Wm.1  A'd 
better  git  a  nag  wi  panniers  an  addle  mi  brass  thet  wa-a.  Yks. 
They  say  he  addled  his  brass  i'  jute,  KIPLING  Soldiers  Three  (ed. 
1895)  16.  n.Yks.1  Ah's  nowght  bud  what  Ah  addles;  n.Yks.2  To 
addle  oneself  heat  [to  grow  warm  with  exercise].  ne.Yks.1  He 
addles  a  good  wage.  e.Yks.1  Ah  haint  addled  saut  (salt)  ti  my  taty 
this  mornin.  w.Yks.  When  he'd  addled  his  shun,  BLACKAH  Poems 
(1867)  13  [said  of  a  horse  when  he  falls  upon  his  back  and  rolls 
from  one  side  to  the  other.  When  a  horse  does  this  in  Hmp.  or 
Sus.  he  is  said  to  earn  a  gallon  of  oats,  HOLLOWAY]  ;  It  isn't 
what  a  chap  addles,  it's  what  a  chap  saves  'at  makes  him  rich, 
HARTLEY  Budget  (1868)  43;  w.Yks.1  We  mun  teugh  an  addle 
summat.  Lan.  Colliers  addle'n  their  brass ;  an'  they'n  a  reet  to 
wear  it  as  they'n  a  mind,  WAUGH  Chimney  Cornet  (1879)  56 ; 
Give  a  mon  a  chance  of  addling  a  livin',  WESTALL  Old  Factory 
(1885)  21.4  Lan.1  m.Lan.1  A  mon's  heead  may  be  addled,  an'  his 
wage  may  be  addled.  n.Lan.1  Chs.  [Aw  con]  yeddle  my  sax- 
pence  ivery  day,  CLOUGH  B.  Bresskittle  (1879)  16;  Chs.12  Stf.1, 
Der.1  s.Not.  I've  nothing  whativer  coming  to  me  but  what  I  addle 
(J.P.K.).  Not.12  Them  line-men  addle  a  sight;  Not.3  Lin. 
SKINNER  (1671) ;  Mun  be  a  guvness,  lad,  or  summut,  and  addle 
her  bread.  TENNYSON  N.  Farmer,  New  Style  (1870)  St.  7 ;  An  addlin' 
th'  rent.  PEACOCK  Tales  and  Rhymes  (1886)  135 ;  Lin.1,  nXin.1 
sw.Lin.1  I'm  a  disablebodied  man.  and  can't  addle  owt.  Rut.1 
Lei.  Shi  kaint  ad-1  moar-  nur  te-oo  ur  thrai  shil'lin  (C.E.);  Lei.1 
Oi  ha'  addled  my  weej.  Nhp.12,  War.3,  e-An.1 

2.  To  gain,  procure  ;  to  bring  in  by  labour. 

Yks.  My  kyes'  milk  addles  most  of  my  brass,  FETHERSTON 
Farmer,  71.  Lin.  Grows  i'  the  wood,  an'  yowls  i'  the  town,  An' 
addles  its  master  many  a  crown. — Answer,  a  fiddle  (of  which  the 
strings  are  catgut),  N.  &  Q.  (1865)  3rd  S.  viii.  503.  Lei.1  A  doon't 
addle  his  maister  his  weej. 

3.  To  save,  lay  by  a  portion  of  one's  earnings. 

Yks.  My  father  had  addled  a  vast  in  trade,  And  I  were  his  son 
and  heir,  INGLEDEW Ballads  (1860)  259.  ne.Yks.1  He's  addled  a 
deal  o'  brass.  w.Yks.  Wi'  a  bit  o'  trouble  ah  addled  thegither  five 
pun'  (W.B.T.).  n.Lin.  Addle,  to  lay  by  money,  SUTTON  Wds. 
(i88O.  e-An.1  At  last  I  have  addled  up  a  little  money;  e.An.2 

4.  Of  crops,  trees,  &c. :  to  grow,  thrive,  flourish. 

n.Cy.  Addle,  to  grow  or  increase  in  size,  TOONE.      Lan.1  Addle, 
formerly  used   in   the  sense  of  to  grow,  to  increase.       Chs.123 
e-An.1  That  crop  addles.      Nrf.1      Suf.1  Fruit,  corn,  &c.  promising 
VOL.  i. 

to  ripen  well,  are  said  to  aadle:  Ta  don't  fare  to  aadle.    Ess.  Where 
luie  imbraceth  the  tree  verie  sore,  kill  luie,  or  else  tree  wil  addle 
no  more,  TUSSER  Husbandrie  (1580)  HI,  st.  6. 
Hence  Addled,  pp.  earned  ;  Addling,  vbl.  sb.    Cf.  4. 
n.Yks.2  A  ready  addled  penny  [money  easily  earned].     w.Yks.5 
It's  weel  addled.     Ess.  Ivy  will,  by  the  closeness  of  its  embraces, 
prevent   trees   from   addling,  that   is,  growing  or   increasing  in 
size,  MAVOR,  note  to  TUSSER  Husbandrie  (ed.  1812). 

[To  adle  [earn],  solarium  vel  praemium  mereri,  COLES 
(1679) ;  To  addil,  demerere,  LEVINS  Manip.  (1570) ;  To 
adylle,  commereri,  adipisci,  Calh.  Angl.  (1483) ;  Hu  mann 
mihhte  cwemenn  Godd  &  addlenn  heffness  blisse,  Ormu- 
lum  (c.  1205)  17811 ;  patt  mihhte  gilltenn  anij  gillt  &  add- 
lenn helle  pine,  ib.  17544.  CP-  ON.  ^37«,_refl.  Qillask,  to 
acquire  (for  oneself)  property,  cogn.  with  ddal,  property.] 
ADDLED,  ppl.  adj.  In  gen.  use  throughout  the  dial. 
Also  written  aiddled  Shr/  GIo.1  See  below,  [a'dld, 
e'dld.]  Rotten,  putrid ;  muddled,  confused.  See  Addle, 
sb.1  and  ad;.1  4,  5. 

N.Cy.1  Addled-eggs,  addled,  decayed,  impaired,  rotten.  ne.Lan.1 
An  addled  egg.  m.Lan.1  One's  varra  likely  to  ged  wrang  wi'  this 
word  iv  they're  nod  keerful,  because  a  mon's  heead  may  be  addled, 
an'  his  wage  may  be  addled.  Th'  fost  o'  these  fits  th'  payson  an' 
th'  last  doesn'd — mony  a  time.  Not.2  You  cannot  blow  addled 
eggs  [i.  e.  partially  hatched].  Nhp.1  War.  (J.R.W.)  s.Wor.1 
Shr.1  Aidled.  Shr.  &  Hrf.  Addled  means  corrupted,  as  'an  addled 
egg,' one  in  a  state  of  putrefaction,  or  one  left  or  forsaken  by  the  hen 
after  sitting,  BOUND  Prov.  (1876).  Hrf.2AdIed.  Glo.1  w.Som.1 
Addled  eggs  are  those  which  have  been  sat  upon  without  producing 
chickens.  Colloq.  We  have  learned  to  bottle  our  parents  twain  in 
the  yelk  of  an  addled  egg,  KIPLING  Brk.  Ballads  (1893)  Conundrum 
of  Workshops. 

ADDLING,  sb.  Rarely  sing.  See  Addle,  v1  See  below, 
[a'dlin.]  Wages,  earnings ;  savings. 

.  N.Cy.1  Addlings,  aidlings,  wages  received  for  work.  Nhb.1  He's 
had  good  addlins  this  quarter.  Dur.1  Cum.1  Aydlins,  c.  adlins,sw. 
Wm.  Addlings  hesbeen  far  better,  GIBSON  Leg.  and  Notes  (1877)  67 ; 
Wm.1  The  usual  form  is  addlins.  Yks.  Mah  wayges  is  altegither 
oot  of  all  measure  wi'  me  addlings,  WRAY  Nestleton  (1876)  41; 
Short  harvests  make  short  addlings,  SWAINSON  Weather  Flk-Lore 
(1873)18.  n.Yks.1  Poor  addlings.  Hard  addlings.  Saving's  good 
addling.  ne.Yks.1  Hard  addlins  an'  nut  mich  when  deean.  e.Yks.1 
w.Yks.5  Whoas  a  better  house  an'  I  hev  ?  an'  av  getten  it  together, 
stick  be  stick,  an'  ivvry  bit  on't,  wi  my  awan  addlings.  Lan. 
Eaut  of  his  own  addlins,  CLEGG  David's  Loom  (1894)  v.  ne.Lan.1, 
Chs.123,  Stf.1  Der.2  Addlings,  savings.  nw.Der.1  Addlings,  savings. 
Not.1,  n.Lin.1  sw.Lin.1  I  doubt  he  wears  all  his  addlings  in  drink. 
Lei.1,  Nhp.1,  War.3 

ADE,  sb.    Shr.     [id.]    A  reach  in  the  Severn. 

Shr.1  This  term  is  applied  by  navigators  of  the  Severn  to  reaches 
where  there  are  eddies  in  the  river,  as  Sweney  [sic]  Ade,  Preen's 
Ade,  &c. ;  Shr2.  Boden's  Ade,  Preen's  Ade,  Swinny  Ade,  near 
Coalport.  This  signification  is  confined  to  bargemen,  owners,  and 

ADE,  v.    Shr.    [ed.] 

Shr.  A  word  peculiar  to  Shropshire,  meaningto  cut  a  deep  gutter  or 
ditch  across  ploughed  land,  BOUND  Prov .  (1875) ;  Shr.2  Ading  down 
in  the  follow. 

[See  Aid.] 

A-DEARY  ME!  int.  In  var.  dial.,  and  colloq.  use. 
[!•  diari  mi.]  See  Deary.  Exclamation  of  sadness  or 

w.Yks.  Noabody  pities  them  'at  laups  aat  o'  th'  fryin'  pan  into  th' 
fire,  an'  it's  a  easy  matter  to  miss  it. — Aa,  dear  o'  me !  aw  think  it 
is  !  HARTLEY  DM.  ist  S.  (1868)  115.  Lin.  A  deary-me,  Mrs.  Cox, 
who'd  ha'  thowt  of  seeing  thee,  N.  &  Q.  (1865)  3rd  S.  vii.  31. 

ADEE!  int.    Wxf.    [adr.]     Ha! 


ADER,  see  Arder. 

ADIDGE,  see  Arris. 

ADIST,  prep.  Sc.  Also  written  adiest  Ayr ;  athist 
Dmf.  [adi'st,  atSi'st]  On  this  side. 

Sc.  I  wish  yow  was  neither  adist  her,  nor  ayont  her  [spoken  of 
a  woman  one  dislikes],  Prov.  (JAM.)  ;  Hegbeg  [nettle]  adist  the 
dyke,  CHAMBERS  Pop.  Rhymes  (1870)  109. 

[Adist,  at/list,  prob.  equiv.  to  on  this  (side).} 

ADLAND,  see  Headland. 





ADMIRE,  v.  In  Irel.  Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Lei.  Nhp.  War. 
Oxf.  Som.  [admai-a(r),  Lei.  admoi-a(r).] 

1.  To  wonder  at,  notice  with  astonishment. 

(a)  Used  simply,  or  with  dependent  clause. 

Wm.  Van  wad  admire  how  yau  gits  sec  cauds  [colds]  (M.P.). 
e.Yks.1  There  is  plenty  of  macreuse  in  the  markets  all  Lent,  that  I 
admire  where  they  got  so  many,  Dr.  M.  LISTER  of  York  (1698). 
w.Yks.  Admire,  wonder,  Hlfx.  Wds.  Som.  This .  . .  contented  chap 
had  had  a  longish  nap,  Ta  zlape  away  tha  winter,  I  shoodent  much 
admire,  'AGRIKLER'  Rhymes  (1872)  31.  [I  admire  it  escaped  Mr. 
Fuller  in  his  collection  ol  •  Local  Proverbs,'  MORTON  Nat.  Hist,  of 
Nhp.  (1712).  Amer.  To  wonder  at ;  to  be  affected  with  slight  sur- 
prise. In  New  England,  particularly  in  Maine,  the  word  is  used 
in  this  sense,  BARTLETT.] 

(b)  With  ace. 

e.Yks.  An  when  Ah  gat  there  ;  oh,  this  Ah  did  admeyr,  Ti  see 
so  monny  lusty  lads,  asitting  roond  the  fire,  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp. 
(1889)  49.  Chs.1  Ah  could  na  but  admoire  him,  he  looked  so 
fresh ;— and  he's  turned  seventy.  War.  (J.R.W.)  Oxf.  She  told  me 
her  husband  was  looking  so  ill  I  should  quite  admire  him,  N.  <5r=  Q. 
(1868)  4th  S.  ii.  605. 

(c)  With  at. 

Lim.'Tis  to  be  admired  at — such  a  long  distance  traversed  between 
Ireland  and  America  so  fast  (G.M.H.). 

2.  To  be  pleased,  to  like  very  much. 

Lei.1  Ah  should  admoire  to  see  er  well  took-to  [I  should  be  de- 
lighted to  see  her  well  scolded].  Nhp.1  The  child  admires  to  go 
a-walking.  I  should  admire  to  go  to  London  to  see  the  Queen.  War.3 
[Amer.  I  should  admire  to  see  the  President,  BARTLETT  (1848).] 

[1.  (a)  Hear  him  but  reason  in  divinity  And  all-admiring 
with  an  inward  wish  You  would  desire  the  king  were  made 
a  prelate,  SHAKS.  Hen.  V,  i.  i.  39 ;  Wonder  not,  nor  admire 
not  in  thy  mind,  why  I  do  call  thee  so,  Twelfth  Nt.  in.  iv.  165. 
(b)  How  can  we  sufficiently  admire  the  stupidity  or  mad- 
ness of  these  persons?  Sped.  No.  575.  (c)  These  lords  At 
this  encounter  do  so  much  admire,  SHAKS.  Temp.  v.  i.  154.] 

Hence  Admirable,  surprising,  wonderful. 

Wm.  It  is  admirable  [remarkable,  wonderful]  ;  used  by  old  per- 
sons (M.  P.).  w.Yks.  Admyrable  war  his  gambols,  CAUVERT  Slaad- 
burn  /-aw  (1871)  14;  w.Yks.3 

ADO,  v.  and  sb.    Sc.  Chs.  Nhp.  War.    [adu-.] 

1.  v.  To  do. 

Sc.  I'll  ha'e  naething  ado  wi't,  GROSE  (1790  MS.  add.  (C); 
I  have  nothing  ado,  Monthly  Mag.  (1798)  II.  436;  Had  nae  mair 
ado,  but  to  get  awa,  SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  iii.  w.Sc.  There's 
little  ado  in  the  market  to-day  (JAM.  Suppl.}. 

2.  sb.  Bustle,  confusion;  stir,  excitement,  'fuss';   Sc., 
in  pi.,  difficulties. 

Sc.  I  had  my  ain  adoes  [peculiar  difficulties]  (JAM.).  Lth.  I 
had  my  ain  adaes  wi'  him,  for  he  was  just  a  very  passionate  man, 
STRATHESK  Bits  Blinkbonny  (1891)  135.  Chs.1  Oo  made  much  adoo 
abait  it.  Nhp.1  Ado,  a  familiar  expression  of  hearty  welcome  ;  ex- 
cessive, officious  kindness.  They  always  make  such  ado  with  me, 
whenever  I  go  to  see  them  I  can  hardly  get  away.  War.  (J.R.W.) 

[1.  Ado  is  for  at  do  in  the  sense  of '  to  do ' ;  see  At.  The 
constr.  is  found  in  the  Paston  Letters :  I  woll  nowt  have 
ado  therwith,  Lett.  566.  2.  Much  Ado  about  Nothing, 
SHAKS.  ;  We[ll  keep  no  great  ado— a  friend  or  two,  R.  &*J. 
in.  iv.  23.  ME.  Ado  or  grete  bysynesse,  sollicitudo,  Prompt.] 

ADONE,  int. phr.  Sc.  Lan.  Stf.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Wor. 
Shr.  Glo.  Brks.  Hnt.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W.  [edu-n,  adirn.] 
Cease,  leave  off. 

Sc.  Ane  spak  in  wordis  wonder  crouse,  A  done  with  ane  mis- 
chance! Old  Song  (J  AM.).  ne.Lan.1  Adone,  cease,  be  quiet !  s.Stf. 
Adone,  will  yer,  I  want  to  be  quiet,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895). 
n.Lin.1  Thoo  awkerd  bairn,  a-dun  wi'  thee !  Lei.1  A  doon,  will 
ye.  Nhp.1,  s. War.  se.Wor.1  Adone  06t!  [Have  done,  will  you  !] 

A  j  n°w  w'en  J  spake'     Gl°-1      Brks.1  A  girl  would  say 

Adone  then  !  or  '  Adone  ! '  or  '  Adone  now ! '  on  her  sweetheart 
attempting  to  snatch  a  kiss.  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  Sur.1  Havea-done 
there.  Sus.1  Oh !  do  adone.  Hmp.1,  I.W.1 

[Adone  !  is  for  Have  done  !    The  expression  occurs  freq. 

i  bHAKS. :    An  if  thou  couldst,  thou  couldst  not  make  him 

live    Therefore,  have  done,  R.  &•  J.  ,„.  v.  73  ;  Therefore 

ha  done  with  words,  T.  Shrew,  in  ii.  118] 

ADONNET,  si.   Obs    Yks.  A  devil.   (The  correct  form 

B PS £  '  •' 1>V°-  J"K  ks'J°ne  sometimes  hears  the  saying, 
Better  be  in  with  that  adonnet  than  out '  (HALL.). 

Yks.  I  do  not  remember  ever  hearing  the  word  Adonnet. 
Donnet,  however,  is  a  very  commonly  used  word  (B.  K. ). 

ADOORS,  adv.  w.Yks.  Lan.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.  [adoa'z.] 
Without  the  door  or  house,  outside  ;  esp.  in  out-adoors. 

w.Yks.5  It's  warm  out  adoors  to-daay.  ne.Lan.1  Out-adoors. 
Lin.  Truly  my  brother  will  be  flung  and  thrust  out  adoores  by  head 
and  eares  with  this  gift,  BERNARD  Terence  (1629)  120.  n.Lin.' 
You're  alus  clattin'  in  and  oot  a-dOOrs.  Nhp.1  He's  gone  out 
a-doors.  War.  (J.R.W.) 

[But  what,  Sir,  I  beseech  ye,  was  that  paper  Your  Lord- 
ship was  so  studiously  employed  in  When  ye  came  out  a- 
doors?  B.  &  F.  Woman Pleased,\\.'\ ;  Nowe  shall  the  prynce 
of  this  worlde  be  cast  out  a  dores,  TINDALE/O/W  xii.  31.] 

ADOW,  adv.    Sc.  (JAM.)   [adair.]    Worth. 

Rxb.  Naething  adow. 

[A-,  ol+dow,  q.v.  Cp.  nocht  o'  dow,  of  no  value,  or 
nothing  of  worth  (JAM.,  s.v.  Dow).] 

ADOWN,  adv.    Sc.  Hnt.  Cor.    [adirn,  adetrn.]    Down. 

Sc.  His  gorgeous  collar  hung  adown,  Wrought  with  the  badge 
of  Scotland's  crown,  SCOTT  Marmion  (1808)  v.  st.  8  ;  Adown  we 
sat,  ALLAN  Lilts  (1874)  18.  Hnt.(T.P.F.)  Cor.  Nor  drive  too  fast 
adown  the  hills,  TREGELLAS  Farmer  Brown  (1857)  22. 

[An  home  of  bugle  small  Which  hong  adowne  his  side 
in  twisted  gold,  SPENSER  F.  Q.  i.  viii.  3.  Adoun  ful  softely 
I  gan  to  sinke,  CHAUCER  Leg.  G.  W.  178.  OE.  ofdune, 

ADRAD,  ppl.  adj.    Obs.    Sc.  (JAM.)    Afraid. 


[Adradd,  afraid,  much  concerned,  BAILEY  (1721).  They 
were  adrad  of  him,  as  of  the  deeth,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  A.  605. 
OE.  ofdrcedd,  frightened,  pp.  of  ofdradan,  to  dread.] 

ADREAMED,  ppl.  adj.  Wor.  Oxf.  [adri'md,  adre'mt.] 
Dreaming,  dosing. 

se.Wor.1 '  I  was  a-dreamed '  for '  I  dreamt.'  Oxf.  You  see,  ma'am, 
all  this  time  she  is  adreamt  between  sleeping  and  waking.  Ap- 
plied to  an  infant  (HALL.). 

[I  was  a  Dreamed  that  I  sat  all  alone,  BUNYAN  P.  P. 
(1693)  66 ;  Hee  is  adreamd  of  a  dry  sommer,  WITHAL 
(1634) ;  I  was  adream'd  that  I  kill'd  a  buck,  LUPTON 
(NARES).  Deriv.  of  dream,  v.  The  pref.  a-  is  prob.  due  to 
analogy.  If  the  word  adreamed  were  originally  a  west- 
country  word  it  would  be  natural  to  assume  that  the 
a-  represents  OE.  ge-  ;  see  A-  pref.2} 

ADREICH,  adv.    Sc.    [adrrx.]    At  a  distance. 

Sc.  On  painting  and  fighting  look  adreich,  HENDERSON  Prmi. 
(1832)  134,  ed.  1881.  n.Sc.  To  follow  adreich,  to  follow  at  a  con- 
siderable distance  (JAM.). 

[Throw  ane  signe  that  Quincius  maid  on  dreich,  the 
Romanis  ischit  fra  thair  tentis,  BELLENDEN  T.  Liv.  213 
GAM.).  ME.  He  bad  tham  alle  draw  tham  o  dreih,  BRUNNE 
Chron.  (1330)  194.  A-,  on  +  dreich. 

ADREICH,  adv.  Sc.  Behind,  at  a  distance.   See  Dreich. 

Sc.  The  steward  .  .  .  stood  behind,  adreich,  A.  SCOTT  Poems 
(1808  99  ;  The  word,  though  not  common,  is  still  in  use  ,G.W.  . 

ADRY,  adj.  Glo.  Brks.  Cmb.  Ess.  Ken.  Sus.  Hmp.  Wil. 
Som.  [adrai-.]  Thirsty. 

Glo.1  Brks.Ubeadry.  Cmb.  (M.J.B.)  Ess. John  was  a-dry,CLARR 
J.  Noakes  (1839)  18.  Ken.12,  Sus.1,  Hmp.1  Wil.  Who  lies  here? 
Who  do  'e  think,  Why,  old  Clapper  Watts,  if  you'll  give  him  some 
drink;  Give  a  dead  man  drink?— for  why?  Why;  when  he  was 
alive  he  was  always  a-dry,  Epitaph  at  Leigh  Delamere,  ELWORTHY. 

[You  may  as  well  bid  him  that  is  sick  of  an  ague, 
not  to  be  adry,  BURTON  Anal.  Mel.  (1621)  278,  ed.  1836. 
A-(pref.10)  +  ary.] 

ADVANCE,  v.  Som.  Dev.  [adva-ns.]  Used  refl. ;  to 
push  oneself  forward. 

w.Som.1  Waut  shud  ee-  udvaa'ns  ee-z-zuul  vaur  ?  [what  shovild 
he  push  himself  forward  for  ?]  A  good  singing-bird  was  thus 
described  :  Ee  due  udvaa-ns  uz'zuul  su  boal-z  u  luyunt  [he  does 
come  forward  (in  the  cage)  as  boldly  as  a  lion].  Dev.  A  woman 
is  said  to  advance  herself  when  she  sets  her  arms  akimbo  and  gives 
one  a  bit  of  her  mind  (P.F.S.A.). 

[Avaunce  yourselfe  to  aproche,  SKELTON,  Bowge  of 
Courte,  88  (N.E.D.).  OFr.  avancer,  to  set  forward.] 

ADVISED,  ppl.  adj.  Obs.  n.Cy.  Nrf.  With  of:  ac- 
quainted with,  aware  of. 




n.Cy.  I  am  not  advised  of  it,  I  am  not  acquainted  of  it,  HOLLO- 
WAY.  Nrf.  I  an't  advised  of  it,  I  can't  recollect  it,  or  am  ignorant 
of  it,  GROSE  (1790). 

[But  art  them  not  advised  ?  (i.  e.  haven't  you  been  in- 
formed ?),  SHAKS.  T.  Shrew,  i.  i.  191 ;  Advised  by  good  in- 
telligence Of  this  most  dreadful  preparation,  ib.  Hen.  V,  n. 
Prol.  12.  Fr.  aviser,  to  advise,  counsel,  warn,  tell,  inform, 
do  to  wit,  give  to  understand  (CoxoR.).] 

ADVISEMENT,  sb.    Sc.     Advice,  counsel. 
Sc.  There  came  never  ill  after  good  advisement, RAMSAY/V0t/.(i737). 

ADWANG,  see  Dwang. 

AE,  see  A,  All,  Aye,  Ea. 

AEFALD,  adv.  Sc.  Also  written  afald.  [e'fald.] 
Simple,  honest,  without  duplicity  or  deceit. 

Sc.  I  was  aefaald  aye  wi  Him,  WADDELL  Ps.  (1891)  xviii.  23. 
S.  &  Ork.1 

Hence  Aefaldness,  sb.  honesty,  uprightness,  single- 
ness of  heart  (C.D.). 

[Aefa/d  is  the  Sc.  form  of  the  older  northern  anfald, 
single,  simple,  sincere,  found  in  Ormulum  and  Cursor 
Miinii'i.  OE.  anfald,  an,  one+fatd,  -fold.] 

AEHY,  int.     Nhb.     [ei1.]     Oh !  ah ! 

Nhb.  'Ae-hy,  ae-hy,'  kih  she,  'azesueraws  reel,'  BEWICK  Howdy 
(1850)  9. 

AERN,  see  Erne. 

AETH-,  see  Eath-. 

AF-,  see  Off-. 

AFEAR,  v.     Obs.    Nhp.    To  frighten. 

Nhp.2  That  dwant  afear  ma. 

[And  ghastly  bug  does  greatly  them  affeare,  SPENSER 
F.  Q.  n.  iii.  20.  The  word  is  of  freq.  occurrence  in  P.  Plow- 
man. OE.  afceran,  to  terrify.] 

AFEAR(D,  conj.  In  gen.  use  in  van  dial.  Also  by 
aphaeresis  feard.  Lest,  for  fear.  Cf.  afraid. 

Nhb.  In  common  use  (R.O.H.).  Yks.  (J.W.)  e-Lan.1  s.Chs.1 
Go  an'  tine  them  gaps,  feared  lest  the  key  [cows]  getten  in.  ne.Wor. 
Don't  you  go  there,  afeared  the  bobby  should  see  you  (J.W.P.). 
Ess.  We  didn't  stop  .  .  .  Afear  the  Owd  un  sh'd  come  out,  DOWNE 
Ballads  (1895)  19.  Ess.1  Do  you  bathe  ?—  Ny,  zir.  Why  not  ? — 
Feard  a  bin  drownded. 

AFEARD,  adj.  In  gen.  dial,  use  throughout  Sc.  Irel. 
and  Eng.  See  below,  [afia'rd,  afia'd.]  Afraid,  frightened, 
struck  with  fear  or  terror. 

Sc.  Afeir'd,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.).  Ir.  The  bit  of  a  house 
there  does  be  that  quite  and  lonesome  on  me  .  .  .  that  I'm  afeard, 
troth  it's  afeard  I  am  goin'  back  to  it,  BARLOW  Idylls  (1892)  153. 
N.I.1  Wxf.1  Aferdth.  Nhb.1  Aa  was  afeard  ye  warn't  comin'. 
Cum.1  Afear't  (not  often  heard).  Wm.1  ne.Yks.1  Ah's  sadly 
afeai'd  on't.  e.Yks.1  Afeeahd.  w.Yks.  Ize  nane  afeard,  DIXON 
Craven  Dales  (1881)  180.  Lan.  I'm  much  afeard  there's  but  little, 
GASKELL  M.  Barton  (1848)  v  ;  Lan.1  Get  on  wi'  thee  mon ;  what  arto 
afeard  on  ?-  Chs.1  Come  on  !  who's  afeart  ?  s.Stf.  I  bai'  afeard  o' 
thee.  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895).  Stf.1 2  Der.  He  was  afeard  on 
the  Governor  too,  LE  FANU  Uncle  Silas  (1865)  II.  50;  Der.2  s.Not. 
Ah'm  non  afeard  o'  him  (J.P.  K.).  Not.1  n.Lin.  The  good  woman 
was  nearly  as  much  afeard  as  you  were,  PEACOCK  R.  Skit-laugh 
(1870)  I.  49.  n-Lin.1,  Lei.1  Nhp.1  Afeard,  a  good  old  word  still 
current  amongst  our  villagers.  War.123,  se.Wor.1  Shr.1  Yo 
needna  be  afeard  o'  gwei'n  through  the  leasow,  they'n  mogged 
[moved]  the  cow  as  'iled  poor  owd  Betty  Mathus ;  Shr.2  Hrf.2 
I'm  a'most  afeared.  Glo.  Ur  were  flitting  about  i'  the  night 
afeared  most  despert,  GISSING  Vill.  Hampden  (1890)  I.  vi;  Glo.1 
Brks.1  'E  bent  aveard,  be  'e  ?  [You  are  not  afraid,  are  you  ?]  n.Bck. 
(A.C.)  Hrt. Who's  afeard?  (H.G.)  Hnt.(T.P.F.)  e-An.1  Nrf. 
I'm  afeard  that  flour  will  be  hained  [increased  in  price]  again 
next  week  (W.R.E.).  Suf.(C.T.);  Suf.1  Afeard  is  still  much  used. 
Ess.  Why  they  wornt  afeared  I  ne'er  could  understand,  DOWNE 
Ballads  (1895)  22;  Ess.1,  Ken.1  Sur.  You  shall  have  a  glass, 
donna  be  afeared,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  I.  i ;  Sur.1  Sns. 
Every  man  has  got  his  soord  upon  his  thigh,  cause  dey  be  afaird 
in  de  night,  LOWER  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  iii.  8  ;  Sus.^Hmp.1  I.W.  I  was 
afeard  to  goo  in  and  lay  down  and  leave  the  yowes,  GRAY  Annesley 
(.1889;  III.  173;  i.w.i :  Wil.1  Dor.1  I  bcn't  afeard  To  own  it,  302. 
w.Som.1  Waut  be  ufee'urd  oa  ?  [what  are  you  afraid  of?]  Dev. 
Whot's  aveard  o'  now,  yii  stupid  ?  Dith  zim  he'll  bite  thee  ?  HEWETT 
Peas.  Sp.  (1892) ;  Dev.1  Cor.  I  shoudn't  be  afeerd  to  travel  oal 
hover  London,  Jimmy  Trebilcock  (1863)  10  ;  Cor.1  I'm  afeard  of  my 
life  to  go  upstairs  arter  dark. 

[I  am  afeard  you  make  a  wanton  of  me,  SHAKS.  Ham.v. 
ii.  310  ;  So  wys  he  was  shejwas  no  more  afered,  CHAJUCER 
Tr.  &•  Cr.  in.  482.  OE.  afcered,  frightened,  pp.  of  afceran  ; 
see  Afear.] 

AFER,  see  Aver. 

AFFBEND,  v.  Sh.I.  [a-fbend.]  To  remove  the  furni- 
ture from  a  peat-pony. 

S.  &  Ork.1 

[Aff,  off  +  bend,  used  in  the  sense  of  harnessing  a  horse 
to  a  cart :  Then  Joseph  bended  his  charett  fast  (juncto 
curnt,  Vulg.),  COVERDALE  Gen.  xlvi.  29.  OE.  benaan,  to 
fasten,  to  bind.] 

AFFEIRING,  prp.  Sc.  [afia'rin.]  Appertaining  to, 

Slk.  It's  no  sae  ill,  affeiring  to  [said  of  any  work  done  by  a 
person  who  could  not  have  been  expected  to  do  it  so  well]  (JAM.). 

[Prp.  of  affeir,  to  belong,  pertain ;  also  written  effeir. 
Under  great  sums  effeiring  to  their  condition  and  rank, 
Act  Council  (1683)  in  WODROW  Hist.  Church  Scotland  (1721) 
II.  318.  AFr.  afferir,  to  belong,  pertain  ;  Lat.  ad,  to  +ferire, 
to  strike,  hence,  to  affect.  Cp.  COTGR  :  Afferant  (the  par- 
ticiple of  the  Impersonal  affiert],  beseeming  or  becoming ; 
also,  concerning  or  belonging  to.  See  Effeir.] 

AFFLUDE,  v.  Sh.  I.  To  injure  the  looks  or  appearance 
of  anything ;  disguise. 

Sh.I.  To  change  the  appearance,  to  disguise  ;  of  clothes,  to  be 
unbecoming  (W.A.G.).  S.  &  Ork.1 

[Cp.  Dan.  lod,  colour.] 

AFFLUFE,  AFF  LOOF,  adv.     Sc. 

1.  Without  book,  offhand.    To  repeat  anything  'afflufe'  is 
to  deliver  it  merely  from  memory  QAM.). 

2.  Extempore,  without  premeditation. 

Sc.  Whene'er  I  shoot  wi'  my  air  gun,  'Tis  ay  affloof,  DAVIDSON 
Seasons  (1789)  183.  Per.  Afflufe.  in  two  words,  are  still  commonly 
used.  e.g.  Aff  lufe  speaking,  extempore  speaking  (G.W.).  Lnk. 
How  snackly  could  he  gi'e  a  fool  reproof,  E'en  wi'  a  canty  tale 
he'd  tell  aff  loof,  RAMSAY  Poems  (ed.  i8ooN  II.  n  (JAM.).  Ayr. 
I  shall  scribble  down  some  blether  Just  clean  aff-loof,  BURNS 
Epistle  to  John  Lapraik  (1785). 

3.  Forthwith,  immediately,  out  of  hand  (JAM.). 
[Aff-,  off  +  loof,  q.v.j 

AFFODILL,s6.  Chs.  Also  in  the  form  affrodile  Chs.123; 
haverdril  Chs.1  [a'fadil,  a'fradil.]  The  daffodil,  Narcissus 

Chs.  Affrodile,  Narcissus  pseudo-narcissus,  but  the  Cheshire  word 
is  really  Havrdril ;  Chs.12;  Chs.3'  Flower  of  Affadille ' is,  in  an  old 
Lincoln  Cathedral  manuscript,  recommended  as  a  cure  for  madness. 

\Affrodille,  th'  Affodille  or  Asphodill  flower.  Hache  royalle, 
theAffodille  orAsphodillflower;  especially  (the  small-kind 
thereof  called)  the  Speare  for  a  king,  COTGR.  M.Lat. 
affodillus  (Prompt.},  Lat.  asphodilus,  Gr.  dff^ooVXdr.] 

AFFORDANCE,  sb.  Cum.  [afua'dans.]  Ability  to  bear 

Cum.  Quite  right,  if  you  are  of  affordance  [if  you  can  afford  it].  It's 
beyond  my  affordance  [more  than  I  can  afford]  (W.  K.  V  n.Cum.  Not 
known  round  Coniston  ;  but  in  the  district  round  Wigton  and  the 
wideand  isolated  district  ofthe  Abbey  Holme  the  word  'affordance' 
is  well  known  and  generally  used  (T.E.).  Cum.1  Affwordance. 

[A  deriv.  of  afford,  v.  (OE.  geforcfian,  to  advance,  per- 
form) +  -ance,  a  Fr.  suffix.] 

AFFRONT,  v.  Sc.  [afru'nt.]  To  disgrace,  put  to  shame. 

Gall.  At  your  time  o'  life,  to  dress  up  for  a  young  man  ;  I'm 
black  affrontit,  CROCKETT  Raiders  i  1894;  xxxiii. 

AFFRONT,  sb.     Sc.      Disgrace,  shame. 

Per.  He  hasna  an  affront  [he  cannot  be  put  to  shame,  '  past 
feeling ']  (G.W.). 

Hence  Affrontless,  adj. 

Abd.  Not  susceptible  of  disgrace  or  shame  (JAM.).  Per.  He's 
affrontless  [shameless,  past  feeling]  (G.W.). 

AFFRUG,  sb.  Sh.  I.  [afrtrg.]  A  spent  wave  receding 
from  the  shore. 

S.  &  Ork.1  Affrug  of  the  sea ;  Affrug  or  Aff-bod,  MS.  add. 

[Lit.  a  pull-back.  Cp.  Dan.  a/,  off  +  ryk,  a  hasty  pull  or 
movement ;  ON.  rykkr,  cogn.  with  rykkja,  to  pull  roughly 
and  hastily.] 

AFFURST,  see  Athirst. 

D   2 




AFIELD,  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  Dun  Nhp.  War.  Brks.  [afi'W, 
avi-ld.l  Abroad,  out  in  or  into  the  fields.  ,.,..,, 

Ayr.  My  only  pleasure  At  hame,  a-fiel',  *^.  *"**&£ 
Davit.    Wxf.iAveel(0fa.).     Dur.i  Tek  the  cows  afield      Nhp^The 
master's  gone  a-field;  Nhp.2  Wheer'smaester?-Up  afield.     War. 
He's  gone  afield  [on  the  farmlands].    Brks.1  A  farmer  .s  said  to  be 
'  gone  avield '  when  he  has  gone  to  walk  about  his  farm. 

\A-,  on  +  field.] 

AFIRE,  adv.  Nhb.  Wm.  Chs.  War.  Dev.  [afara(r), 
avai'a(r).]  On  fire. 

Nhb.1  Ma  keel's  aa  afire,  ma  fortin's  aa  spoiled,  CORVAN  Keel 
Afire  (z.  1865).  Win.1,  Chs.1  War.  (J.R.W.)  Dev.  Urn,  Zue, 
vatch  zom  zalt!  Tha  chimbly's  avire  !  HEWETT  Peas.  Sf,  (1892). 

A-FLAT,  adv.    Sc.    Flat. 

Fif.  There  a  jumper  falls  aflat  upon  the  mould,  TENNANT  Anst. 
Fair  (1812)  xxvii. 

AFLAUGHT,  adv.    Sc.  GAM.)    [sfla'xt]    Lying  flat. 


[A-,  on  +flaucht  (flaught),  q.v.] 

AFLEY,  v.    Sc.    Obsol.    To  dismay,  discomfit. 

Sc.  Afley,  in  pp.  dismayed,  frightened ;  still  used.  The  herds 
would  gather  in  their  nowt . . .  HafBins  afley'd  to  bide  thereout.  FER- 
GUSSON  King's  Birthday  (c.  1774)  2,  ed.  1845  (N.E.D.). 

[OE.  qfliegan  (Merc,  aflegan),  to  put  to  flight ;  see  Fley.J 

AFLUNTERS,  adv.    w.Yks.    In  a  state  of  disorder. 

w.Yks.  Aflunters,  disarranged, Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (Apr.  18,  1891); 
Her  hair  all  aflunters  (B.K.). 

[A-,  on  +  flunter,  q.v.] 

AFOOT,  adv.    Sc.  Cum.  n.Yks.    [afi't,  n.Yks.  sfia't.] 

1.  Up  and  about ;  esp.  able  to  stand  and  walk  after  an 


Wm.  &  Cum.1  What  ailsta,  Jammy,  Thou's  sae  soon  a-fit,  CLARK 
Seymon  and  Jammy  (1779)  1.  i.  n.Yks.2  It'll  be  a  whent  while 
afoore  he's  affeeat  ageean  [a  long  time  before  he  is  well]. 

2.  Fig.  to  get  afoot,  to  make  a  start  or  beginning. 
n.Yks.2  Hae  ye  getten  afeeat  wi'  t'  job  ? 

[Mischief,  thou  art  afoot.  Take  thou  what  course  thou 
wilt !  SHAKS.  /.  Caesar  in.  ii.  265  ;  To  pleye  and  walke  on 
fote,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  F.  390.  A-,  on  +foot.] 

AFORCE,  v.     Nhb.     [afur's.] 

Nhb.  To  hole  a  board  into  an  adjoining  board  unintentionally, 
GREENWELL  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1849)  ; 

[The  word  occurs  freq.  in   HAMPOLE'S  Psalter  in  the 
sense  of 'to  constrain.'    AFr.  aforcer,  OFr.  esforcier;  Rom. 
exfortiare,  to  force,  constrain  ;  deriv.  of  Lat./orfe,  strong.] 
AFORCED,  ppl.  adj.    e.Yks.    Forced,  compelled. 
e.Yks.1  Ah  was  afooaced  tl  gang  alang  tl  gaol,  19. 
AFORE,  adv.  ,o>«/.and  prep.  Ingen.  use  in  var.  dial,  of  Sc. 
Irel.Eng.    Also  written  afoor  Nhb. Cum.  Lan.  Suf.;  afooar 
e.Yks.  Wm. ;  aforne  e.An. ;  atvore  Glo. ;  avore,  avoore 
sw.  counties ;  avaur,  avaurn  Som.     [afoa'fr),  avoa'(r).] 
1.  Of  time  :  before,  ere. 

Sc.  [He]  wan  there  afore  the  time  (JAM.).     Abd.  Wer  ither  herd 

thol't  aye  afore  To  lie  ayontthe  byre,  Goodwife  (1867)  ver.  8.     Edb. 

Afore  I  was  fifteen  years  old,  SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  ix.       Gall. 

Afore  they  could  let  him  gang,  CROCKETT  Stickit  Min.  (1893)  24. 

Ir.  They'll  be  gettin'  oodles  o'  money  on  at  the  fair  afore  Lent, 

BARLOW  Idylls  (1892)57.    N.I.1   Nhb.  We'll  hae  anither  fishing  bout 

Afore  we're  taen  awa',  Coquet  Dale  Sngs.  (1852)  59;   Nhb.1    Dur.1 

Cum.3  We  teuk  a  gud  leuk  at  him  afoor  anybody  spak,  i.       Wm 

Afore  we  com,  Knitters  e'  Dent  (Doctor,  ed.    1848)  560.       n.Yks. 

Ah  niwer  knew  t'rooad  .  .  .  seea  shooat .  .  .  afooar,  TWEDDELL 

Clevel.  Rhymes  (1875)  64.       ne.Yks.1  He'll  mebbe  cum  afoor  neet. 

e.Yks.  He  hadn't  geean  monny  yards  afooar  he  fell  ower  summat, 

NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  33.       w.Yks.  A've  dubbled  t'neiv,  afoar 

ta  day ,  PRESTON  Poems,  &c.  (1864)  4 ;  w.Yks.1  That  niwer  com  across 

my  brain  afoar,  ii.  324 ;  w.Yks.5  I  sal  be  off  afore  long.      Lan.  Afore 

the  week  wur  eawt,  BANKS  Munch.  Man  (1876)  viii ;   I've  hed  things 

stown  afoor  to-day,  BOWKER  7afcs(i882)65;  Lan.1     Chs.  Awcannot 

tell  yo'  very  much  afore,  YATES  Owd  Peter,  i.  8  ;    Chs.12       Stf.1 

nw.Der.1  Three  year  afore  [three  eeu-r  ufoau-r].     He  went  an  hour 

afore  us  [ee  went  un)aawurufoauT  irz].    s.Not.  Ah  seed  it  afore  yo 

(J.P.K.).     Lin.  An'  'e  maade  the  bed  as 'e  ligs  on  afoor 'e  coom'd  to 

the  shire,  TENNYSON  N.  Farmer,  New  Style  (1870)  st.  7.     se.Wor.1 

w.Wor.1  Come  an'  see  we  afore  yu  goes  awaay.       s.War.  'Ebe  a 

wik  fool  az  gits  up  afore  egooas  t'bed,  Why  John  (G.H.T.)  (Coll. 

L.L.B.).       Shr.l'E's  bin  theer  afore  I  know,  so  dunna  tell  me 

Shr.2  Afore  lung,  before  long.       Hrf.  Thou  hadst  ought  to  a  come 

afore,  Flk-Lore  Jrn.  ^886)  IV.  ,66.  Glo  [I]  lukkd  at  thaay 
ateers  avore  y  yad  mi  ta,  BUCKMAN  Darkei ;  Sojourn  (1890 ,136. 
Brks.  He  made  his  braags  avoore  he  died  HUGHES  Scour.  White 
Horse  (1859)  vii.  Mid.  Afore  you  takes  your  snooze,  DICKENS 
Mutual  Friend  (1865)  bk.  iv.  i.  Hnt.  Afore  long  (T.P.F.).  Nrf. 
The  year  afore  that  he  kinder  did  for  my  tunnips,  JESSOPP  Arcady 
1887)  iii  82  Snf.  I'll  goon  him  such  a  hidm'  as  he  niver  had 
afoor,  e.An.  Dy.  Times  (1892).  Ess.  You  'ont  want  to  be  there 
ong  Afore  you  say  my  wahrd  is  right,  DOWNE  Ballads  (1895)  '!• 
Sur  >  Sus.  Afore  I  know'd  what  I  was  about,  LOWER  Sng.  Sol. 
(1860)  vi  12  n.Wil.  What  the  men  call  •  the  dark  days  afore 
Christmas,'  JEFFERIES  Wild  Life  (1879)  98.  Dor.  Avore  we  git  to 
Temple  Coombe.  YOUNG  Rabin  Hill  (1867)  22  ;  Dor.1  Avore  the 
east  begun  to  redden,  57.  Som.  If  his  veace  was  beautivul  avore, 
LEITH  Lemon  Verbena  (1895)  51.  Dev.  It  mad  'em  laugh  more 
than  they  did  avore.  Reports  Provinc.  (1886)  90.  n.Dev.  Ad  !  chell 
ream  my  heart  to  tha  avore  Ise  let  that  tha  lipped,  Exm.  Scold. 
(1746)  1.  17.  Dev.3  Her's  like  a  duck  avore  day.  Cor.  Our  boy, 
tie  wor  to  school  a  bit  afore  aw  pitched  to  bal,  FORFAR  Pentowan 
(1859)  i.  7;  Cor.1  He  took  me  up  afore  I  were  down  [corrected 
me  before  I  had  made  a  mistake]. 

2.  Of  preference :  rather  than,  in  preference  to,  better 

w.Yks.5  Afore  al  du  that  al  heit  haay  wi  a  horse  !  nw.Der.1  '. 
clem  afore  I'll  work  for  that  muney  [au)ll  tlaem  ufoau-r  au)ll 
wuur-k  fur  dhaat-  mimi].  swXin.1  There's  nothing  afore  bramble- 
vinegar  [vinegar  made  of  blackberries]  fora  cough.  I  reckon  there's 
nowt  afore  spring  waiter.  Wil.  Gie  I  a  English  shartharn  afor  a 
Alderney,  '  AGRIKLER  '  Rhymes  (1872)  20.  w.Som.1  Avore  I'd  be 
beholdin  to  he,  I'd  work  my  vingers  to  bones. 

3.  In  front,  before,  in  the  presence  of. 

Sc.  He  ran  on  afore  GAM.)  ;  He  wad  hae  liked  ill  to  hae  come 
in  ahint  and  out  afore  them  this  gate,  SCOTT  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xxxvi. 
Ayr.  Ae  Hairst  afore  the  Sherramoor,  I  mind't  as  weel's  yestreen, 
BURNS  Halloween  (1785).  Nhb.  Wi'  canny  care  she  claps't 
afore  them,  GRAHAM  Maori.  Dia.  (1826)  6 ;  Nhb.1  Can  on  afore. 
Wm.1  It's  reet  afooar  tha.  n.Yks.2  Ahint  an'  afoore,  behind  and 
before.  w.Yks.  Mah  vaineyird  'at  is  maine,  is  afoor  mah,  LITTLE- 
DALE  Craven  Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  viii.  12 ;  w.Yks.5  Gehr  afore  him  an' 
keep  afore  him.  Lan.1  Now,  Sally,  gan  thi  ways  afore  me,  an' 
oppen  t'door,  WAUGH  Jannock  (1874)  iii.  s.Chs.1  s.Stf.  He 
come  an'  stood  right  afore  me,  PINNOCK  Bk.  Cy.  Arm.  (1895). 
nw.Der.1  He's  a  mile  afore  me  [ee)z  ii  mahy'l  ufoau-r  m6e]. 
Where  is  Sam? — He's  afore  [weeu-r  is  Saarn'  ?  6e)z  ufoau-r]. 
Der.2  Doff  thy  hat  mon,  afore  thy  betters.  Shr.1  Theer  wuz  the 
child  right  afore  the 'orse.  Brks.1  Avorn  is  '  before  him.'  Avoort 
is  '  before  it.'  Sur.  He's  afore  you  entirely,  HOSKYNS  Talpa  (1852) 
183.  Wil.  Vootsteps  did  rouse  my  pensive  ears,  An  he  avore 
I  stood,  SLOW  Rhymes  (1889)  21.  Som.  Get  avaur  un,  stoopid, 
JENNINGS  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1869).  w.Som.1  A  little  knot  of  flowers 
avore  the  house.  Captain's  the  best  oss  to  go  avore.  n.Dev.  And 
whare  a  wou'd  be  ovore  or  no,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  14. 

4.  Until. 

w.Som.1  Us  can  wait  avore  you  be  ready,  sir.  Uur  oan  lat-n 
uloa'un  uvoa'ur  ee-z  u-broakt  [she  will  not  leave  it  alone  until  it 
is  broken].  n.Dev.  Th'arst  always  a  vustled  up  ...  avore  zich 
times  as  Neckle  Halse  comath  about,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  !•  Io8- 

5.  Comp.  Afore  all,  nevertheless ;  -fit,  indiscriminately, 
all  without  exception  (JAM.)  ;    -hand,   aforran,  before- 
hand, ready ;  -long,  shortly ;  -time,  formerly ;  yene,  over 

n.Dev.Yeet  avore  oil,  avore  voak.  tha  wut  lustree,  Extn.  Scold. 
(1746)  1.  291.  Frf.  Some  says  ye  mak  them  up  aforehand,  BARRIE 
Thrums  (1889)  39.  n.Cy.  Aforran,  in  store,  in  reserve  (HALL.). 
Nhb.1  Nowt  aforran,  nothing  ready.  Cum.3  It's  o'  settl't  afoorhan'. 
n.Yks.  Bill  axt  ma  afooarhand  what  Ah  thowt,  TWEPDELL  Clevel. 
Rhymes  (1875)  66.  e.Yks.1  Ah  likes  ti  gan  tl  chotch  a  bit  afooar- 
hand. Noo,  get  on  wi'  thi  wahk;  Jack's  afooarhand  o'  tha.  MS. 
add.  (T.H.)  w.Som.1  Mind  you  get  em  in  readiness  avore-hand. 
Aay  wuz  uvoa-ran'z  wai  un,  vur  au~l  u  wuz  zu  kluvur[I  outwitted 
him  (or  got  the  better  of  him),  notwithstanding  that  he  was  so 
clever].  Dur.1  See  y'agen  afore  lang.  n.Yks.1 ;  n.Yks.2  Riddy 
for  off  afoorelang  [ready  to  set  out  soon].  It'll  happen  afoorelang 
gans  [it  will  happen  at  no  distant  period].  nXin.1,  Lei.1  Nhp.1 
I  shall  go  afore  long.  Glo.  It's  you  as  ought  to  go  before  the  magis- 
trates, and  will  do  afore  long,  GISSING  Vill.  Hampden  (1890)  I.  »• 
Som.  Come  it  did,  sure  enuff,  avore  lang,  LEITH  Lemon  Verbena 
(l895)  38-  n.Yks.2  An  aud  afooretimes  body,  an  antiquated  per- 
sonage. ne.Lan.1  n.Lin.  Thaay  was  big  foaks  afooretime  (M.P.); 
n.Lin.1  Som.  Afore-yenc,  over  against,  directly  in  front  of  (HALL.') 




6.  Phr.  to  live  afore  the  friend,  to  live  on  the  charity  of 

w.Yks.  A  chap  hez  a  deal  to  swallo  when  he'z  livin'  afore  t'l'riend 
J.  R.  • 

[If  I  do  not . . .  drive  all  thy  subjects  afore  thee  like  a 
flock  of  wild-geese,  SHAKS.  i  Hen.  IV,  n.  iv.  152.  ME.  To 
hem  that  riche  were  afore,  GOWER  C.  A.  n.  88.  OE.  on- 
fomn,  before.] 

AFORWARD,  adv.    Glo.     Forward,  in  front. 

Glo.  Get  the  wurk  avorard,  carnt  ee  !  (S.S.B.)  ;  A  shepherd 
would  tell  his  dog  to  '  go  avorard,'  meaning  '  get  ahead  of  the 
sheep'  (J.D.R.i. 

\_A-,  on  +  forward,  q.  v.] 

AFRAID,  conj.  Irel.  and  var.  dial,  [afre'd.]  Also  for 
afraid,  and,  by  aphaeresis,  fraid.  Lest,  for  fear  that. 

Ir.  I  put  it  there,  afraid  you  should  find  it.  I  wouldn't  go  out 
to-day  afraid  I  should  miss  you  (A.S.P.)  ;  I  wouldn't  undertake 
to  say  for  fraid  I'd  tell  a  lie,  YEATS  Flk.  Tales  (1888)  187.  Dub. 
Run  indoors,  God  bless  you,  for  afraid  the  cows  'd  run  over  you 
[said  to  a  child  by  a  man  driving  cows]  (G.M.H.).  nXin.1  She 
weant  goa  by  trip-traains  for  fraaid  o'  sum'ats  happenin'.  ne.Wor 
I'll  just  go  with  you  part  of  the  way,  afraid  you  shouldn't  find  it 
•J.W.P.).  Suf.  I  shall  put  on  my  hat  afraid  I  shall  catch  cold 
(Common.  '  For  afraid  '  is  less  common)  (F.H.). 

{Afraid  (conj.),  contr.  for  '  being  afraid.'  For  afraid  is 
due  to  association  with  the  phr.  '  for  fear.'  Afraid  is  pp. 
of  affray,  vb.  to  frighten,  AFr.  affrayer,  OFr.  effreer,  esfreer.] 

AFRAWL,  prep.   Won  Suf.    [afrp-l.]   For  all,  in  spite  of. 

se.Wor.1  '  Now,  Billy,  thee  cossn't  come  this  a-road.'  Billy :  '  I 
sh'll  come  afrawl  thee.'  Suf.  Afrawl,  for  all,  in  spite  of  (HALL.). 


AFRESH,  adv.  and  adj.    In  gen.  use.     [afre'J.j 

1.  adv.    Over  again. 

Brks.1  Thee  hast  done  the  job  zo  bad  thee  mus'  do't  avresh. 

2.  adj.    Unknown  before,  new,  fresh. 

Stf.2  It's  naut  afresh  far  im  ta  bei  drunk.  Brks.1  A  be  a-doin' 
things  in  the  parish  as  be  quite  avresh. 

[1.  Dead  Henry's  wounds  Open  their  congeal'd  mouths 
and  bleed  afresh,  SHAKS.  Rich.  Ill,  i.  ii.  56.  A-  (prob.  =  of, 
as  in  anew)  +  fresh.  2.  As  an  adj.  afresh  is  prob.  not 
exactly  the  same  word  as  that  above  ;  the  a-  representing 
in  this  case  not  of,  but  the  pref.  surviving  in  western 
dial,  from] 

AFRIST,  adv.  Sc.  QAM.)  [afri'st]  On  trust  or  in  a 
state  of  delay. 

Sc.  All  ills  are  good  afrist,  Prov. 

[A-,  on  +  frist.  ON.  frestr,  OE.  fierst,  space  of  time, 
respite.  ME.  Do  bou  nouth  on  frest,  Hav.  1337).] 

AFRO,  v.    Sh.  I.    To  dissuade. 

Sh.I.  (W. A.G.,  Coll.  L. L. B.)       S.  &  Ork.1 

[Dan.  afraade,  to  dissuade  (cp.  G.  abraten) ;  Dan.  of, 
off+raade,  to  advise;  ON.  rafta,  OE.  rcedan.] 

AFRONT,  «<&.  Yks.Lan.  War.  Brks.  [afnrnt,  avnrnt] 
In  front. 

w.Yks.5  He  wur  afront  an'  we  wur  aback  on  him.  ne.Lan.1 
War.  (J.R.W.)  Brks.1  Thee  get  on  avront  o'  I,  ther  yent  room 
vor  us  bwo-ath  in  the  paath. 

[A-,  on  +  front.} 

AFRORE,  ppl.  adj.  sw.  counties  only.  Hmp.  Dor.  Som. 
Dev.  Also  written  avrore  Dor.1  Dev. ;  avraur,  avroared 
Dev.  See  below,  [afroa'(r),  avroa'(r).]  Frozen,  stiff  with 

s.Hmp.  Ye  must  be  nigh  famished,  and  afrore  too,  VERNEY  L.  Lisle 
(1870)  xxiii.  Hmp.1  Froar,  Vrore.  Dor.1  Som.  My  vingers  be 
all  a-vraur,  JENNINGS  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1869).  n.Dev.  Tha  chield's 
avroared,  tha  conkerbells  Be  hangin  to  un,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867) 
5 ;  Or  whan  'tes  avore  [misprint :  1771  has  avrore]  or  a  scratcht, 
Exni.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  123 ;  Avrore,  frozen,  frosty,  Exmore,  GROSE 
(1790).  Dev.1  'Twas  so  hard  avrore  that  the  juggy-mirc  was  all 
one  clitch  of  ice,  pt.  iii.  18.  nw.Dev.1 

[OE.  gefroren,  pp.  offreosan,  to  freeze.] 

AFT,  adv.    n.Yks.    [aft] 

1.  Backward,  in  fig.  sense. 

n.Yks.2  They  went  aft,  instead  o'  forrat  [met  with  reverses 
rather  than  things  favourable]. 

2.  As  super/. 

n.Yks.2  Aftest,  the  hindmost,  the  laziest  of  the  lot. 

AFT-CROP,  A*.    Sc.     Written  eft-,  eff.. 
1.  After-crop,  also  called  tail-crop,  i.e.  the  grass  that  springs 
up  among  the  stubble  after  the  crop  is  cut  (JAM.  Suppl.).  2. 
A  crop  of  the  same  kind  as  the  ground  yielded  last  year  (ib.). 
3.  Aft-crop  is  the  same  as  aftermath. 

Gall.  (A.W.) 

AFT-CROP,  v.  Sc.  (JAM.  Suppl.)  Written  eff-.  To 
after-crop,  i.  e.  to  take  two  successive  crops  of  the  same 
kind  from  a  field. 

Per.  Tenants  were  restricted  not  to  eff-crop  the  infield  [not  to 
take  two  successive  crops  of  oats],  ROBERTSON  Agric.  (1799)  23. 

AFTER,  prep.,  adv.,  v.,  and  adj.  (in  comp.)  Var.  dial. 
uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  Eng.  See  below,  [a'fto(r),  e-fta(r).] 

1.  prep.  Of  place :  following  the  course  of,  alongside  of. 
Alsojig.  following,  in  accordance  with. 

aLin.1  \_Fig.  sense]  He  said  his  peace  wo'd  for  wo'd  efter  th'  book. 
Nhp.1  Go  arter  the  hedge.  Glo.1  Go  athirt  that  ere  ground,  and 
you'll  find  the  path  after  the  hedge.  Som.  After,  along  (J.  S.  F.  S. ) ; 
W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873). 

2.  Behind. 

Ir.  I  left  him  after  me  (G.M.H.). 

3.  Of  time  :  used  instead  of '  past '  when  speaking  of  the 
time  of  day. 

s.Oxf.  I'll  mash  the  tea  as  soon  as  ever  it  goes 'alfaater  three,  ROSE- 
MARY Chilterns  (1895)  181 .  Suf.  (M.  E.  R.  i  Dev.  I  stap'd  thare  til  haf 
arter  zix  I  shudespose,  NATHAN  HOGG  Poet.  Let.  (1847)  15,  ed.  1865. 

4.  adv.     Even  with,  keeping  pace  with. 

w.Som.1  Dhu  ee'njiin  wain  zu  vaa-s,  wuz  foo'us  vur  t-ae-u  tue- 
vur  t-an-  dhu  shee-z — wairn  keod-n  nuuth'een  nee-ur  keep  aup 
aa'dr  [the  engine  went  so  fast,  (we)  were  obliged  to  have  two 
(men)  to  hand  the  sheaves— one  could  not  nearly  keep  up  after — 
i.  e.  the  supply  even  with  the  demand], 

5.  (i)  Following  a  v.  of  motion  :  to  fetch.     (2)  prep,  used, 
the  v.  being  understood.     (3)  prep,  used  as  a  v.  pure  and 

(i)  Nrf.  I'll  go  arter  it  (E.M.).  w.Som.1  With  any  verb  of  motion 
[after]  means  to  fetch.  Zain  aa'dr,  goo  aa'dr,  uurn  aa'dr  [send, 
go,  run — to  fetch].  (2)  n.Yks.  He  efter  Betty  ageean,  TWEDDELL 
Clevel.  Rhymes  (1875)  13.  ne.Yks.1  Ah  efther  him.  w.Yks.  They 
teld  her  whear  he'd  goan,  soa  shoo  after  him  (a  very  common  form 
of  expression),  HARTLEY  Yks.  Xmas.Ann.  (1879)  12.  (3)  w.Yks. 
Iwery  dog  thear  wor  in  it  [the  village]  afterd  us,  TOM  TREDDLE- 
HOYLE  Bairnsla  Ann.  (1854)  35.  Nhp.2  He  got  the  start,  but  I 
preshus  quick  atter'd  him.  Bdf.  BATCHELOR  Anal.  Eng.  Lang. 
(1809).  s.Hmp.  What  did  that  fellow  Ned  mean  by  aftering  me 
like  that,  VERNEY  L.  Lisle  (1870)  xxv. 

6.  When    used  with  a  progressive  tense   it  indicates: 

(1)  that  an  action  is  about  to  take  place ;  (2)  completed 
action,  cf.  Fr.  venir  de ;    (3)  present  action ;  in  the  last 
sense  it  is  freq.  otiose. 

(i)  Inv.  I  will  be  after  telling  him  [I  willtellhim](H.  E.  F.).  Chs.3 
He's  after  taking  another  farm.  e-An.1  The  hen  is  after  laying. 
Suf.  I  now  after  fetching  it  (C.  G.  de  B.).  (a)  Inv.  I  am  after 
telling  him  [I  have  just  told  him]  (H.E.F.).  Ir.  She  told  them  in  the 
prisoner's  presence  that  he  was  after  hanging  her  up  against  the 
door  with  a  rope,  Dublin  Dy.  Expr.  (Mar.  26,  1891)  ;  I  am  after 
dining  [I  have  dined]  (G.M.H.);  Jos  was  after  balragging  the 
priest,  KENNEDY  Even.  Duffrey  (1869)  81 ;  They  were  after  hangin' 
a  lad  up  at  the  jail,  BARLOW  Lisconnel  (1895)  169.  s.Ir.  It  is  not 
every  lady  that  would  be  after  making  [would  have  made]  such  an 
offer,  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  220.  Wxf.  Yes,  indeed,  sir,  and  I  only 
after  composing  a  new  prayer  to-day,  KENNEDY  Banks  Bow  (1867) 
186.  (3)  Ir.  Then  it's  fitter . . .  for  you  to  be  after  putting  your  sign 
there  in  your  pocket,  BARRINGTON  Sketches  (1830)  I.  xvii ;  Is  it 
Lanigan  you'd  be  afther  comparin'  me  to  ?  LOVER  Leg.  (1848)  I.  225. 
s.Ir.  I  would  not  beafter  sayingsucha  thing.  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)291. 

7.  To  be  after:  (i)  to  court,  to  be  in  love  with  ;  (2)  to  be 
in  pursuit  of,  to  follow ;    (3)  to  be  engaged  upon ;  (4)  to 
aim  at ;  (5)  the  word  also  conveys  the  idea  of  a  state  or 
condition  in  the  immediate  future,  and  (6)  of  a  recently 
completed  action. 

(i)Inv.  I  am  after  so  and  so  [I  am  in  love  with  so  and  so]  (H.E.F.). 
n.Yks.  (I.W.)  Chs.1 1  expect  he's  after  our  Polly.  War.(J.R.W-) 

(2)  Inv.  I  will  be  after  you  [I'll  follow  you]  (H.E.F.).       n.Yks. 
(I.W.)      Chs.1  The  policeman's  after  him.      War.  (J.R.W.)      (3) 
n.Yks.  (I.W.)     Chs.1  What  are  you  after  ?     Lin.  He'll  be  efter  ye 
soon,  I'll  uphowd  it,  PEACOCK  R.  Skirlaugh  (1870)  I.   189.     n-Lin.1 
I  could  tell  what  he  was  efter,  though  he  kep'  very  squat.      War. 
(J.R.W.)       Nrf.  What  are  you  arter  there  (E.  M.).       (4)  sjr.  Is 




that  what  you'd  be  after,  you  spalpeen  ?  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  269. 
Colloq.  '  Look  here  !  Dunham,'  said  Staniford  sharply,  '  what  are 
you  after?'  HOWELLS^TOOS/CO*  (1883)  xii.  (5)  Ir.  The  child  is 
after  the  measles.  (6)  I  am  after  my  dinner  (G.M.H.). 

8.  After  long  and  last,  at  the  end. 

I.Ma.  That's   where  we'll   all    be   after   long  and   last,   CAINE 
Manxman  (1894)  pt.  n.  xv. 

9.  Comp.  After-burden,  after-birth  (placenta);    -butter, 
that  made  from  after-fleetings,  q.v.  ;  -cast,  consequences, 
effect,  what  may  ensue  (JAM.)  ;   -cleckin,  -clep,  -cletch, 
see    below;     -come,    consequence,    what    comes   after; 
-comer,  a  stranger,  visitor,  '  follower  '  ;  -daylight,  -end, 
-feed,  -fetch,  see  below;  -fleetings,  cream  from  milk  that 
has  been  twice  skimmed  ;  -gang,  to  follow  ;  -grass,  -held, 
see  below;  -leavings,  slime  containing  ore  ;  -leys,  -mead, 
-most,   -shear,  -shot,  -smatch,  -temsings,  see   below; 
-temsing-bread,  bread  made  from  coarse  flour,  the  refuse 
of  the  sieve  or  temse  ;  -wald,  the  outfield,  arable  land 
which  is  not  manured,  but  cropped  until  it  is  worn  out 
(JAM.)  ;  -winding,  see  below. 

Lin.  After-burden,  after-birth,  STREATFIELD  Lin.  and  Danes 
(1884)  3J5-  n-Lin.1  The  afterburden  should  oht  to  be  alus  putten 
upo'  kitchen  fire-back  at  neet  when  foaks  hes  gone  to  bed.  Bck. 
That  which  is  afterwards  skimmed  makes  what  is  called  an  after- 
butter,  MARSHALL  Review  (1817)  IV.  546.  Rxb.  He  durst  na  do't 
for  fear  o'  the  aftercast  (JAM.).  Dur.1  Efter-clecking,  one  of  a 
second  brood.  ne.Yks.1  Efter-clecking,  a  brood  of  chickens,  &c., 
hatched  after  the  first  brood  of  the  season  [also  in  pi.  applied  to 
the  brood].  Them  fahve  geslins  is  eftthercleckins.  n.Yks.2  Efther- 
clep,  the  brood  that  happens  to  come  after  the  usual  breeding 
time.  Dur.1  Efter-cletch,  an  after  or  second  brood  in  the  same 
year.  s.Sc.  And  how  are  ye  to  stand  the  aftercome  ?  Brownie  of 
Bodsbeck,  ii.  9  ;  I  fear  she  is  ruined  for  this  world,  —  and  for  the 
aftercome,  I  dare  hardly  venture  to  think  about  it,  ib.  ii.  48  (JAM.). 
Gall.  He  wad  like  to  dee  but  for  the  thocht  o'  the  after-come, 
CROCKETT  Moss-Hags  (1895)  xxiii.  n.Yks.2  Efther-comers, 
followers.  e.Yks.1  Efther-cummers,  visitors,  strangers.  e.Lan.1 
After-dellit,  night  [after  daylight].  n.Yks.2  Van's  efther-end 
condition  [one's  state  after  death].  n-Lin.1  After-end,  the 
autumn;  more  commonly  [called]  the  back-end  or  fall.  Oxf. 
Afterfeed,  the  grass  that  grows  after  the  first  crop  has  been 
mown,  and  generally  fed  off,  not  left  for  an  aftermath,  as  in  some 
other  counties  (HALL.,  WRIGHT);  Still  in  freq.  use  (K.B.).  Cum.1 
Efter  fetches,  after-thoughts  or  actions.  Ess.  Butter  which 
is  made  from  the  after-fleetings  of  the  milk,  MARSHALL  Review 
(1817)  V.  164.  Abd.  They  .  .  .  gae  a  nod  to  her  to  aftergang, 
Ross  Helenore  (1768)  86.  w.Som.1  After  grass,  the  grass  which 
grows  after  the  hay  is  gone.  It  is  not  a  second  crop  to  be 
mown,  but  to  be  fed.  Wgt.  After-heid,  grass  springing  up  in 
the  stubble  after  the  crop  is  cut  (A.W.).  Cor.2  After-leavings  in 
washing  tin  (s.v.  Loobs).  Brks.  After-laies,  After-leys,  aftermath 
or  rowinge  (K.).  Hrt.  Our  after  mead,  or  second  crop,  ELLIS 
Mod.  Husb.  (1750)  IV.  i.  95.  e.Yks.1  Bill's  awlas  efther-most  on 
'em  all,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  Hmp.1  After-shear,  the  aftermath. 
Dor.  Another  person  claims  a  right  to  the  after-shear,  MARSHALL 
Review  (1817)  V.  261.  Sc.  In  the  process  of  distilling  whisky,  the 
strong  spirit  which  comes  away  first  is  called  the  foreshot  or  fore- 
shots;  and  that  which  comes  last,  the  aftershot  or  aftershots 
(JAM.  Suppl,).  n.Yks.2  Efther-smatch,  the  flavour  of  anything 
after  it  is  swallowed.  Dur.1  Efter-temsings,  coarse  flour.  m.Yks.1 
After-temsins.  w.Yks.1  I  hed  some  efter  temsin  breead  i'  t'Aumry. 
Cai.  Afterwald,  that  division  of  a  farm  which  is  called  outfield  in 
other  parts  of  Scotland.  The  outfield  land  [provincially  after- 
wald],  Agric.  Surv.  of  Cai.  87  (JAM.).  nw.Dev.1  Arter-wmding 
or  Arter-winning,  small  or  light  corn  [after-winnowing].  Cor.1 
After-winding,  waste  corn. 

AFTER,  v.  Yks.  (?)  Stf.  Der.  To  take  the  last  milk 
irom  cows.  See  Afterings. 

Yks.  I  have  only  heard  this  word  once  in  Yks.  (M.F.)  Stf.1 
After,  to  extract  the  last  milk  of  a  cow  the  second  time  ;  Stf.2 
rak  ois  Iitl  kan,  an  gu  an  after  th'  kai.  Der.  After  the  youths  had 
milked  the  cows,  I  aftered  them,  getting  a  pint  or  so  from  each 

.  ARE,  adj.,  prop.  phr.    Sc-    Uniform,  equable. 
Sc.  bne  s  nx  t  my  lot  maist  after  ane,  COCK  Simple  Strains  (1810) 
69  (JAM.).     Bnff.1  Ye  canna  gang  wrang  t'him  :  for  he's  eye  efter- 
ane  :  an   he  niver  sehns  awa  ony  ane  wee  a  sair  hairt 

[Syne  eftir  ane  my  toung  is  and  my  pen,  DOUG.  Virg. 
453>  3°-J 

AFTERCLAP,  sb.  Sc.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin.  Lei. 
War.  Shr.  Glo.  Oxf.  Ess.  I.W.  Wil.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Not  in 
gloss,  of  e. An.  [a'ftatlap,  a'ftaklap.] 

1.  Ulterior  and  unexpected  consequences,  generally  un- 
pleasant :  evil  consequence  (JAM.). 

e.Yks.1,  w.Yks.2  s.Chs.1  Unpleasant  consequences  ;  e.  g.  of  the 
results  of  over-indulgence  in  eating.  Stf2  Dunna  crow  too  soon, 
wait  till  th'  afterclap.  nw.Der.1  I  want  it  sattled ;  I  dunno  want 
noo  afterclaps  [au)  waan't  it  saat-'lt;  au)  diin'u  waan-t  ndo  aaf-- 
turtlaap-s].  Der.2  War.  (J.R.W.) ;  War.2  Shr.1  It's  al'ays 
best  be  earful  an'  sen'  some  one  as  knows  thar  business  an' 
then  theer's  no  afterclaps  ;  Shr.2  The  consequence,  issue,  result, 
generally  received  in  malam  partcm.  Glo.1  Oxf.1  After  conse- 
quences, a  relapse.  Ess.  Which  being  descried,  take  heede  of 
you  shall,  For  danger  of  after  claps,  after  that  fall,  TUSSER  Hus- 
bandrie  (1580)  107,  st.  rf.  Wil.  SLOW  Gl.  (1892);  Wil.1  Som. 
SWEETMAN  Wincanton  Gl.  (1885).  Cor.1  Something  happening 
after  the  cause  is  supposed  to  have  been  removed. 

2.  Anything  occurring  when  it  has  ceased  to  be  expected; 
a  sequel,  anything  that  comes  after ;  an  after-thought. 

n.Yks.2  Efther-claps,  incidents  which  arise  after  matters  were 
thought  to  be  concluded.  w.Yks.  BANKS  Wkfld.  Was.  (1865). 
s.Chs.1  A  sequel,  anything  that  comes  after ;  e.  g.  a  prayer  meeting 
after  a  preaching  service,  a  distribution  of  bread  after  a  tea  meet- 
ing, &c.  n.Lln.1  Rachel  Taylor's  'e  a  fine  waay  ;  she  hed  her  tent 
bairn  nine  year  sin,  an'  noo  she's  fallen  doon  wi'  twins ;  it's  a  sore 
after-clap  for  her.  Lei.1  Way'n  got  a  affter-clap  o'  winter  this 
turn  (in  reference  to  a  frosty  week  in  April).  I.W.2  I  don't  want 
noo  aaterclaps.  w.Som.1  •Arriere  pensee.  Au'nur  bruyt  un  noa 
aa'dr-klaaps  [honour  bright  and  no  afterclaps]  is  a  constant  ex- 
pression in  contracting  bargains  or  agreements.  Dev.  And  it  [yet], 
'tis  best  as  'tis,  perhaps ;  We  mert  a  catch'd  zom  arterclaps,  PETER 
PINDAR  Middlesex  Elect.  (1816)  IV.  206.  Cor.1  After-clapses,  after- 
thoughts. [Amer.  An  attempt  to  unjustly  extort  more  in  a  bargain 
or  agreement  than  at  first  settled  upon,  FARMER.] 

3.  In  pi.  superfluous  finery. 

Cor.1  I  caan't  manage  the  after-clapses. 

[What  plaguy  mischiefs  and  mishaps  Do  dog  him  still 
with  after  claps,  BUTLER  Hud.  i.  iii.  4 ;  For  had  he  been  a 
merchant,  then  perhaps  Storms,  thunderclaps,  or  fear  of 
afterclaps  Had  made  him  long  ere  this  the  food  of  worms, 
TAYLOR  Life  of  Old  Parr;  He  can  give  us  an  afterclap 
when  we  least  weene,  LATIMER  Serm.  (WRIGHT)  ;  It  was  a 
sorry  happe,  (he)  doubted  him  of  an  afterclappe,  PERCY'S 
Fol.  MS.  (MATZNER).  After  +  clap,  a  slap,  blow,  q.v.] 

AFTER-CROP,  see  Attercop. 

AFTER-DAMP,  sb.  Tech.  Nhb.  Dur.  w.Yks.  [a'fte- 
damp.]  The  noxious  gas  resulting  from  a  colliery  explo- 
sion (WEDGWOOD). 

Nhb.  &  Dur.  After-damp,  carbonic  acid,  stythe.  The  products 
of  the  combustion  of  fire-damp,  NICHOLSON  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1888). 
Nhb.1  After-damp,  the  noxious  gas  resulting  from  a  colliery  explo- 
sion. This  after-damp  is  called  choak-damp  and  surfeit  by  the 
colliers,  and  is  the  carbonic  acid  gas  of  chymists,  HODGSON  A 
Description  of  Felling  Colliery.  w.Yks.  The  after-damp  completed 
their  death,  N.  &  Q.  (1876)  sth  S.  v.  325.  Miners'  tech.  Carbonic 
acid  gas,  or  choke  damp,  which  the  miners  call  after-damp,  CORE 
(1886)  228. 

[After + damp,  q.v. ;  cp.  choak-damp.] 

AFTERGAIT,  adj.    Sc.  QAM.) 

1.  Seemly  or  fitting. 

Lnk,  That's  something  aftergait. 

2.  Tolerable,  moderate,  what  does  not  exceed. 

Rxb.  I'm  ill  o'  the  toothache;  but  I  never  mind  sae  lang  as  it's 
ony  way  aftergait  ava.  I'll  be  there  if  the  day's  ought  aftergait. 

[After + gait,  way,  i.  e.  after,  not  out  of  the  ordinary  way.] 

AFTERHEND,  adv.  and  prep.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Afterwards, 

Sc.  Mark  ye  me,  friend,  that  we  may  have  nae  colly-shangie 
afterhend,  SCOTT  Guy  Mannering  (1815)  xliv;  Get  the  ferm,  an' 
efterhand  that,  ye  may  kiss,  LUMSDEN  Sheep-Head,  270 ;  It  lookit 
as  if  the  craytur  had  gotten  its  ain  back  afterhand,  ROY  Horseman's 
Wd.  (1895)  i.  n.Cy.  Afterhend,  Border  Gl.  (Coll.  L.L.B.) 

[Marshall  did  sweare  afterhend  that  he  had  not  fylled 
him  at  all,  Hist.  Kirk  1634-46  (N.E.D.) ;  Then  is  he  wise 
after  the  honde,  GOWER  C.  A.  n.  31.  After+hand;  cp. 
beforehand,  behindhand.] 

AFTERINGS,    Sc.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin. 




•.  Shr.  GIo.  w.Cy.    Also  in  the  form  afterlins  w.Yks.1 
See  below.     [a'ftarinz.J 

1.  The  last  milk  that  conies  before  a  cow's  udder  is 
empty  ;  locally  called  strippings,  drippings,  or  strokings. 

Sc.  Till  she  frae  her  the  massy  aft'rins  draw,  MORISON  Poems 
(1790)  185  (JAM.).  s.Sc.  More  generally  known  as  jibbings  or 
dribblings,  N.  &  Q.  (1882)  6th  S.  vi.  54.  Dmf.  [Jane]  furnishes 
butter  and  afterings  (jibbings)  for  tea,  FROUDE  Thomas  Carlyle 
(1882)  II.  27.  Yks.  It  were  only  yesterday  as  she  aimed  her  leg 
right  at  t'pail  wi'  t'afterings  in ;  she  knowed  it  were  afterings  as 
well  as  any  Christian,  GASKELL  Sylvia  (1863)  xv  (DAY.).  w.Yks. 
Afterings,  the  last  milk  of  a  cow.  Also  called  strippings,  Hlfx. 
Wds.;  w.Yks.1  Afterlins,  the  last  milk  of  a  cow.  Lan.1  Jem,  let 
owd  Mally  have  a  quart  o'  aftherins  for  a  custhert  or  two.  e.Lan.1 
Chs.1 2  Afterings,  the  same  as  strokings ;  Chs.3  The  last  milk 
(generally  considered  the  richest).  So  called  because  in  all  well- 
managed  dairies,  a  milker  follows  after  the  others  to  make  sure  of 
the  afterings.  Stf.12  Der.  The  strokings,  or  last  of  a  cow's  milk, 
GROSE  (1790);  Der.12,  Lin.1  n.Lin.1  Afterlings  [are]  said  to  con- 
tain the  most  butter.  War.  (J.R.W.)  Shr.1  Afterings,  cf.  Drip- 
pings. Glo.1  w.Cy.  MORTON  Cycl.Agric.  (1863). 

2.  The  surplus,  remainder  in  a  more  general  sense  (JAM.). 
Fif.  The  aft'rins  o'  a  feast. 

3.  Fig.  Outcome,  results,  consequences  QAM.). 

Ayr.  The  bloody  afterings  of  that  meeting,  GILLHAIZE,  iii.  88. 
[2.  These  are  the  iorepjjuoTa,  afterings  of  Christ's  suffer- 
ings, BP.  HALL  Serm.  (N.E.D.)] 

AFTERMATH,  sb.  Very  widely  distributed  in  midl., 
e.An.  and  s.  districts ;  but  not  given  in  gloss,  of  Sc.  Dev. 
Cor.  Also  written  efter-math  n.Yks.2 ;  attermath  Glo.2  ; 
aftermeath  Ken.12  [a'ftamajs  n.  and  e.Yks.  e'ftamajj, 
se.Wor.  a'ta-,  Glo.  ae'ta-.]  The  second  crop  of  grass  which 
grows  after  the  field  has  been  mown.  Freq.  used  in  pi. 

n.  &  s.Cy.  Aftermaths,  the  pasture  after  the  grass  has  been  mowed, 
GROSE  (1790).  n.Yks.2  Efther-math,  the  second  mowing  of  grass 
yielded  by  a  field  in  one  season.  e.Yks.1  w.Yks.4  After-maths, 
after  mowings,  the  grass  in  the  meadows,  that  grows  after  the 
mowing — the  eddish.  Stf.1  n.Lin.1  The  grass  that  grows  when 
the  hay  is  cut,  more  commonly  called  eddish.  Lei.1  Nhp.1  In 
strictness  aftermath  is  the  second  or  latter  mowing ;  but  with  us 
it  is  equally  applied,  whether  the  second  crop  be  mown,  or  eaten 
off  the  ground ;  Nhp.2  War.  (J.R.W.) ;  War.3  Sometimes  used  in 
wider  sense.  He  cannot  expect  much  aftermath  now,  he  has  had 
two  crops  off  the  meadow  this  season.  se.Wor.1,  Shr.1,  Pern.  (E.D.) 
Glo.  There  was  not  much  hay  this  year,  but  the  aftermath  has  been 
good  (A.  B.):  Glo.^Brks.1  Bck.N.  &Q.  (1853)151  S.viii.  102.  Hit. 
ELLIS  Mod.  Hush.  (1750)  IV.  ii.  76.  e.An.1  Nrf.  Yow  can  mow 
the  grass,  ye  know,  and  than  (then)  let  the  aftermath  for  £$  (W.R.E.); 
Aftermath  eddish,  same  as  aftermath,  N.  &  Q.  (1853)  Ist  S.  viii. 
229 ;  Nrf.1  The  feed  left  on  meadows  after  having  been  mown. 
Suf.1  Ken.1  Aftermeath,  the  grass  which  grows  after  the  first  crop 
has  been  mown  for  hay;  called  also  roughings  [usually  called 
rowens  in  e.Ken.] ;  Ken.2  Aftermeath,  aftermowth,  i.  e.  that  which 
comes  and  grows  after  the  mowing.  Sur.1  Called  also  rowen. 
Hmp.1  Called  also  lattermath.  I.W.1  n.Wil.  The  aftermath  in  the 
meadows  beneath  will  not  grow,  JEFFERIES  Wild  Life  (1879)  21 ; 
The  feed  left  on  meadows  or  grass-land  after  having  been  mown. 
Also  called  lattermath,  BRITTON  Beauties  (1825).  w.Som.1 

[After  +  math,  OE.  mizd,  a  mowing;  cp.  G.  mahd,  OHG. 
mad.  The  word  occurs  in  FITZHERBERT  Husbandry  63, 
WORLIDGE  Diet.  Rusticum,  BAILEY  (ed.  1721),  LISLE  Hus- 
bandry (Aftermass).] 

AFTERNOON,  adj.  Lin.  Wor.  Glo.  Hrt.  Mid.  Nrf.  Sur. 
Som.  Dev.  See  below.  Late  in  performing  any  work, 
procrastinating ;  dilatory,  slow. 

sw.Lin.1 1  call  him  nobbut  an  afternoon  farmer ;  he  got  no  seed  in 
last  back-end.  War.3  s.Wor.1  An  afternoon  farmer,  [one]  who  takes 
things  easily.  se.Wor.1  Atternone-folks,  people  who  are  in  the 
habitof  beginning  work  late  in  the  day.  Glo.  (A.B.)  Nrf.  No, no; 
he's  no  business  man.  We  call  him  an  arternune  farmer  (W.  R.  E. ). 
Hrt.  In  Hertfordshire  we  call  [declining  farmers]  afternoon  farmers, 
ELLIS  Mod.  Hush.  (1750)  III.  ii.  4.  Mid.  N.  &  Q.  (1894)  8th  S. 
v.  153.  Sur.1  He's  pretty  much  of  an  afternoon  man.  w.Som.1 
Purty  arternoon  farmer,  sure  'nough  (s.v.  Arrish).  nw.Dev.1 
Colloq.  The  ram  and  snow  have  come  too  soon  fora  few  '  afternoon 
farmers,'  who  have  not  yet  put  in  all  their  wheat,  Standard  (Nov. 
28,  1889 ,  2,  col.  i.  [Amer.  Afternoon  farmer, .  .  .  one  who  pro- 
crastinates, or  who  misses  an  opportunity.  ...  It  is  only  slang 
when  used  figuratively  apart  from  agricultural  pursuits,  FARMER.] 

AFTERNOONING,  sb.    w.Yks.     [a'ftanuinin.] 

w.Yks.Afternooinin,  refreshment  between  dinner  and  tea,  BANKS 
Wkfld.  Wds.  (1865).  Afternooning  is  still  heard  round  Wakefield 
but  is  rapidly  becoming  obs.  (W.F.) 

AFT-HANKS,  sb.  Sh.I.  [a'ft-haijks.]  That  part  of  a 
boat  where  the  bands  come  together  at  the  stem  and  stern. 
See  Hank. 

s.  &  Ork.1 

AGAIN,  prep.  Van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  Eng. 
Also  written  agaan,  agean,  agen,  agin,  agyen.  See 
below,  [agia'n,  age'n,  agi'n.]  Used  for  against,  in  most 
of  its  mod.  meanings. 

I.  Of  position. 

1.  Near,  beside. 

n.Yks.  Just  ageean  t'pleeace  where  Ah  wur  bred,  Broad  Yks. 
(1885)  27  ;  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  Oor  spot  ligs  agaan  Helmsla.  e.Yks.1 
w.Yks.  Nelly  always  sits  again  John  (F. P.T. ) ;  Poor  Bill,  he  wur 
leynd  ageean  t'wall,  PRESTON  Poems,  &c.  (1864)  24.  Lan.1  Agen 
th'  heawse-eend  wur  a  little  cloof  o'  full  o  brids  and  fleawrs. 
Chs.1  He  lives  agen  th'  chapel ;  Chs.3  Stf.1 2  sw.Lin.1  They've 
taen  a  farm  agen  Eagle  Hall.  Rut.1  Agen  the  hedge.  Lei.1  It's 
close  again  Bosworth.  Nhp.  'Tis  agen  the  running  brook,  CLARE 
Poems  (1820)  140,  ed.  1873  ;  Nhp.1  He  lives  agen  me.  s.War.1  He 
lives  just  agin  us.  Shr.1  Lave  that  bouk  agen  the  pump  w'eer 
I  put  it ;  Shr.2  Shut  'em  agen  the  backside  o'  the  house.  Brks.1 
I  left  the  prong  over  agin  the  staayble  door.  e.An.1  She  stood 
again  the  door.  If  she  stood  very  near  the  door,  it  would  be  more 
correct  to  say  '  close  again,'  or  '  right  again ' ;  if  facing  it,  at  some 
little  distance,  '  over  again.'  Nrf.  Agin  our  gates  are  all  mander 
o'  plasant  fruits,  GILLETT  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  vii.  13.  Cmb.1  It's  up 
to  your  boot-tops  in  mud  agin  the  Brick  Clamp.  Ken.1  He  lives 
down  de  lane  agin  de  stile.  Sur.1  Sus.1  He  lived  up  agin  the 
Church.  n.Wil.  Veed  yer  kids  agen  th'  shepherds'  tents,  KITE 
Sng.  Sol.  (c.  1860)  i.  8. 

2.  In  contact  with,  touching,  resting  against. 

Nhb.  When  Dicky's  corf  was  fill'd  wi'  sic,  He  let  his  low  and 
stuck't  agyend  [again  it],  WILSON  Pitman's  Pay  (1843)  27.  Cum. 
Stand  aboot  int'  lonnin,  or  lig  ageann  t'dykes,  DICKINSON  Cumbr. 
(1876)  6.  e.Lan.1  Chs.1  Th'  ladder  were  rared  agen  th'  waw. 
Lin.  Ay,  roob  thy  whiskers  agean  ma,  TENNYSON  Tiresias,  &c.  (1885) 
Spinster's  Sweet-arts ;  Sa  I  runs  to  the  yard  fur  a  lether,  an'  sets 
'im  agean  the  wall,  ib.  Owd  Rod  (1889).  Oxf.1  'Ee's  alen'in 
[leaning]  agen  your  warnut  tree.  Dor.  Did  fondly  lay  agean  your 
zide  His  coal-black  nose  an'  russet  ear,  BARNES  Poems  (1863)  2. 

3.  Opposite  to. 

Shr.1  Oud  it  up  agen  the  light  an'  then  we  shan  be  able  to  see 
w'eer  the  faut  is.  Glo.12  e.An.2  Over  agin  the  gate,  opposite 
the  gate. 

II.  With  v.  of  motion. 

1.  Against,  in  violent  contact  with. 

Nhb.1  The  keel  went  bump  agyen  Jarrow,  An'  three  o'  the  bullies 
lap  oot,  Little  Pee  Dee.  Yks.  He  came  wi'  a  crack  again  t'chap, 
BARING-GOULD  Oddities  (1874)  1. 240.  e.Yks.  He  tummel'd  ageean 
t'bucket,  an  cut  his  heead,  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  49.  w.Yks. 
When  one  o'  my  mates  shoved  another  chap  ageean  her,  CUDWORTH 
Dial.  Sketches  (1884)  2  ;  w.Yks.1  He  ran  agaan  him.  ne.Lan.  I  geet 
my  yed  jowled  agen  th'  frame  o'  th'  loom,  MATHER  Idylls  (1895) 
317.  Lan.1  An  then — he's  hardly  wit  enough  to  keep  fro  runnin 
again  woles  i'  th'  dayleet,  WAUGH  Sketches  (1857)  28.  Der.2  Oi'll 
jowl  thy  yed  agen  a  stoup.  Not.2  He  joled  his  'ead  agen  a  balk. 
Nhp.1  They  ran  again  me,  and  knocked  me  down.  Glo.  How  the 
rain  do  druvagin  one  !  BUCKMAN  Darke' s  Sojourn  (1890)  x.  Cmb.1 
When  I  want  to  write,  there's  allus  one  o'  y'r  a-joggling  agin  the 
table.  Sur.  And  then  he  run  agin'  a  man  at  the  bottom  of  the  road 
here,  JENNINGS  Field  Paths  (1884)  165.  Sus.1  He's  hind  leg  flew 
up  and  het  agen  t'other  horse,  EGERTON  Fits,  and  Ways  (1884) 
26.  I.W.2  He  veil  agen  it.  Som.  The  wind  'twas  beaten'  the 
drops  vrom  the  chestnut  leaves  agen'  my  veace,  LEITH  Lemon 
Verbena  (1895)  47.  w.Som.1  Ee  droa-vd  au-p  ugiin  dhu  gee'ut  [he 
drove  against  the  gate].  Dev.  The  bellows  banged  agin'  the  wall, 
O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  26. 

2.  Phr.  to  come,  go  again,  to  come,  go  to  meet   (see 
Against,  2);  to  run  again,  to  meet  by  chance. 

s.Pem.  I  went  again  him,  down  so  far  as  to  the  bridge.  Father, 
he'll  come  again  me  (E.D.).  s.Stf.  I  chaunced  to  run  agen  Steve 
Hodgkiss,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895)  5.  Sur.1  To  run  agin'  any 
one  is  to  meet  him. 

III.  Of  opposition  or  resistance. 
1.  Against,  in  resistance  to. 

Sc,  In  case  mine  enimie  say,  Thae  prevailit  agayne  him,  RIDDELL 




Ps.  (1857)  xiii.  4.      Nhb.1       Cum.1  Ageann  t'hand,  inconveniently 
placed,  interfering  with  progress.     w.Yks.  For  strength,  I  prayed, 

yo  (J.P.K.). 

Why  there  Almighty  ceare  mid  cast  A  better  screen  agean  the 
blast,  BARNES  Poems  (1863)  68.  Som.  It  ain't  no  use  a  runnin' 
agin  the  law,  PALMER  Mr.  Trueman  (1895)  141.  Dev.  Ha  gid  min 
power  agin  onclayn  spurrits,  BAIRD  St.  Matt.  (1863)  x.  i. 

2.  Averse  to,  in  opposition  to,  in  depreciation  of;  with 
obj.  of  person. 

Sc.  Deacon  Clank,  the  white-iron  smith,  says,  that  the  Govern- 
ment folk  are  sair  agane  him,  SCOTT  Waverley  (1814)  Ixiii ;  Fortune's 
been  sair  agane  him  (JAM.).  Frf.  She  was  ane  o'  the  warst  agin 
me  at  first,  BARRIE  Thrums  (1889)  120,  ed.  1895.  Ir.  Cross  she 
was  too,  if  anythin'  went  agin  her,  BARLOW  Kerrigan  (1894) 
43.  Nhb.  What  have  ah  dune  that  folkes  sud  set  theirsels'  again' 
me,  CLARE  Love  of  Lass  (1890)  I.  72.  Com.3  Hev  ye  gitten  owt 
agean  me?  12.  e.Yks.  Ah  dooant  kno  what  theyr  sa  mitch 
ageean  ma  for  (W.  H.).  Lan.  Th'wust  witness  agen  hissel, 
BRIERLEY  Layrock  (1864)  vi.  Chs.1  We'n  nowt  agen  th'  chap. 
Der.  You  hanna  towd  us  why  t'other  two  were  agen  him,  GUSHING 
Voe  (1888)  III.  vii.  swXin.1  He  seemed  to  tak'  agen  the  child. 
I've  nowt  agen  him,  but  I've  heard  a  many  say  a  deal  agen  him. 
Lei.1  Oi  doon't  knoo  nothink  agen  'im.  Bdf.  Saunders  was  talking 
agen  him,  WARD  Bessie  Costrell  (1895)  24-  s.Hmp.  We  mustn't 
go  agin  him,  VERNEY  L.  Lisle  (1870)  xxii. 

3.  Opposed  to,  averse  to,  contrary  to  ;  with  obj.  of  thing. 
Gall.  Cleg  Kelly  was  again  '  tracks,'  CROCKETT  Stickit  Min.  (1893) 

166.  Yks.  I  was  agin  it,  I  was  agin  it — my  mind  misgave  me, 
BARING-GOULD  Pennyqks.  (1870)  54,  ed.  1890.  w.Yks.  It's  agean 
orders  to  tak  onny  passengers,  but  tha  can  come  as  commodore, 
HARTLEY  Seets  (1895)  iii.  Lan.  We  spoke  up  again'  it,  GASKELL 
M.  Barton  (1848)  ix ;  Aw  connot  tak'  money  fur  savin'  a  choilt's  life. 
It's  agen'  mi  conscience,  BANKS  Manch.  Man  (1876)  i.  Chs.1 1  were 
allus  agen  his  goin' :  Chs.3  Agen  the  marriage.  s.Chs. '  I'll  see  [say] 
nowt  agen  that.  Not.  A've  nowt  to  say  agen  it  (L.C.M.).  Lin.  An' 
i'  the  woosto'  toimes  I  wur niveragin  the  raate.TENNYsoN  A'.  Farmer, 
Old  5/7/^(1864)  st.  4.  Lei.  He  were  always  again  it  (C.E.).  Wor. 
Tom's  very  bad  to  come  to  school,  'e's  bitter  agen  it  (H.  K.). 
Shr.1  'E  wuz  agen  the  weddin'  altogether ;  Shr.2  I'm  totally  agen 
it.  e.An.1  I  am  not  for  it  but  again  it.  Stir.  I  should  like  to 
hear  from  your  own  lips  what  you've  got  to  say  agin  it,  HOSKYNS 
Talpa  (1857)  172. 

4.  In  exchange  for ;  as  an  equivalent  for. 

n-Lin.1 1  sattled  his  bill,  an'  he  gev'  me  three  an'  six  agean  a 
sov'rin.  Sur.  I'll  back  Common  Sense  agin'  Chemistry  any  day, 
HOSKYNS  Talpa  (1857)  172- 

Hence,  of  a  change  of  clothes :  in  turn  with,  in  succession. 

s.Not.  Ah'll  knit  Mm  another  pair  o'  stockings,  then  'e  can  wear 
won  again  tother  (J.P.K.). 

5.  In  dealing  with,  as  regards.    [Cf.  'he  is  a  match  for  it.'l 
Hrf.2  He  [watchmaker]  's  a  pretty  good  un  up  agin  a  clock.    I 

dunna  know  what  a'  might  be  agin  a  waatch. 

6.  In  comparison  with. 

s.Not.  Yo  can  faight  a  bit,  but  noat  again  our  Bob  (J.P.K.) 

IV.  Of  time. 
1.  Before,  against,  by,  towards. 

Sc.  Sicken  a  blythe  gaedown  as  we  had  again  e'en  !  SCOTT  Guy 
Mannering  (1815)  xxii  ;  It'll  be  ready  agane  Saturday  (JAM.). 
Ir.And  will  you  be  gettin'  married  agin  Shrovetide?  BARLOW 
Lisconnel  (1895)  24.  Cum.  Dalston  singers  come  here  agean  Sun- 
day, ANDERSON  Ballads  (1808)  Nichol  the  Newsmonger.  Lan.  All 
customers  are  expected  bi  seven  o'clock,  agen  which  time  the  beast 
will  be  kilt,  Rossendel  Beef-Neet,  6.  Chs.1  Our  pump  allus  maks  a 
mze  agen  rain.  s.Chs.1  My  leg's  auvay  woss  agen  [on  the  approach 
of]  reen  [rain].  nXin.1  Th'  herse  collars  is  al'us  as  weet  as  muck 
agean  raain.  Nhp.1 1  shall  be  ready  agen  to-morrow  Shr.2  Agen 
to-morrow  ownder.  Hrf.1 1  will  do  it  agin  next  Sunday  •  Hrf.2  He'll 
come  agin  Christmas.  Glo.2  I'll  be  ready  agen  zhip-zhearing. 
Luk  for  t  agen  Mi-elmas.  Oxf.1 1  au'lus  'as  a  new  cwut  agen  Wis- 
suntide.  Dor.  An'  deaisies  that  begun  to  vwold  .  .  .  Aeean  the 
night,  BARNES  Poems  (1869)  14. 

2r' "  Anim5  foiYn  view  of> in  readiness  for,  any  future  event. 

Ir  All  this  while  I  had  a  right   to  be  doin'  me  messages  at 

Hanlon  s,  and  the  flour  and  salt  a-wantin'  agin  the  supper,  BARLOW 

Ke'J'gan  (1894)  66.       sir.  That  the  poor  beast   may  be  rested 

again  the  fair,  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  42.     Cum.  A  youthfu'  pair  . 

'r/'V T  invited  Agean  that  dav'  STAGG  ***•  p°»»'* 

The  Bndewam.       w.Yks.  Thah  mun  get  mi  shooin  soil'd 

agean  to-morn  o'  t'neet  (JE.B.).  Shr.1  If  I  start  now  I  shall  get 
theer  agen  the  onder.  Brks.1  I  hev  a-got  money  put  by  agin 
a  raainy  day.  w.Som.1  Mus  sae-uv  dhai  gee-z  giin  Kuursmus  [(I) 
must  keep  those  geese  in  preparation  for  Christmas]. 

3.  Until. 

w.Som.1  Aay  kaa-n  paay  ut  gun  Zad-urdee  nait  [cannot  pay  it 
until  Saturday  night]. 

[I.  3.  He  stired  the  coles  til  relente  gan  The  wex  agayn 
the  fyr,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  G.  1279 ;  Than  taketh  the  cristal 
stoon  ywis  Agayn  the  sonne  aYi  hundred  hewes,  ib.  R.  Rose 
1577.  II.  1.  Lyk  betyng  of  the  see  ...  again  the  roches 
holowe,  ib.  Hous  F.  1035.  III.  4.  And  do  good  ajeyn 
uvel,  P.  Plowman  (A.)  xi.  150.  IV.  1,  2.  Ageyn  this  lusty 
someres  tyde  This  mirour  . . .  He  hath  sent,  CHAUCER  C.  T. 
F.  142.  OE.  Otlgtgit,  cp.  G.  entgegen.} 

AGAIN,  conj.  and  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  and  var.  dial,  of  Eng. 
Not  in  gloss,  of  e.An. 

A.  conj. 

Of  future  time :  by  the  time  that,  before,  until.  (Cf. 
Again,  prep.  IV.  2.) 

Nhb.1  Aa'll  be  there  agyen  ye  come.  Dur.1  Agane  (i.e.  the  time) 
he  comes  hame.  n.Yks.  Ageean  I  come  yam  [home]  (I.W.). 
w.Yks.  Have  it  ready  agean  I  come  back,  Hlfx.  Wds.  s.Chs.1 
I  shall  be  theer  agen  yo  bin  started.  Stf.1  Again,  by  the  time. 
s.Not.  That'll  last  yer  agen  I'm  back  (J.P.K.).  sw.Lin.1 1  got  their 
teas  ready  agen  they  came  home.  Nhp.1  I  shall  be  there  agen 
you  come.  Shr.1  Mind  an'  'ave  the  oven  whot  agen  I  come  wham; 
Shr.2  Agen  a  mon's  paid  for  iviry  thin  it  taks  a  dhell  o'  money. 
Glo.1  I'll  have  it  ready  agen  you  come  back.  Mid.  I  also  destroy 
black  beedles  with  a  composition  which  I  always  keep  with  me 
again  it's  wanted,  MAYHEW  Land.  Labour  (1864)  III.  17.  Wil. 
Mother,  cut  I  'nother  bit  'gin  I  done  this,  AKERMAN  Tales  (1853) 
30.  Dev.1,  Cor.1 

B.  adv. 

1.  At  a  future  time,  by-and-by. 

Sc.  Again,  at  another  time;  used  indef.  This  will  learn  ye, 
again,  ye  young  ramshackle.  Reg.  Da/ion,  I.  199  (JAM.).  Ir.  I  didn't 
do  it  yet,  but  I'll  do  it  again  (G.M.H.).  War.2  Shr.1 1  hanna  got 
it  now,  but  I'll  gie  it  yo'  agen.  Wei.  I'll  pay  yah  again.  When 
will  yah  come  then? — Oh,  again  [not  now,  next  time]  (W.M.M.). 
s.Pem.  I  thought  as  how  you'd  done  with'n,  but  I  can  fetch'n  again. 
Not  you  trouble  to  move,  I  can  get  it  again  (E.  D.). 

2.  Phr.  to  and  again,  to  and  fro. 
s.Chs.1  To  an'  agen.     Stf.2 

3.  To  one  side ;  back ;  gen.,  esp.  in  phr.  turn  again,  to 
turn  back. 

s.Not.  Ah'm  tired,  granfayther,  let's  turn  agen.  Auve  again, 
Oieet  again,  Come  again,  and  Gee  again,  various  commands  to  the 
horse  to  turn  either  to  the  right  or  the  left.  [Within  the  last  few 
years] '  gee  again  '  has  been  replaced  by  '  gee  back'  (J.P.K.).  [Turn 
again,  Whittington,  thrice  Lord  Mayor  of  London!  Pop.  Tale.} 

4.  Of  reciprocal  action  :  in  return,  back.   Hence  in  inten- 
sive sense  (cf.  'to  ring  again'). 

Nhb.  She  aye  gives  ye  tweyce  as  gude  aghayn,  BEWICK  Howdy 
(1850)  12.  w.Yks.  It  fair  dithered  ageean  (JE.E.}.  Der.1  He 
snored  again.  Lei.1  A  let  'im  'ave  it  loike  nothink  agen  [he  gave 
him  a  sound  thrashing]. 

5.  Comp.  Again-call,  to  revoke  (JAM.)  ;  -calling,  recall ; 
Agane-say,  to  recall  (JAM.)  ;  -wards,  towards ;  -ways,  by 
the  roadside. 

S.  &  Ork.1  Sc.  Again-calling,  recall,  revocation  (JAM.).  n.Yks.2 
It  Hew  ageean  wards  o'  me  [to  the  place  where  I  was  standing]. 
[Agen ward,  back  again,  COLES  Eng.  Diet.  (1677).]  n.Yks.2Ageean- 
ways,  by  or  against  the  roadside. 

[A.  His  cap  and  pantofles  ready  . . .  And  a  candle  again 
you  rise,  MASSINGER  City  Madam  (1632)  in.  i.  ME. 
Ajeyn  this  cachereles  cometh,  Pol.  S.  151.  Cp.  the  use  of 
ajeines  in  P.  Plowman  :  Ajeines  thi  greynes  . . .  bigynneth 
for  to  ripe,  B.  xix.  314.  B.  1.  I  will  not  again  curse  the 
ground  any  more  for  man's  sake,  BIBLE  Gen.  viii.  21.  2.  To 
and  again,  i.e.  to  and  fro  ;  see  Autobiog.  of  Sir  S.  D'Ewes 
H.  353  (NARES).  3.  Nay,  come  again,  Good  Kate,  I  am  a 
gentleman,  SHAKS.  T.  Shrew  n.  i.  217.  5.  Ane  amerciament 
of  ane  fals  dome  againe  said  in  the  Justitiars  court,  is  ten 
pounds,  SKENE  (N.E.D.).] 

AGAINST,  prep,  and  conj.  Freq.  in  Som.  Dev.  Cor.; 
occas.  in  other  counties  (see  below),  but  usually  replaced 
by  again,  q.v.  [agi'ns,  agi'nst.] 




A.  prep. 
Near,  beside. 

Not.1  You  sit  against  me. 

2.  In  a  contrary  direction  to ;  hence,  to  go  towards,  to 

w.Som.1  A  young  man  speaking  of  a  young  woman  said  :  Aay 
waint  ugins  ur  [I  went  to  meet  her].  Dev.  I  am  going  out  against 
him,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  ;  Jane  is  late  home  til-night .  .  . 
I  wish,  Jimmy,  yii'd  go  against  her!  'Tez  gitting  dark;  us  'ad 
better  go  aginst  Jenny,  or  'er'Il  be  a  skeard  out  ov  'er  life,  HEWETT 
Peas.  Sp.  (1892) ;  Tom  Wheedon  was  sent  against  me  with  a  horse, 
O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  21.  nw.Dev.1  As  I  waz  komin'  back-alung, 
I  zeed  min  komin'  aginst  ma. 

3.  To  go  against,  to  inform  against. 

Dev.  Squire  Stephens  tanned  Dick  Carter  last  night  up  tfl  tha 
Cat  and  Fiddle,  and  I  be  summoned  til-day  tu  go  against  un, 
HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1893). 

4.  In  exchange  for ;  in  payment  ot. 

Dev.  Silver  against  a  guinea,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.);  I 
wanted  that  money  bad  enough  to  go  against  the  boys'  boots, 
O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  40. 

Hence,  of  a  change  of  clothes :  in  succession,  in  turn  with. 

s.Not.  I  shan't  let  him  wear  his  flannel  shirt  till  I've  made  him 
another  to  wear  against  it  (J.P.K.). 

5.  In  competition  with  ;  compared  with. 

s.Not.  I'll  mow  an  acre  against  any  man  in  the  place  (J.P.K.). 
Dev.  Young  against  him,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) 

6.  Of  time  :  before,  near  the  time  of. 

e.An.1  Close  against  thunder;  i.e.  thunder  is  in  the  air.  Cor.3 
I'm  happy  against  my  birthday.  As  dazed  as  a  duck  against  [on 
hearing]  thunder. 

7.  In  readiness  for,  in  time  for. 

w.Yks.  I'll  go  against  Sunday  (J.T.).  Som.  One  of  the  puddings 
kept  over  from  Christmas  against  sheep-shearing,  RAYMOND  Gent. 
Upcott  (18931  60. 

B.  conj.  By  the  time  that  (of  past  or  future  time). 

Dev.  Against  she  had  finished  her  broth,  all  the  items  were 
packed  away  in  her  head,  O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  9;  Against  I  got 
there  it  was  night,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  nw.Dev.1  You 
waan't  ha'  time  vor  do't,  I  tell  ee ;  'ginst  you've  had  dinner,  twull 
be  time  vor  go  home  again. 

[A.  1.  Against  the  Capitol  I  met  a  lion,  SHAKS.  J.  Caes.  i. 
iii.  20 ;  Against  this  fire  do  I  shrink  up,  ib.  K.  John,  v.  vii. 
33.  2.  Agayns  his  doghter  hastilich  goth  he,  CHAUCER 
C.  T.  E.  911.  4.  And  do  good  ajeines  yvel  god  hymself  it 
hoteth,  P.  Plowman  (B.)  x.  199.  5.  Hir  paroch-prest  nis 
but  a  beest  Ayens  me  and  my  company,  R.  Rose,  6875. 
6.  The  whyte  swan  Ayeins  his  deeth  begynnyth  for  to 
synge,  CHAUCER  Leg.  G.  W.  1356.  7.  Against  this  coming 
end  you  should  prepare,  SHAKS.  Son.  13.  B.  Urijah  the 
priest  made  it  against  king  Ahaz  came  from  Damascus, 
BIBLE  2  Kings  xvi.  n  ;  I'll  charm  his  eyes  against  she  do 
appear,  SHAKS.  M.  N.  D.  in.  ii.  99.  Against,  ME.  ajeinst  (in 
P.  Plowman),  a  development  with  a  parasitic  t  of  ajeins, 
a)eines,  formed  from  ajein  (again,  q.v.)  with  the  adv.  gen. 
ending  -es.] 

A-GAIRY,  adv.    Or.I.    [age-ri.] 

S.  &  Ork.1  To  go  a-gaairy,  to  leave  one's  service  before  the  term- 

AGALD,  see  Haggle. 

AGAR,  adj.    Cor.     [ae'ga(r).]     Ugly. 

Cor.12   [Cornish,  hager,  ugly,  foul,  naughty,  fierce  (ROGERS).] 

AGAR,  int.    Obs.  ?    Dev.    A  form  of  oath. 

n.Dev.  No  agar,  zeys  I,  vor  th'art  too  ugly  to  be  made  a  pretty 
vella,  Exm.  Crtshp.  (1746)  1.  350  ;  There  are  so  many  forms  of  the 
exclamation  By  God !  that  Agar  is  quite  likely  to  be  still  in  use. 
The  forms  generally  heard  at  the  present  day  are  Begar !  Begur ! 
Begor!  Begorz  !  (R.P.C.) 

AGARIFIED,  ppl.  adj.  Suf.   [aga'rifaid.]  Having  ague. 

Suf.  May  be  heard  frequently.  Rather,  every  one  knows  it  and 
uses  it  at  times  (F.H.). 

AGAST,  ppl.  adj.  Irel.  Som.  Dev.  Also  written  egast 
Wxf.1;  ageest,  agest,  agush'd  Dev.  [aga-s(t),  agrs(t).] 
Terrified,  afraid. 

Wxf.1  Egast,  fear.  Egasted,  frightened.  w.Som.1  I  be  agast 
'bout  they  there  mangle  ;  I  verMy  bleive  the  grub'l  ate  every  one 
o'm.  n.Dev.  Agest,  terrified,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.);  Cham 
agest  hare'll  dra  en  into  a  promish  wone  dey  or  wother.  Exm. 

VOL.  I. 

Crtsh/i.  '1746)  I.  584  ;  O  Gracey !  I  be  all  ageest,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell 
(18671  '5  !  Agush'd  and  Gush'd,  for  agasted,  dismayed,  GROSE 
(,1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  Dev.3  Agushed,  confounded  with  fear. 

[This  is  a  common  word  in  ME.  But  thei  weren  affraied 
and  agast  and  gessiden  hem  to  se  a  spirit,  WYCLIF  (1388) 
Luke  xxiv.  37;  Ne  how  the  ground  agast  was  of  the  light, 
CHAUCER  C.  T.  A.  2931.  Agast  is  the  pp.  of  ME.  agasten, 
to  terrify  (found  m_P.  Plowman),  agesten  (in  Ancren  Riwle). 
OE.  a-  (pref?)  +gcestan,  to  frighten.] 

AGASTMENT,  sh.  Dev.  [agae-stment.]  Also  in  the 
form  agushment.  Sudden  terror. 

Dev.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  ;H.) ;  Dev.3  Agushment,  consterna- 
tion. Agastment,  terror. 

[This  terror  and  agastrnent,  NASHE  (1594)  (N.E.D.). 
Agast  (see  above)  +  -ment.] 

AGATE,  sb.  War.  Oxf.  Brks.  Mid.  Som.  [ae-gat.] 
The  best  kind  of  playing  marble,  made  of  glass  with 
variegated  colours. 

War.  Now  obs.,  but  in  occas.  use  about  thirty  years  ago  (W.S.B.V 
Oxf.1  MS.  add.  Brks.  (M.J.B.)  Mid.  Aggy  marbles  were  known 
round  Hammersmith  some  years  ago  (F.W.L.).  Som.  (H.G.) 

AGATE,  adv.  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  w.Lin. 
n.Shr. ;  also  in  Not.  War.  Wor.  Glo.  Cor.  Also  written 
agaitSc.  n.Yks.1  w.Yks.1  ne.Yks.1  Lan.  Lin.1;  agyetNhb.1; 
ageatCum.2;  ageatt  Cum.1;  agaate  Yks.  n.Lin.1;  ageeat 
e.Yks.1  [age't  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.,  also  agia't.  Besides  age't 
there  also  occur  agia't  in  the  n.  and  e.,  and  agest  in 
w.Yks. ;  s.Chs.  agye't.] 

1.  On  the  way,  afoot,  astir,  going  about  (as  opposed  to 
lying  down,  confined  to  house  or  bed).     To  gang  agate,  to 
go  on  the  way,  make  one's  way,  proceed. 

Sc.  Agait,  on  the  way  or  road.  Ye're  air  agait  the  day  (JAM.). 
N.Cy.12  I  am  agate.  Nhb.1  Aa's  pleased  to  see  ye  agate  agyen. 
Cum.12  Wm.1  Aa's  glad  to  see  em  ageeat  agen.  [Also]  set 
loose,  as  a  horse  in  pasture.  n.Yks.  Let's  gang  agait  into  t'field, 
ROBINSON  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  vii.  n;  n.Yks.1  Thou's  early  agate  this 
morning.  m.Yks.1  He's  always  agate.  w.Yks.  She  wor  awlus 
ageeat,  BLACKAHPo«ms(i867)  37.  ne.Lan.1  Chs.  I  am  agate  (K.); 
Chs.1  Is  Jim  at  work  yet?  —  Oh,  aye!  he's  getten  agate  again  ; 
Chs.3  Sometimes  when  you  ask  after  a  sick  person  you  are  told 
'  He's  agate  again  ' ;  s.Chs.1  Not.3  He's  been  laid  up  for  weeks, 
but  he's  agate  again.  Lin.  How  the  doctor  switched  Bob  Robinson 
for  saying  he'd  been  agate  early,  FENN  Dick  o'  the  Fens  (1888)  viii. 
s.Wor.1  Glo.  Agate,  moving, occurring,  BfcvLisDial.  (1870);  Glo.1 
Cor.1  p.  All  agate,  descriptive  of  earnest  attention  ;  iv.  Agait,  very 
attentive,  earnest ;  Cor.2  All  agate,  full  of  expectation,  all  eye  and 
ear,  on  the  qui  vive. 

2.  Said  of  disease  or  the  like  :  going  about,  prevalent. 
Lan.  There's  a  deal  of  mourning  agait,  GASKELL  M.  Barton  (1848) 

xxv.     w.Wor.1  Thahr's  a  dill  o'  fevers  agate  this  'ot  weather. 

3.  Of  a  machine  or  the  like :  going,  in  motion,  in  action. 
w.Yks.  Wen  th'  railway  gets  fairly  agait,  Haworth  Railway  (1867) 

7,  ed.  1886 ;  Captain  sooin  hed  wun  squirt  agate  playing  at  t'glass 
winder,  Pudsey  Olm.  (1887)20;  w.Yks.3  T'bells  is  agate  [ringing]. 
Lan.  Gooin  intu  o  Factri,  wi  o  steym  ingun  ogate  sumwheer,  Sam 
Sondknocker,  14.  s.Chs.1  Is  the  machine  agate  yet  ?  Stf.2  n.Lin. 
When's  a  uven  nota  uven  ? — When  she's  agaate,  PEACOCK  Talesand 
Rhymes  (1886)  120. 

4.  Of  an  operation,  process,  business,  affair:  going  on, 

Nhb.  What  for  sud  ye  gan,  lad  ? ...  What's  agate  ?  CLARE  Love  of 
Lass(iSgo)  I.  124.  w.Yks.  There  is  naught  agate  that  fits  women 
to  be  consarned  in,  BRONTE  Shirley  (1849)  xviii ;  w.Yks.2  The 
washing  is  agate  ;  w.Yks.4  The  business  is  agate.  Lan.  Sin  they' rn 
so  mich  sodiering  ogate,  ORMEROD  Felley  fro'  Rachde  (1864)!; 
What  have  they  agate  at  th'  owd  mill  ?  WAUGH  Besom  Ben  (1865)  i. 
Chs.3  At  the  time  of  the  last  comet's  appearance  some  one 
observed  '  There's  a  comet  agate. '  s.Chs.1  I've  gotten  my  hee  [hay] 
agate  yet.  Stf.2  Der.  We  have  brewing  a-gate,  washing  a-gate, 
GROSE  ( 1 790)  MS.  add.  (P. )  Not.3  What  have  they  got  agate  now  ? 
sw.Lin.1  It  was  a  long  time  agate,  but  he  got  master  on  it  at  last. 
War.2  Wor.  It's  bin  agate  a  long  time  (H.  K.).  w.Wor.  Thur 
be  summat  agate,  S.  BEAUCHAMP  Grantley  Grange  (1874)  II.  162. 
se.Wor.1  What's  agate  now  ?  s.Wor.1,  Glo.1 

5.  Started,  set  to  work  ;  to  get  agate,  to  begin  ;  to  set  agate 
wi',  to  start  with,  get  on  with  ;  to  set  one  agate,  to  start  him, 
set  him  on  ;  to  be  agate  o'  or  on,  to  tease,  plague,  assault ; 
to  be,  go,  take,  agate,  go  agate  with,  to  accompany. 





agate ; 

ageeat  wi'  pleewing.       

Flk-Sp.  (1889)  50.  w.Yks.  It's  easy  enuff  to  ramble  after  yo  ve  once 
started,  but  its  this  gettin'  agate  'at's  soa  mich  trouble,  HARTLEY 
Budget  (1871)  125;  w.Yks.1  m.Lan.1  Iv  he  were  to  tek  a  lass 
agate  when  hoo  were  gooin'  hooam,  an'  he  coom  to  a  gate,  id 
wod  be  for  him  to  ged  agate  o'  oppenin'  thad  gate.  s.Chs.1 
There'll  be  noo  stoppin  thee,  nai  tha't  gotten  agate.  s.Not.  As 

get  agate  my 

job,  as  soon  as  yo'n  a  mind.  Cum.  I  set  him  ageat,  RICHARDSON 
Talk  (1886)  2nd  S.  33  ;  Ctun.3  Whatever  schemes  yel  set  ageeat 
'ill  widder.  Wm.1  Tha  set  oop  a  hullybaloo  an  set  t'horse  ageeat. 
ne.Yks.1  He'll  set  'em  all  agate.  m.Yks.1  He  was  set  agate  of  it. 
Lan.  Betty  set  ogate  o  scrikin  '  Murder ! '  LAHEE  Owd  Yem,  8 ; 
Th'  injin  set  agate  o'  goin,  Widder  Bagshaw' s  Trip  (c.  1860)  7 ;  You 
can  find  him  something  to  do,  Jim  ? — Oh  ay,  I'll  set  him  agate, 
WESTALL  Birch  Dene  (1889)  I.  303.  ne.Lan.1  Stf.2  Der.  To  set 
anything  a-gate,  is  to  begin  it,  or  set  it  a-going,  GROSE  (1790)  MS. 
add.  (P. )  ;  Der.1  Not.3  Set  him  agate  with  the  weeding  o'  that  plot. 
m.Yks.1  He's  been  agate  o'  him  again.  w.Yks.  Awlus  agaate  o' 
sumbody,  BANKS  Wkfld.  Wds.  (1865) ;  A  child  will  come  crying  to 
its  mother  and  say  somebody  has  'been  agate  on  him,'  Yts.  Mag. 
(1871)  I.  30 ;  w.Yks.5  Agaat  on  his  poor  wife  agean !  [beating  her]. 
Lan.1  Mother,  aar  Jem's  agate  on  me.  e.Lan.1  The  boys  are  agate 
of  one  another  [teasing  one  another].  Chs.1  Oo's  [she  is]  allus 
agate  o'  me.  Stf.2  'Er's  got  a  temper  like  a  red-'ot  iron,  'er's  agate 
o'  iverybody.  e-Lan.1  I  went  agate  with  my  friend  [I  went  a  part 
of  the  way  with  him].  Chs.2  I  have  been  agate  a  woman  [direct- 
ing her  in  the  road]. 

6.  Of  a  person  :  going  on  with  work,  busy,  occupied,  en- 
gaged upon. 

Wm.  T'nebbers  hard  him  agaet  wi  his  screeapin'  (t'fiddle), 
Spec.  Dial.  (1880)  pt.  ii.  45.  n.Yks.  To  watch  us  all  agaat,  MUNBY 
Verses  (1865)  65.  ne.Yks.1  Ah's  kept  agate.  e.Yks.1  He's  ageeat 
on  a  theakin  job.  w.Yks.1  What's  'to  agait  on  ?  w.Yks.3  Who's 
been  agate  o'  this?  Lan.  Get  forrard  wi  what  thae'rt  agate  on  just 
now,  WAUGH  Besom  Ben  (1865)  viii ;  Aw  went  an  wur  soon  at 
th'  Potteries,  an  ogate,  Abrum  o'  Flup's  Quortin'  (1886)  12.  ne.Lan. 
Yo'd  nobbud  been  agate  seven-teen  year,  MATHER  Idylls  (1895) 
331.  Chs.2  I  am  agate  a  new  cart.  Stf.2  Not.3  He's  agate  of  a  fresh 
job  now.  n-Lin.1  All's  gooin'  on  reight ;  she's  hed  twins  and  is 
agaate  yit.  When  he's  agaate  on  oht  noht'll  stop  him.  w.Wor.1 
Owd  Jem's  agate  now  uv  'is  taay'ls  ;  thahr'll  be  no  stoppin'  un. 
Shr.1  Whad  han  yo  bin  agate  on  ? 

7.  When  used  with  a  gerund,  with  or  without  o',  it  is 
almost  otiose,  or  indicates  continuance  of  action. 

Yks.  This  set  ma  agate  a  roaring  agean,  BINNS  Tom  Wallop 
(1861)  4  ;  They  kept  me  agate  teaching  other  folk,  TAYLOR  Miss 
Miles  (1890)  i.  n.Yks.2  It  keeps  ageeat  coming.  m.Yks.1  He's 
agate  o'  breaking  sticks.  w.Yks.  Men  are  agate  making  new 
limmers,  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  v;  w.Yks.1  He  then 
gat  agait  o'  fabbin  me,  ii.  293.  Lan.  They  were'n  olez  agate  o' 
feightin,  WAUGH  Chimn.  Corner  (1874)  i8,ed.  1879;  'At  set  mi  e'en 
agate  a  runnin',  Lan.  Sngs.  (1867)  n;  I  hope  thou'rt  not  got 
agate  of  meeting-going,  FOTHERGILL  Probation  (1879)  vi.  s.Lan. 
Anoethertoyme,  when  aw're  agatefeyghtin,BAMFORD  Walks(i&w) 
The  Traveller.  e.Lan.'  We  are  now  agate  of  working.  It  keeps 
agate  of  raining.  Chs.  Bill  agate  o'  'ammering  the  last  nail, 
WARBURTON  Hunting  Sngs.  (1860)  91  ;  Her  father  treated  her 
mother  very  cruelly ;  he  did  not  beat  her,  but  was  always  'agate' 
calling \\z<c,Altrinch.  Guard.  (Apr.24, 1895) ;  Chs.1  Agateo'  thrashin. 
If  tha'lt  git  agate  o'  getting  ait  a  bit,  tha'l  git  better;  Chs.2  He  is 
agate  marling,  or  ploughing.  s.Chs.1  Agate  o' mowin'.  Der.  I  was 
agate  o  goin'  to  Yewdle  Brig,  GUSHING  Voe  (1888)  I.  ix.  s.Not. 
They've  got  agate  o'  mekking  paraffin  artificially  (J.P.K.).  Lin. 
She'd  keep  one  man  agate  o'  mendin'  creddles,  PEACocKR.Skirlaugft 
(1870)  ii;  To  get  a-gait  o'  coughing,  STREATFIELD  Lin.  and  Danes 
1,1884)  315.  sw.Lin.1  They've  gotten  agate  a-reapering. 

8.  Apace,  briskly. 
N.Cy.1  The  fire  burns  agate. 

9.  Agate  o'  (?),  along  of,  in  course  of,  by  reason  of. 

I.Ma.  Child  screwed  agate  o  the  teethin',  BROWNE  The  Doctor 
(1887)  4. 

[A-,  on+gate,  way,  path,  road;  ON.  gala;  see  Gate. 
Some  of  the  mills  . . .  were  set  on  gate  by  reason  the 
streams  were  so  hugelie  augmented,  HOUNSHED  (N.E  D  ). 

ME.  He  dijt  him  deliverly  and  dede  him  on  gate,  Win.  of 
Pal.  1119.] 

AGATEWARDS,  adv.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Also 
written  agateurse  n.Lin.1,  &c.  [age'tadz,  agea'tadz, 
agi'taz.]  On  the  way  towards  home  ;  to  gang  agatewards 
with  any  one,  to  accompany  part  of  the  way  home. 

n.Cy.  I  will  set  you  agates,  or  agateward,  I  will  accompany  you 
part  of  the  way,  GROSE  (1790).  w.Yks.  To  go  a-gatewards  was 
to  conduct  a  guest  towards  the  high-road,  the  last  office  of 
hospitality,  necessary  both  for  guidance  and  protection,  when 
the  highway  lay  across  an  uninclosedand  trackless  country,  amidst 
woods  and  morasses,  Hlfx.  Wds. ;  w.Yks.1 1  gangs  agaitards  wi 
him  ;  w.Yks.4  To  go  agatewards  with  any  one  is  to  go  part  of 
his  way  home.  Der.  Let's  gang  agate'ards  [go  home]  (H.R.). 
nw.Der.1  Agatart  [ligyai-turt].  Not.8  It's  time  I  were  getting 
agatesward.  To  go  agatesward  or  agatehousing  [agatessing]  is  to 
go  part  of  the  way  home  with  a  friend.  Lin.1  n.Lin.1  If  thoo'll 
nobbut  waait  a  bit  I'll  go  agateus  wi'  thee  o'  th'  waay  hoam. 

[Agate + -ward,  with  -5,  -es  the  adv.  gen.  suffix,  as  in 
towards.  In  agatesward  this  adverbial  s  is  transposed.] 

AGE,  v.  Van  dial.  Not  given  in  any  s.  gloss,  except 
w.Som.1  [edg,  w.Som.  eadgi]  To  show  signs  of  age,  to 
look  old  ;  to  cause  one  to  seem  old. 

n.Cy.  He  begins  to  age,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)  Nhb.1, 
Dur.1,  Cum.1  e.Yks.1  To  show  signs  of  the  infirmities  of  old  age. 
w.Yks.1  My  daam  ages  fast.  Chs.1  He's  agein'  very  fast.  Stf.12 
Der.2  He  ages  fast.  Not.1,  n.Lin.1  Lei.1  It's  eeged  'im  very 
sadly,  his  loosin'  on  'er.  Nhp. l  He  ages  apace,  i.e.  looks  older  in 
a  short  space  of  time.  War.12  Shr.1  The  maister's  beginnin' to 
age  oncommon  fast,  an'  'e  inna  whad  yo'  met'n  call  so  owd,  about 
fifty,  or  fifty  sa'one.  Brks.1  Mother's  a-bin  aaygin  vast  laaytely 
ater  her  cawld  at  Kursmas.  e.An.1  To  grow  old,  to  assume  the 
appearance  of  age.  Suf.,  Nrf.,  e.Sns.  He  ages  very  much,  that  is, 
he  grows  old  very  fast,  HOLLOWAY.  w.Som.1  Siinz  uz  wuyv  duyd, 
ee  du  ae'ujee  maa'ynlee  [since  his  wife  died  he  ages  mainly]. 
I  was  a  frightened  to  zee  how  the  old  man  d'agy. 

AGEE,  adj.  and  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  and  the  n.  counties  to 
Lan.  and  Lin. ;  also  Dev.  Also  written  agye  n.Cy.  Wm.1 ; 
ajee  Sc.  Yks.1 23  Lan. ;  ajy  Wm.  &  Cum.1  [adgi'.] 

1.  Crooked,  uneven,  awry. 

Sc.  His  nose  aye  lay  On's  cheek  a-jee,  DRUMMOND  Muckotr.achy 
(1846"  40;  Heaven  kens  that  the  best-laid  schemes  will  gang 
ajee,  SCOTT  S/.  T?OK<IH  (1824)  x.  Inv.Agee,  off  the  straight  (H.E.F.). 
Rxb.  His  hat  was  set  awee  ajee,  RIDDELL  Poet.  Wks.  (ed.  1871) 
I.  89.  N.I.1  n.Cy.  To  look  agye,  to  look  aside,  GROSE  (1790) ; 
HOLLOWAY  ;  N.Cy.1  It  went  all  agee.  Nhb.1  Hae  ye  seen  my 
Jocker,  comin'  up  the  quay,  Wiv  his  short  blue  jacket,  and  his 
hat  agee?  NUNN  (d.  1853)  Jocker.  Dur.1  Cum.  Wardle's  [world] 
sadly  gean  ajy,  GWORDIE  GREENUP  Vance  a  Year  (1873)  27  ;  Aa's 
war'nt  ta  things'll  nit  be  sa  far  ajye  efter  o',  DICKINSON  Joe  and 
Geol.  (1866)  suppl.  4  ;  The  parson'  wig  stuid  aw  ajy,  ANDERSON 
Ballads  (1808)  Worton  Wedding.  Wm.  It  mud  a  bin  o'  a  jie,  fer 
it  tummalt  slap  ower  a  top  et  flewer  reel  afooar  ma,  Spec.  Dial. 
(1885)  pt.  iii.  5.  Wm.  &  Cum.1  Our  lot  of  leyfe's  not  far  a-jy,  STAGG 
New  Year's  Epistle,  159.  Wm.1  Yeeat  hings  agye.  Yks. 'To  look 
agye,'  to  look  awry,  to  look  on  one  side  (K.).  n-Yks.1  It  was  all 
agee,  quite  crooked  ;  n.Yks.23,  e.Yks.1,  m-Yks.1  w.Yks.  When 
you've  missed  attending  to  things  two  or  three  times  they  go  agee 
(F.P.T.).  n.Lan.  T'ian's  streit,  an  t'udar's  nat  far  ajai  (W.S.). 
ne.Lan.1,  nXin.1,  Dev.1  [Amer.  To  have  one's  hat  ajee,  BARTI.ETT.] 

2.  Of  a  door  or  gate  :  half-open,  ajar. 

Ayr.  But  warily  tent,  when  ye  come  to  court  me,  And  come  na 
unless  the  back-yett  be  a-jee,  BURNS  Whistle,  and  Til  come  to  you. 
Edb.  When  the  door  was  pat  ajee,  MOIR  Mansie  Wauch  (1828)  x. 
Wm.1  Set  t'dure  agee.  w.Yks.2  «  Lan.1  Tint  dur  ;  its  ajee. 

3.  Of  mental  states :  agitated,  disturbed,  slightly  deranged. 
Sc.  It  is  sometimes  applied  to  the  mind,  as  expressive  of  some 

degree  of  derangement  His  brain  was  awee  agee,  but  he  was 
a  braw  preacher  for  a'  that  (JAM.).  Lan.1  An"  when  aw  meet  wi 
my  bonny  lass,  It  sets  my  heart  ajee,  WAUGH  Sngs.  (1859)  Sweet- 
heart Gate. 

[A-,  on  +  gee.  Cp.  the  gee.'  orj'ee/  of  a  wagoner  calling  to 
his  horse  to  move  to  one  side.  Hence  the  primary  sense 
of  agee,  on  one  side.] 

AGENT,  v.  Sc.  [e-dgant]  To  manage,  whether  in  a 
court  of  law,  or  by  interest,  &c.  (JAM.) 

Sc.  I'll  employ  my  ain  man  o'  business  to  agent  Effie's  plea, 
SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  xii ;  The  Duke  was  carefully  solicited  to 
agent  this  weighty  business,  BAILLIE,  I.  9  (JAM.). 




[Agent,  sb.  (in  the  Sc.  sense  of  a  solicitor  for  the  Court 
of  Session  or  other  courts),  used  as  v.] 

AGER,  see  Eagre. 

AGEREVER,  sb.  Obs.l  Cor.  A  fish-name  ;  the  Pollack. 

Cor.3  In  common  use  with  the  fishermen  of  St.  Michael's  Mount 
and  Marazion. 

AGESOME,  flrf/.    Obs.J    Sur.     Elderly. 

Sur.  I  should  say  he's  somewhat  agersome,  N.  &  Q.  (1883)  6th 
S.  vii.  165  ;  Sur.1  [Quoting  the  above,  adds]  I  have  never  heard  the 
word  in  this  part  of  Surrey. 

AGEST,  see  Agast. 

AGETHER,  adv.    Obsol.    Irel.    Together. 

Ir.  Agether  is  becoming  obsolete ;  hardly  ever  used  by  the 
peasantry  (S.A.B.).  Wxf.1 

[OE.  ongeador,  together  (in  Beowulf).] 

AGG,  sb.    Sh.  I.    [ag.] 

(i)  S.  &  Ork.1  A  short  breach  of  the  sea.  (2)  Sh.I.  A  collection 
of  light  floating  articles,  such  as  morsels  of  straw,  scraps  of  sea- 
weed, &c. ,  found  drifting  between  the  string  of  the  tide  and  the 
backwash  from  the  shore  ;  usually  met  with  on  a  calm  day  or 
when  there  is  a  slight  swell  (K. I.). 

AGGERHEADS,s6.//.  Yks.  [a'gariadz.]  Loggerheads. 


Hence  Aggerheaded,  adj. 

w.Yks.2  '  He's  an  aggerheaded  fellow '  means  he  is  a  dull,  stupid 

AGGL,  v.    Sh.  I.    [a-gl.]    To  soil,  to  defile. 

S.  &  Ork.1 

AGGUCKS,  sb.  Sh.I.  [a-guks.]  A  kind  of  fish,  the 
same  as  awmucks. 

S.  &  Ork.1 

AGHENDOLE,  see  Eightindole. 

AGHT,  see  Out. 

AGIF,  conj.    e.Yks.    [agi'f.]    As  if;  although. 

e.Yks.  It  was  twenty  year  last  Cannlemas,  bud  Ah  mind  it  like  as 
agifit  was  nobbut  yisthada,  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  96;  e.Yks.1 
He  ramped  as-a-gif  he  was  mad.  Ah  likes  a  bit  o'  fun  agif  Ah  is 
awd,  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[A-,  all  +#/(OE.  gif)  if;  see  Algif.] 

AGIG,  adj.    Glo.    See  Gig.     [agi'g.] 

Glo.  Agig,  giggling,  excited  (F.H.);  Used  by  school-children 
when  racing  with  one  another.  He's  getting  agig  [getting  first  or 
foremost]  (S.S.B.). 

AGIN,  conj.  Yks.  and  n.Lan.   [agi'n.]    As  if.    See  Gin. 

n. Yks.1 ;  n.  Yks.2  It  leuk'd  agin  it  was  asleep.  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.1 
I  can  tell  agin't  wor  yusterday,  sin  thou  hed  as  nice  a  long  waist 
as  onnybody,  ii.  297.  ne.Lan.1 

[A-,  all  +gin,  if,  prob.  a  contraction  of  gie'n,  given,  i.  e. 

AGIST,  sb.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  War.  Suf.  Not 
in  Sc.  gloss.  Also  written  gist,  jeist,  joist  (see  below), 
[dgaist,  dgais,  Lan.  Lin.  Der.  also  dgoist.]  Pasturage  let 
out  during  the  summer  for  cattle  at  a  fixed  price  per  nead. 
Also  used  adjectivally. 

Yks.  Gisk  \sic~\,  pasturage,  MORTON  Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863).  n.Yks.2 
Gist  money,  the  payment  for  pasturage  of  cattle  that  are  agisted, 
or  fed  at  a  stipulated  price.  ne.Lan.1  Gist  [cattle],  cattle  taken' 
in  to  depasture  at  a  stipulated  price.  Der.2  Joist,  a  cow's  summer 
eating.  Not.  He  takes  in  a  lot  of  joist  beast  (L.C.M.)  Not.3 
Joist,  agistment.  sw.Lin.1  We've  a  lot  of  jeist  beast  down  here 
now.  War.  Joist  (J.R.W.).  Suf.  Joist  cattle,  CULLUM  Hist. 
Hawsted  (1813)  J4°- 

[See  Agist,  v.] 

AGIST,  v.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Rut. 
Lei.  Nhp.  w.Cy.  Also,  by  aphaeresis,  gist,  joist,  &c. ; 
see  below.  To  receive  cattle  to  graze  for  a  fixed  sum  ;  to 
put  out  cattle  to  pasture.  (The  same  as  Tack,  q.v.) 

w.Yks.2  Jiste,  to  feed  cattle  for  hire.  Ajist,  to  take  cattle  in 
to  pasture  for  hire  ;  w.Yks.3  Jiste,  to  'agist'  or  feed  cattle  for 
hire:  used  chiefly  in  the  participle  'jisting.'  e.Yks.1  Ajist,  to 
rent  a  right  of  pasturage.  Jeyce,  to  agist,  or  pasture  cattle  at  so 
much  per  head.  Lan.  Joyst,  to  summer  grass  feed ;  to  let  out  for 
another's  stock,  MORTON  Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863) ;  Lan.1  Gise,  Gist. 
ne.Lan.1  Gise,  Gist,  to  pasture  cattle  on  hire.  Der.  Them  two 
sheep  as  is  in  the  croft  to  joist,  VERNEY  Stone  Edge  (1868)  ii. 
Not.  To  joist,  to  take  in  cattle  to  feed  for  hire,  BAILEY  (1721); 
Not.23  Agist.  Lin.  Each  agists  his  cow  at  is.  6d.  per  week,  Ann. 
Agric.  (1784-1815)  ;  Lin.1  Joist,  agist,  or  to  hire  for  a  season 

certain  pasturage  for  feeding  cattle.  M.Lin.1  Giste.  They  are  forced 
to  sell  their  heeders,  and  joist  their  sheeders  in  the  spring,  YOUNG 
Lin.  Agric.  (1799)  325.  sw.Lin.1  They  tak'  in  beast  to  joist.  We've 
joisted  them  out  by  the  Trent.  Rut.1  It's  on'y  some  ship  [i.e. 
sheep]  he's  got  a-joisting.  Lei.1  Joist,  to  take  or  send  in  to  '  ley  ' 
or 'tack.'  Nhp.2  Joist.  The  word  is  still  in  every-day  use,  and 
is  a  Nhp.  word  of  some  two  centuries  standing.  w.Cy.  To  joist, 
LISLE  Husbandry  (1757). 

Hence  Agisted,  ppl.  adj. 

Cum.  Joistered,  pastured,  LINTON  Lake  Cy.  (1864)  306.  Wm. 
Cattle  may  be  kept  through  the  months  of  summer  upon  joisted 
fields  at  a  cheap  rate,  Agric.  Suru.  (1793-1813). 

[To  agist  signifies  to  take  in  and  feed  the  cattle  of 
strangers  in  the  King's  forest,  and  to  take  money  for 
the  same,  BAILEY  (1721) ;  To  take  in  and  feed  cattel  of 
strangers  in  the  King's  forest,  and  to  gather  the  money 
due  for  the  same  for  the  King's  use,  BLOUNT  (1681) ;  Glan- 
dager  les  porceaux,  to  agist,  or  lay,  swine  in  masty  woods, 
COTGR.  OFr.  agister,  to  lodge,  to  make  to  lie,  a+gister, 
Rom.  jacitare  (deriv.  of  Lat.  jacere,  to  lie),  cp.  Fr.  giter: 
avoir  son  gite,  ou  lieu  ou  ton  trouve  a  coucher,  HATZFELD. 
The  following  illustrations  of  the  aphetic  forms  may  be  also 
quoted  :  To  gise  ground,  is  when  the  owner  does  not  feed 
it  with  his  own  stock,  but  takes  in  other  cattle  to  graze  in 
it,  BAILEY  (1721);  To  gise  or  juice  ground,  is  when  the 
lord  or  tenant  feeds  it  not  with  his  own  stock,  but  takes 
in  other  cattel  to  agist  or  feed  it  (K.)  ;  To  joist  or  jeist 
horses,  i.  e.  equos  alienos  certo  et  condicto  pretio  inpascuis  suis 
alere,  vox  agro  Line,  usitatissima,  SKINNER  (1671)  Ddd  2.] 

AGISTER,  sb.  Yks.  Not.  Lei.  Nhp.  Hmp.  Also  written 
joister  Nhp.2  &c.  [adgoi'sta(r),  Yks.  adgai-sta(r).]  An 
animal  fed  by  '  agisting. 

w.Yks.3  Jister,  the  animal  so  fed  [i.  e.  by  agistment].  Not  He's 
got  no  stock  of  his  own,  only  joisters  (L.C.M.).  Lei.1  Joister,  an 
animal  taken  or  sent  in  to  joist.  Nhp.2 

[Agist,  vb.-^-er.  This  word  seems  to  occur  only  in  the 
dialects.  It  should  be  distinguished  from  agister,  AFr. 
agtsfour,  an  officer  of  the  royal  forests  who  takes  charge 
of  cattle  agisted.] 

AGISTING,  sb.  n.Cy.  Lan.  Rut.  War.  By  aphaeresis 
gisting  Nhb.1  &c.  See  below,  [adgai'stin,  adgoi'stin.] 

1.  The  pasturage  or  '  keep '  (q.v.)  ofcattle  put  out  to  graze. 
N.Cy.1  Gisting,  pasturage  of  cattle,  in  some  places  Gisement. 

Nhb.1  Gisting,  the  agistment  ofcattle  (ois.).  w.Yks.5  The '  gisting- 
day'  is  the  day  whereon  pasture-owners  have  agreed  to  take  in  cattle 
at  a  stipulated  price  per  head  to  feed.  The  times  of  agistment  are 
advertized  in  the  local  papers  by  some  of  the  principal  landowners 
in  the  neighbourhood.  Lan.1  Gistin.  ne.Lan.1  Gisting.  s.War. ! 
What  must  I  pay  for  his  joisting  ? 

2.  Payment  for  pasturage. 

Rut.1  Ajoisting,  a  payment  for  feeding  and  depasturing  of  cattle. 

AGISTMENT,  sb.  Yks.  Lan.  War.  Hmp.  Wil.  Also 
written  egistments  RAY.  [adgrstment]  The  feeding  of 
cattle  at  a  fixed  rate  ;  pasturage  ;  the  right  of  herbage  ;  a 
tithe.  (In  the  two  latter  senses,  a  legal  term.) 

N.  Cy.1  The  tithe  due  for  profit  made  by  such  gisting,  where  neither 
the  land  nor  the  cattle  otherwise  pay  anything,  [is]  agistment. 
w.Yks.  Agistment,  Fryston  Park. — Gaits  to  let  for  cows  at  £2  each, 
from  May  I3th  to  November  ist,  1889.  Good  water  and  shelter. 
Excellent  grass,  Advi.  in  Leeds  Merc.  (May  4,  1889).  e.Yks.1 
Ajistment,  a  right  of  herbage.  ne.Lan.1  The  feeding  of  cattle  in 
a  common  pasture  for  a  stipulated  price.  War.  (J.R.W.)  s.Cy. 
Egistments,  cattle  taken  in  to  graze,  by  week  or  month,  RAY  (1691). 
Hmp.1  Wil.  Agistment,  the  taking  in  of  cattle  to  keep  by  the 
week  or  month,  DAVIS  Agric.  (1813). 

[Gisement  (a  contraction  of  Agistment),  foreign  cattle  so 
taken  in  to  be  kept  by  the  week,  BAILEY  (1721)  ;  Agist- 
ment, Agistage,  the  function  of  taking  cattle  into  the  King's 
forest,  &c.,  the  herbage  or  feeding  of  cattle  in  a  forest, 
common,  &c.,  ib. ;  Egistments  (agistments),  cattle  taken  in 
to  graze,  or  be  fed  by  the  week  or  month,  WORLIDGE 
Syst.  Agric.  (1681) ;  Glandage  .  . .  th'  agistment  or  laying 
of  swine  into  mastie  woods,  COTGR.  OFr.  agistement,  deriv. 
of  agister.} 

AGIVE,  v.  Dev.  [agi'v.]  To  be  pliant,  yielding.  See 

Dev.3  The  frost  agives. 

E  2 




[That  they  [hops]  may  cool,  agive,  and  toughen,  WOR- 

LIDGE  Svs/.  Agric.  (1681).     OE.  iigifan,  to  give  up,  to  yield.] 

AGLE.  see  Aigle,  sb.2 

A-GLEG,  adj.    n.Yks.     [agle'g.]     Asquint. 

AGLET,  sb.  Sc.  Cum.  Yks.  I.W.  Also  written  yiglet 
Cum.,  aiglet  Sc.  (JAM.)  [a'glat,  e'glat.] 

1.  The  metal  end  or  tag  of  a  bootlace,  &c.    (Cf.  aiglet,  sb? 
Sc.  Aiglet,  a  tagged  point  (JAM.).     Cum.8  Aglet,  the  metal  end  of 

a  bootlace,  &c.     n.Yks.3  To  an  aglet,  to  a  nicety,  to  a  tittle.     It  fits 
to  an  aglet. 

2.  An  icicle. 

I.W.  Haglet,  an  icicle  (J.D.R.)  ;  I.W.2 

[Aglette,  bracteolum,  LEVINS  Manip. ;  Affiquet,  a  little 
brooch,  flower,  button,  aglet,  COTGR.  ;  An  aglet  [tag  of 
a  point],  Aeramentum  ligulae;  also,  an  aglet  [a  little  plate 
of  metal],  bractea,  bracteola,  COLES  ;  Aglet,  the  tag  of  a  point, 
a  little  plate  of  metal ;  also  a  substance  growing  out  of 
some  trees  before  the  leaves,  BAILEY  (1721).  Fr.  aiguillette, 
a  point  (COTGR.),  dimin.  of  aiguille,  a  needle  ;  see  Aigle.] 

AGLEY,  adv.  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  n.Yks.  Also  written 
aglee  Sc.  [aglr.] 

1.  Obliquely,  aslant,  turned  to  one  side. 

Sc.  Let  faction  gang  fairmaest  and  right  gang  aglee,  The  People 
(June  16,  1889)  13,  c.  3  ;  Why  sud  I  be  like  til  ane  wha  gangs 
agley  frae  the  hirsels  o'  thy  frien's  ?  HENDERSON  Sng.  Sol.  (1862) 
i.  7;  Whare  has  thy  belovet  gane  agley  ?  i.  Lth.  Yet  bunkers 
aften  send  aglee,  Altho'  they  weel  did  ettle,  STRATHESK  More  Bits 
(1885)  Curler's  Song,  274.  Ayr.  The  best-laid  schemes  o'  mice 
an'  men  Gang  aft  a-gley,  BURNS  To  a  Mouse  (1785).  N.Cy.1  Nhb. 
His  neet-cap  thrawn  on  all  aglee,  WILSON  Pitman's  Pay  (1843) 
46  ;  Nowt  holy  ye  can  find  in  hor,  she's  bewty  g'yen  aglee,  ROBSON 
Evangelim,  &c.  (1870)  361.  Nhb.1  Cum.2  Sae  fine  she  goes,  sae 
far  aglee,  Thatfolksshe  kenned  she  cannotsee,  BLAMIRE  Poet.  Wks. 
(1842)  192. 

2.  To  gang  agley,  to  err.  go  wrong.    Used  in  a  moral  sense 

Rnf.  Wehaenamenselike  cruel  man;  Yet  tho" he's paukier far  than 
we,  What  reck  !  he  gangs  as  aft  aglee,  PICKEN  Poems  (1788)  I.  67. 

[A-,  on+gley;  see  Gley,  v.  (to  squint).] 

AGNAIL,  sb.  n.Cy.  Lan.  Not.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  Nrf.  Cor. 
Also  called  angnail,  angernajl,  hangnail,  nangnail, 
gnangnail.  See  below,  [a'gnel,  a'rinel,  na'nnel,  Yks. 
ne-rjnel.]  See  Nangnail. 

1.  A  loose  piece  of  skin  at  the  base  of  the  finger-nail.   With 
great  variety  of  names  in  the  dialects,  e.  g.  backfriend,  step- 
mother's blessing,  idle  wheal,  fan-nail,  idle-warts,  idle- 
welts,  thang-nail,  warty- wheals  (Nhp.1). 

Nhb.1  Anger-nail,  a  piece  of  skin  at  the  side  of  the  nail  which  has 
become  semi-detached  and  gives  pain.  Cum.  He  had  a  trouble- 
some backfriend  or  agnail,  at  which  he  often  bit,  LINTON  L.  Lorton 
(i867)xxiv;  Cum.iAngnails, Anger-nails, jagsround  thenails-  nails 
grown  into  the  flesh.  w.Yks.'  Hang-nails,  skin  over-lapt  finger- 
nails. Not.1  nXin.1  Nang-nail,  a  partly  detached  piece  of  skin 
beside  the  finger-nails,  which  gives  pain.  Lei.1  Nhp.1  A  trouble- 
some and  disagreeable  little  piece  of  reverted  skin  at  the  side  of 
thefinger-nail;  more  frequently  called  Idle  Wheal.  Nrf.  Hang-nails 
shvers,  which  hang  from  the  roots  of  the  nails,  and  reach  to  the 
tips  of  the  fingers,  HOLLOWAY. 

2.  A  corn,  bunion ;  ingrowing  toe-nail. 

Cum.  Ang-nails,  corns  on  the  feet.  GROSE  (1790);  HOLLOWAY 
N.Cy.1  Ang-nails,  corns  on  the  toes.  w.Yks.  Nangnails.  Opinions 
are  divided  as  to  this  word  :  i.  Ingrowing  toe-nails,  2.  corns,  * 
bunions  (S.K.C.) ;  Being  troubled  wf  corns  and  nangnails  shoot 
not  fit  for  mich  walkin'  at  present,  HARTLEY  Seets  (i89s)  ii  • 
w.Yks  a  Gnang-nails,  corns  on  the  toes.  neian.1  Angnail  a  corn 
the  toe.  nXin.1  Nangnail,  acorn,  a  bunion.  There  is  a  black 
toSrc^rS^8^8^  UnderthC  —  of  Nangnai,  salve 

3.  A  whitlow. 

Cor.2  Agnail,  a  whitlow. 
[1.  Ane-nail,  a  sore  or  imposthumation  under  the  nail  of 

of  ananZY7  (l?°o)  \  ^T?  a  sliP  of  skin  attheroo 
BLOI™T   ^T    VI72I)-    2"  ASnaiI>  a  corn  uP°n  toes, 
toes      rW  !    *#"$*>  a,.corn  or  aSne'e  in  the  feet  or 
toes.     Garret,  an  agnail  or  little  corn  upon  a  toe  COTGR  • 
Agnayle  upon  ones  too,  corret,  PALSGR.  P3.  A 
Ptengtum,  COLES  (1679).    The  Yks.  and  Lin. 

is  for  an  older  ang-nailwhh  the  n  of  the  indef.  art.  prefixed. 
OE.  ang-ticfg/,  the  original  meaning  of  which  seems  to  have 
been  a  corn  on  the  toe  or  foot,  a  compressed,  painful,  round- 
headed  excrescence  fixed  in  the  flesh  like  an  iron  nail.  OE. 
angncegl,  ang-  compressed,  tight  (cp.  ang-  in  angmod 
anxious,  angness  anxiety,  angstim  narrow,  Goth,  aggwiis) 
+  ncegl,  an  iron  nail,  clavus.  Meanings  1  and  3  are  due  to 
a  popular  association  of  the  word  with  na.i\  =  it»giiis.] 

AGO,  pp.  s.Irel.  and  Dev.  Also  written  ee-go  Wxf.1 
[ago',  agua'.]  Gone,  finished. 

Wxf.1  Hea's  ee-go.  Dev.  Awl  tha  tatties  be  ago.  missis  ;  there 
idden  wan  a-layved,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  45 ;  They  be  all  ago, 
there  idn  oneo'm  a  left,  Verb.  Prov.  (1886)89.  n.Dev.  There's  Dame 
an'  Maister's  chair  ;  Wi'  thick  I  zem  they  ba'nt  a-go,  ROCK  Jim  an' 
AW/ (1867)  28;  The  blue  of  the  plum  is  ago,  zure,  Monthly  Mae 
(1808)  II.  421. 

[ME.  For  now  is  clene  a-go  My  name  of  trouthe  in  love 
for  ever-mo !  CHAUCER  Tr.  &>  Cr.  v.  1054 ;  And  thus  ar 
Tisbe  and  Piramus  ago  (i.  e.  dead),  ib.  Leg.  G.  W.  916  ;  My 
lady  bright  Which  I  have  loved  with  al  my  might  Is  fro  me 
deed,  and  is  a-goon,  ib.  B.  Duchesse  479.  OE.  agan,  pp.  ot 
agan,  to  pass  away.  See  Agone.] 

A-GOG,  adv.  Yks.  Som.  Dev.  [ago'g.]  On  the  move, 

w.Yks.5  Gee  him  a  sup  o'  drink  an'  he'll  soin  be  agog  on't, 
alluding  to  a  hobby  of  a  tale  that  a  man  is  in  the  habit  of  telling. 
[Of  a  child  on  a  moving  rocking-horse]  There,  now  he's  agog  ! 
Som.  Off  we  started,  all  agog,  PULMAN  Sketches  (1842)  25.  n.Dev. 
When  tha  art  zet  agog,  tha  desent  caree  who  tha  scullest,  Evnt 
Scold.  (1746)  1  228. 

[Six  precious  souls  and  all  agog,  COWPER  John  Gilpin  ; 
On  which  the  saints  are  all  agog,  BUTLER  Hud.  n ;  The 
gawdy  gossip  when  she's  set  agog,  DRYDEN  Juv.  Sat.  vi. 
OFr.  agogiie.  In  a  poem  of  the  I3th  cent,  occurs  the  phrase 
tout  vient  a  gogue  \  HATZFELD).  Cp.  COTGR.  estre  en  ses 
gogues,  to  be  frolick,  lusty,  lively,  wanton,  gamesome  ;  all- 
a-hoit,  in  a  merry  mood.] 

A-GOGGLE,  adv.  Brks.  Hmp.  [ago'gl.]  Trembling, 
shaking  with  palsy. 

Brks.1  An  old  man  was  spoken  of  as  being  agoggle;  he  was  the 
terror  of  little  children  from  this  involuntary  shaking  of  the  head 
at  them.       Hmp.1  His  head  is  all  agoggle. 
[A  frequent,  of  agog.    See  above]. 
AGONE,  adv.    Irel.  Shr.  Glo.  e.An.  Ken.  Hmp.  I.W. 
Som.  Dev.  Cor.    [ago'n.]     Ago,  since. 

s.Ir.  We  started  three  days  agon,  LOVER  Leg.  (1848)  II.  291. 
Wxf.1  Shr.2  An  archaism  very  common  at  Wenlock.  Glo.  They 
have  told  me  as  'e  be  dead  twelve  months  agone,  GISSING  Both  of 
this  Parish  (1889)  I.  14  ;  Glo.1,  e.An.1  Nrf.,  Snf.  HOLLOWAY.  Suf.1 
Tis  three  months  agon.  Ken.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)  Hmp.1 
Ten  years  agone.  I.W.1  Som.  We  should  a-bin'  out  o'  parish 
years  agone,  RAYMOND  Loveand  Quiet  Life  (1894)  193  ;  W.  &  J.  Gl. 
(1873)  ;  w.Som.1  Twas  ever  so  long  agone.  Zabm  yuur  ugau-n 
kaum  Kan-lmus  [seven  years  ago  next  Candlemas].  Such  phrases 
are  quite  familiar  to  all  West-country  folk.  Dev.  When  old  fayther 
died,  two  weeks  agone,  BRAY  Desc.  (1836)  I.  3a ;  'Twas  zome  time 
agone  herwent  up  til  gert  ouze,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  45.  n.Dev. 
They  say  '  time  agone  '  for  '  some  time  since,'  JEFFERIES  Red  Deer 
(1884)  x.  Cor.  Some  years  agone,  TREGELLAS  Rural  Pop.  (1863)  8. 
w.Cor.  He  went  to  Africa  some  time  agone  (M.A.C.). 

[Oh,  he's  drunk,  Sir  Toby,  an  hour  agone,  SHAKS.  Twelfth 
JVt.  v.  i.  204 ;  For  long  agone  I  have  forgot  to  court,  ib.  7 wo 
Gent.  in.  i.  8s;  A  while  agon,  GOWER  C.A.  (Tale  of  the 
Lowers,  9) ;  Nat  longe  agon  is,  CHAUCER  C.T.  D.  9.  OE. 
agan.  See  Ago.] 

AGONIES,  sb.  pi.    Pem.    Glandular  swellings  (?). 
LAWS  Little  Eng.  (1888)  419;    Never  heard  [agonies]  in  this 
sense.      I  he  word  is  used  for  any  great  pain.     Swelth  is  the  word 
for  glandular  swellings  (W.M.M.). 
AGRAFT,  v.    e.An.  Suf.    [agra-ft,  agravft.] 
e.An.    To  lay  in,  of  a  tree  put  into  the  soil  so  as  to  just  cover  its 
roots.     Suf.  To  graft  a  stock  below  the  surface  of  the  ground.     An 
old  gardener  says  it  is  nearly  obsolete,  and  known  in  no  other 
sense  than  the  above  (F.H.). 

AGREAT,  adv.  Lei.  Nhp.  Also  written  agret  Nhp.1 
[agre-t,  Nhp.  also  agre-t.]  Of  work  :  done  by  the  piece. 

Lei.  Nhp.1  By  the  great,  work  taken  or  let  out  to  be  done  by 
quantity  instead  of  by  the  day. 




[Agreat,  by  the  great,  by  the  job,  ASH  (1795)  ;  To  take 
work  agreat,  i.e.  by  the  piece,  BLOUNT  (1681)  ;  A-great, 
universe,  COLES  (1679);  A-great,  by  the  great  or  lump, 
COLES  (1677) ;  Agreat  or  altogither,  universe,  BARET  ( 1580). 
A-,  on  +  great.} 

AGREE,  v.     Sc.  GIo.     [agrr.]    Agree  with,  agree  to. 

Sc.  I  do  not  agree  with  it,  Monthly  Mag.  1^1800)  I.  324.  Inv. 
Used  all  over  Scotland,  and  very  common  about  Inverness  (H.E.F.). 
Glo.1  Agree  with,  to  put  upwith.  What!  be  you  washing  the  dumb 
animal  [i.e.  a  dog]  ?  a'  seems  to  agree  with  it  very  well. 

[Agree  with  his  demands,  SHAKS.  M.for  Meas.  in.  i.  254. 
OF r.  agreer ;  Rom.  aggratare,  to  make  pleasing.] 

AGREEABLE,  adj.     In  gen.  colloq.  use.     [agria'bl.J 

1.  Acquiescent,  compliant,  willing. 

w.Yks.1  I's  parfitly  agreeable  tul't,  i.  4.  Chs.3  He  is  not  agree- 
able [refuses  his  consent].  n.Lin.1  Robud  ax'd  me  if  I  would  hev 
him.  and  I  says,  '  Well,  Bob,  I'm  agreeable.'  Nhp.1  I'm  quite 
agreeable  to  it.  Oxf.1  MS.  add.  Brks.1 1  be  agra-able  vor  um  to  get 
married  if  um  be  agra-able  on  t'other  zide.  e-An.1 1  am  agreeable 
[agree  to  your  proposal].  Sur.1 1  ast  "un  to  come  along  of  us,  but 
he  didn't  seem  noways  agreeable.  w.Som.1  Wau-d-ee  zai  tile  u 
kwairrt? — Aay  bee  ugrai'ubl  [What  do  you  say  to  a  quart?— I  am 
willing  to  join  you]. 

2.  Convenient,  suitable. 

s.Stf.  We'n  expect  yer  when  yo  con  mak'  it  agreeable  to  come, 
PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895). 

[1.  Agreeable  or  conformable,  consentiens,  concurrens, 
ROBERTSON  (1693) ;  Agreable  .  .  .  consentyng  to  a  thynge, 
agreable,  PALSGR.  305.  2.  Agreeable  or  convenient,  con- 
sentanens,  conveniens,  aptus.  He  hath  a  nature  agreeable  . . . 
and  suitable  to  all  things,  ROBERTSON  (1693) ;  consenlanens, 
agreeable,  meet,  convenient,  RIDER  (1649).  OFr.  agreable, 
deriv.  of  agreer.  See  Agree.] 

AGREEN,  sb.  Cum.  [agrrn.]  Plant-name,  Senecio 
Jacobaea  (Common  Ragwort). 

Cum.1  [Also  called]  Booin,  Grundswathe,  Muggert,  Grunsel. 

AGROUND,  adv.  Lan.  Wor.  Hrf.  Glo.  Brks.  [agreu'nd, 
Lan.  agnrnd.] 

1.  On  the  ground. 

ne.Lan.1  Agrund,  on  the  ground. 

2.  On  foot. 

s.Wor.  Known  in  this  sense  in  Stoulton  (H.K.).  Hrf.  Going 
aground  [on  foot],  heard  some  time  ago  in  the  Ledbury  district 
(H.K.).  Glo.  Commonly  used  in  Vale  of  Berkeley.  Are  you  going 
to  Dursley  in  the  cart  ?  -  No,  I'm  going  aground.  [Also]  used  by 
an  old  gamekeeper,  at  Snowshill  (near  Stanway)  thirty  years  ago 
(J.D.R.)  ;  Glo.1 

3.  Of  a  fox  :  to  earth. 

Glo.  (J.D.R.,     Brks.1  The  vox  be  gone  aground. 

4.  Fig.  in  phr.  to  run  aground,  to  slander,  depreciate. 
s.Wor.  (F.W.M.W. 

[A-,  on  +  ground.} 

AGUE,  sb.  e.An.  [e'giu.]  Swelling  and  inflammation 
from  taking  cold. 

e.An.1  An  ague  in  the  face  is  a  common  consequence  of  facing  a 
Norfolk  north-easter.  Ague-ointment,  an  unguent  made  with  elder 
leaves  for  ague  in  the  face.  Suf.  Ague,  or  swelling  in  the  face, 
e.An.  (1866)  II.  325. 

[A  vehement  ague  causing  an  inflammation  in  the  mouth, 
emphysodes,  ROBERTSON  (1693).  This  is  a  peculiar  use  of 
E.  ague,  a  feverish  attack  followed  by  a  cold  and  shivering 
stage.  OFr.  ague,  MLat.  acuta,  an  acute  fever.] 

AH,  int.  In  gen.  use  throughout  the  dialects.  Also 
written  eh.  [e.J  Interrogative  exclamation = What  ?  What 
did  you  say  ?  See  Ay. 

Nhb^Aah!  Eh-ah  ?  n.Yks.2  A-ah,  said  you  ?  w.Som.1  Eh  ? 
Used  interrogatively  and  alone,  it  means '  what  dp  you  say  ?'  at  the 
end  of  an  interrogative  sentence  repeats  the  question.  Wuur-s 
u-biin-  tiie,  ai  ?  [where  hast  been,  eh  ?] 

AHEAD,  adv.     Dev.     [a-e-d.]    Overhead. 

Dev.  Zes  I  tu  a  chap, '  What  dee  call  thic  a-head  ? '  Zes  he,  'Aw 
that  air's  tha  balune's  little  maid '  [a  small  pilot  balloon  sent  up 
before  the  large  one],  NATHAN  HOGG  Poet.  Let.  (1847)  19,  ed.  1858. 

[A-,  on-f  head.} 

AHEIGHT,  «rft>.    Yks.    [a-ei't]    On  high,  aloft. 

n.Yks.  [Of  a  ball,  &c.]  Shy  itupaheight  (G.W.W.) ;  Lift  it  up 
-height  (I.W.). 

[Look  up  a-height ;  the  shrill-gorged  lark  so  far  Cannot 
be  seen  or  heard,  SHAKS.  K.  Lear,  iv.  vi.  58.  A-,  on  +  height.} 

AHENT,  see  Ahind. 

AHIND, prep,  and  adv.  Sc.  n.Irel.  and  all  the  n.counties 
toChs.  and  Lin.  Also  in  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Glo.  Also  written 
ahint  Sc.  Nhp.1;  ahinSc.  N.I.1  Seebelow.  [Sc.Nhb.Cum. 
Wm.  o-hi-nt ;  Lin.  a-ai'nd,  a-i'nt ;  Lei.  a-ornd,  Ir.  a-hi'n.] 

1.  prep.    Of  place  :  at  the  back  or  in  the  rear  of;  also  fig. 
Sc.  Vich  Ian  Vohr  and  ta  Prince  are  awa  to  the  lang  green  glen 

ahint  the  clachan,  SCOTT  Wawrify (1814)  xliv  ;  Hide  yoursell  ahint 
ta  Sassenach  shentleman's  ped,  ib.  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xxii ;  Snawlies 
ahint  the  dyke,  SWAINSON  Weather  f Ik-Lore  (1873)  12  ;  A  woman 
cam'  ahint  him,  an'  touchet  the  hem  o'  his  garment  HENDERSON 
St.  Matt.  (1862)  ix.  20.  Frf.  Gie  the  door  a  fling-to,  ahent  ye, 
BARRIE  Licht  (1888)  173.  Per.  There's  something  ahint  that  face, 
IAN  MACLAREN  Brier  Bush  (1895)  25.  Bwk.  Ahint  the  kye,  HENDER- 
SON Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  79.  Feb.  Here  he  comes  with  the  dog 
running  ahint  him  (A.C.).  Gall.  He  canna  shut  them  ahint  him, 
CROCKETT  Bog-Myrtle  (1895)  367.  N.I.1  Ahin,  behind.  Nhb.  Ahint 
the  bush  that  bauds  the  thrush,  Coquet  Dale  Sngs.  (1852)  116;  Nhb.1 
Ahint  yor  hand  [to  have  some  one  to  look  after  your  interest  in 
your  absence].  Dur.  Behowld,  he  stands  ahint  our  wo,  MOORE 
Sng.  Sol.  ( 1859)  ii.  9.  Cum. '  You  oald  donkey,'  sez  a  fellow  ahint 
me,  Mary  Drayson  (1872)  16.  Wm.  &  Cum.1  A  stomach  fit  to  eat 
t'horse  ehint  t'saddle,  Borrowdale  Let.  (1787)  131.  Wm.1  It  stands 
ahint  t'dure.  ne. Yks.1  It's  nut  mich  ahint  t'uther.  w.Yks.5  Cloise 
ahint  him.  ne.Lan.1  Chs.  Lookingk  at  th'  sarvant  wench  ahint 
mi  back,  CLOUGH  B.  Bresskittle  (1879)  7.  n.Lin.  An'  reaper,  'at's 
swingin' ahind 'em,  PEACOCK  Tales  and  Rhymes  (1886)  80.  n.Lin.1 
Lei.1  Ahent,  Ahind.  Nhp.1  Ahint.  Not  frequent,  and  confined  I 
believe  to  the  northern  part  of  the  county  ;  Nhp.2  Ahent. 

2.  Of  time  :  after,  behind. 

w.Yks.5  Tha't  awlus  ahint  thee  time,  ah  think. 

3.  adv.     Of  place  :  in  the  rear,  at  the  back,  behind  ;  fig. 
concealed ;  ahind  afore,  hind-foremost ;   to  walk  ahind  afore, 
to  walk  backwards. 

Sc.  Here  heids  had  humps  ahint  that,  tow'rin',  seemed  A  fairy 
helmet,  ALLAN  Lilts  (1874)  65.  Per.  A'  mind  him  gettin'  a  tear  ahint, 
and  the  mend's  still  veesible,  IAN  MACLAREN  Brier  Bush  (1895)  240. 
Gall.  The  reed  lowe  jookin'  through  the  bars,  and  the  puir,  puir 
craiters  yammerin'  ahint,  CROCKETT  Raiders  (1894)  xvii.  N.Cy.1 
To  ride  ahint.  Nhb.  Ah  canna  rightlys  mak'  him  oot  noo  !  There's 
somethin'  ahint,  Ah  doot !  CLARE  Love  of  Lass  (1890)  I.  50;  We 
stagger'd  a  hint  se  merry-o,  A^.  Minstrel (1806 -7)  pt.  iv.  81;  Nhb.1 
Come  in  ahint  [the  familiar  cry  of  the  drover  to  his  dog].  Wm.1 
Tha's  alias  ahint  like  a  coo's  taal.  n.Yks.1  He's  close  ahint. 
w.Yks.2  To  ride  at-hint  [to  ride  behind  another  person  on  the  same 
horse].  War.3  Why  bless  me,  child!  you've  put  your  hat  on  ahind 
afore.  Glo.  But  this  'ere  time  I'd  a  'ad  to  leave  Willum  a-hind, 
BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn  (1890)  60. 

4.  Behindhand  ;  backward  (of  the  state  of  vegetation). 
n-Yks.1  I'm  afraid  I'm  late? — Nae,  thou's  nane  sae  mich  ahint; 

n.Yks.2  All's  a-hint  w.Yks.  Ahinthand  (JE.B.). 
B.  To  be  ahind,  (i)  to  be  in  error,  (2)  to  come  out  of  an  affair 
at  a  disadvantage  ;  to  come  in  ahint  one,  to  take  the  ad- 
vantage of  one  ;  to  fall  ahint,  to  be  disappointed  in  one's 
expectations  ;  to  get  on  ahint  one,  see  below ;  not  to  be 
ahint,  to  be  equal  with  respect  to  retaliation  or  revenge  ; 
cf.  to  be  even  with. 

(i)  Sc.  Ahint,  expressive  ol  error  or  mistake  in  one's  supposition 
in  regard  to  anything  (JAM.).  (2)  n-Yks.1  They  say  Josey's  come 
badly  on  ?— Nae,  he's  not  that  far  ahint.  Sc.  'Had  M'Vittie's  folk 
behaved  like  honest  men,'  he  said,  '  he  wad  hae  liked  ill  to  come 
in  ahint  them,  and  out  afore  them  this  gate,'  SCOTT  Rob  Roy  (1817) 
xxxvi ;  Ye've  fa'n  ahind  there.  To  get  on  ahint  one,  to  get  the 
advantage  of  one  in  a  bargain,  to  take  him  in  [said  to  allude  to  the 
practice  of  leaping  up  behind  an  enemy  on  horseback,  and  holding 
his  hands].  I  shanna  be  ahint  wi'  you  (JAM.). 

t4-,  at  (pref.s)  +  -hind  (cp.  behind).    Cp.  ME.  at-hinden, 
cet-hindan :  Se  cyning  ferde  him  aet-hindan,  the  King 
went  after  them,  Chron.  A.D.  1016.] 
AHM,  see  Harm,  v. 

AHOME,  adv.  prop.  phr.  Sc.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der. 
War.  Shr.  Wil.  Written  a-whoam  Yks.  Lan. ;  a-wham 
Shr.1 ;  a-whom  Der.  ;  a-whum  Stf.1 ;  a-wom  Chs.1  War. 
[Sc.  s-he-m ;  Lan.  &c.  a-wo'm,  a-wirm.]  Within  doors, 
at  home. 

Ayr.,  Gall.  Ye  better  bide  ahame  the  day  (JAM.  Suppl.).  Yks. 
I  felt  almost  a-whoam,  FETHERSTON  Farmer,  5.  Lan.  I  ax  thur  if 



Mr.  Justice  wur  o  Whoam,  TIM  BOBBIN   View  Dial.  (1746)  27 
ed.  1806  ;    Lan.l  For  there's  no  peace  i'th  world  iv  there's  n 
peace   awhoam,  WAUGH   Sags.  (1859)  Jamie's  Frolic.       Chs.1 
Stf.1  Is  the  doctor  a-whum  ?      Der.  You  sitten  a-whom  here,  an 
thinken,  HOWITT  Clockmaker,  i.    nw.Der.1  Awhom.     War.  (J.R.W.) 
War.2  Awum,  s.v.  A,  pref.     Shr^'E  wunna-d-a-wham.     Wil.  The 
Headborough  shud  not  ha  kept  them  a  whome,  Masque  (1636;  9. 
[A-,  at  (pref?)  +home.] 
AHOMEL  QAM.),  see  Awhummel. 
AHORSE,  adv.     n.Cy.  (HALL.)      Not   found  in  any 
n.  gloss,  or  books  ;    doubtful  whether  any  such  wore 
exists.    On  horseback. 

[ME.  They  scholde  him  sende  al  the  knyghtis  That  on 
hors  ride  myghte,  A/is.  2611.] 

A-HUH,  adj.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  War.  Nhp.  Shr.  e.  An.  Sus. 
Hmp.  Som.  With  great  variety  of  forms.  See  below. 
[a-5',  3-5',  w.Yks.  awoir,  a-iu\] 

1.  Awry,  lop-sided,  aslant,  esp.  in  ntt-a-huh,  all-of-a-huli, 

Cum.  A-heh,  to  one  side  (J.  P.  ).  n-Yks.1  All-ahuh,  all  on  one  side, 
awry,  askew.  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.  [Of  a  faulty  knife]  Ah,  I  see,  it's 
all  awow  (S.O.A.).  ne.Lan.1  Ahuh.  All-of-a-heugh,  all  on  one 
side.  Nhp.1  You've  put  your  shawl  on  all  ahuh.  If  the  word 
is  preceded  by  the  pronoun  '  one,'  the  a  is  dropped,  and  it  is  said  to 
be  '  all  of  one  huh  '  ;  Nhp.2  The  luoad's  all  ahoh.  War.  Ahuh,  all- 
of-a-heugh  (J.R.W.  ).  Shr.1  All-a-yock,  all  awry  ;  Shr.2  Ayoh, 
Ahuh,  Aumph,  All  ayoh.  Brks.1  A  rick  is  said  to  be  all-a-ho  when 
settled  out  of  the  perpendicular.  e.An.1  Ahuh,  better  Ahoe,  and 
sometimes  All-of-a-hugh  ;  e.An.2  That  is  not  flush,—  it  stands  all-a- 
one-hoh.  Sns.  Ahuh,  HOLLOWAY.  Hmp.1  All-a-hoh.  I.W.2  All 
of  a  hoogh,  out  of  shape,  or  place.  That  ere  wut  rick  is  all  of 
a  hoogh.  Wil.1  All-a-huh,  All-a-hoh,  unevenly  balanced.  That 
load  o'  earn  be  aal-a-hoh  ;  Wil.2  All-a-hoh.  w.Som.1  Why,  thee's 
a  got  the  rick  all  a-ugh  ;  he'll  turn  over  nifdus-n  put  a  paust  toun. 
An'  wunt  yer  onner  ha  that  wee-wowy  auld  olive  down  ?  I  do 
zim  he  do  grow  all  a  huh  like.  Dhik-ee  pau's  uz  au-1  uv  u  uuh 
[that  post  is  quite  one-sided].  Poor  old  fellow,  he  is  come  to  go 
all  of  a  ugh.  Tech.  Slang.  Why,  'tis  all-a-hoh  like  a  dog's  hind- 
leg  [in  printing,  of  matter  made  up  '  out  of  the  straight  ']  (W.W.S.). 
2-  Fig.  (i)  Wrong,  not  'straight,'  straightforward,  or  open  ; 
cf.  Agley,  2  ;  (2)  upset,  vexed,  anxious. 

(  i)  Yks.  It  was  all  ahug  on  'em  to  deu  that  way  ;  they  wanted  to 
deceive  'em  (W.H.).  (2)  Hmp.1  He  was  quite  a-hoh  because  a 
shower  came^on,  he  thought  'ud  spoil  his  hay. 

[OE.  awoh,  aslant,  wrongfully,  comp.  of  woh,  crooked, 
awry  ;  cp.  Goth,  wahs  (in  unwatts,  blameless).! 

A-HUNDRED-FALD,  sb.  n.Cy.  [a-vrndadfald.]  Ga- 
hutn  verum,  Our  Lady's  Bedstraw. 

n.Cy.  As  the  flowers  are  exceedingly  numerous  and  clustered  our 
common  people  call  the  plant  A-hundred-fald,  JOHNSTON  Bot  e 
Bord.  (1853)  ioo. 

A-HUNGERED,//.    Brks.    [a-u-ned.]     Hungry. 

Brks.1  I  be  a-veelin'  ahungerd. 

[He  was  afterward  an  hungred,  BIBLE  Matt.  iv.  2  (Alt  the 

last  he  was  an  hungred,  TINDALE).     In  P.  Plowman  occur 

the  :  forms  an  hungred  (c.)  x.  85,  ahungerd  (-s.)  xix.  123.     OE 

V-fyngroct  wof  of-hyngrian,  to  be  excessively  hungry.] 

•5  UI*GRY,  ao).     Wor.     [a-B'rigri.]     Hungry. 

se.Wor.1  A-ongry,  hungry. 

JPSF**  a'tends  vou-  sir.—  I  am  not  a-hungry,  SHAKS 
M.Wves  i.  ,.  280.  The  prefix  is  perhaps  duf  to  the  in- 
fluence of  a-hungered  (above)  ;  see  A-  W«n 

AL,  see  A-,  Oa-,  Ou-,  Ow-. 

AIBLINS,  see  Ablins. 

.   Obs.    Sc.  (JAM.)     An  echo. 



To  echo. 

s  aiken- 

siAeMof^cL,  uled  forTa?^"'  *  ™ 
[Etym.  unknown.] 

frae  bank  to 

.  »"o«t 

AICHEE,  sb.  Glo.  Also  written  akee.  [ai'kl,  a'ke.] 
The  hedge-sparrow. 


[Perhaps  forms  of  1  key,  familiar  form  of  Isaac  (hedge- 
sparrow),  probably  by  popular  etym.  for  ME.  /leysugge 
(hedge-sparrow)  in  CHAUCER  M.  P.  v.  612,  and  Owl  &  N. 
505.  OE.  hegesugge.  See  Haysuck.] 

AID,  sb.  Shr.  Also  written  ade  Shr.2  [ed.]  A  gutter 
or  ditch  cut  across  a  ploughed  field. 

Shr.1  Aid,  a  gutter  cut  across  the'buts'of  ploughed  lands  to  carry 
off  the  water  from  the  'reans' ;  Shr.2  I  imagine  it  means  simplvan 
aid  for  the  water  to  escape. 

[Perhaps  the  same  word  as  Ade,  q.v.] 

AID,  see  Hade. 

AIDEN,  see  Eident. 

AIFER,  sb.    Obs.    Sc.    (JAM.) 

Slk.  Aifer,  a  term  used  by  old  people  in  Ettrick  Forest,  to  denote 
the  exhalations  which  arise  from  the  ground  in  a  warm,  sunny  day : 
now  almost  obsolete. 

[Etym.  unknown.] 

AIG,  sb.   Obs.  or  obsol.    n.Cy.    Sourness. 

N.Cy.1  Aig,  sourness,  in  a  slight  degree.  The  milk  has  got  an  aig. 

[Cp.  Fr.  aigre,  sour  ;  see  Aigre.] 
AIG,  ad' 

— ,  Jdj.    w.Yks.    [eag.]     Eager. 

'.Yks.5  Speaking  of  a  profitless  occupation,  a  man  says  that  he 
isn't  so  aag  after  that  business. 

[Fr.  aigre,  eager  ;  see  above.] 

AIGAR,  sb.  usually  in  pi.  Obs.  or  obsol.  n.Sc.  Also 
written  aiger,  egger,  egges.  See  below. 

n.Sc.  Aigars,  grain  dried  very  much  in  a  pot,  for  being  ground  in 
a  quern  or  handmill  (JAM.). 

2.  Comp.  Aigar-brose,  Aigar-meal. 

n.Sc.  Aigar-brose  [is]  a  sort  of  pottage  made  of  [aigar]  meal. 
Aigar-meal  is  meal  made  of  grain  dried  in  this  manner  (JAM.). 
Sc.  I  have  met  with  only  one  person  having  heard  of  aiger-meal. 
She  had  many  times  heard  her  mother  with  several  old  people  tell- 
ing that  when  children  [came]  running  in  hungry  at  dinner-time, 
it  would  be  said  to  them,  '  You  are  coming  in  for  your  aiger-meal  ' 
MACDUFFSC.M  6- g.  (1891)  IV.  78;  Others  made  use  of  egger  meal, 
consisting  of  equal  portions  of  oat,  pease  and  bear  meal.  It  took 
rise  from  the  beggars  mixing  different  kinds  in  the  same  bag, 
RAMSAY  Sc.  in  Eighteenth  Century  (1888)  II.  202.  Per.  It  is  known 
to  many  old  people  in  Thornhill,  but  the  word  [aigar-meal]  is  not 
now  used  because  the  mixture— oatmeal  and  pease  meal,  the  larger 
proportion  being  pease  meal — is  no  longer  made  (G.W.). 

[Etym.  unknown.] 

AIGH,  v.    w.Yks.     [e.] 

Aigh,  to  frighten,  to  control  through  fear,  or  awe,'  Hlfx.  Wds. 

[Cp.  ME.  aighe,  eighe,  OE.  ege,  cege,  fear,  dread,  Goth. 
agis ;  related  to  ON.  agi,  whence  lit.E.  awe.] 

AIGHINS,s6.//.  n.Sc.  (JAM.)  Owings  ;  what  is  owing 
to  one  ;  esp.  used  as  denoting  demerit. 

n.Sc.  I'll  gie  you  your  aighins  [used  in  threatening  to  correct  a 

[Aighin,  vbl.  sb.  of  aigh  (lit.E.  owe],  OE.  agon,  to  possess.] 
AIGLE,  sb.     Midi,  counties,  Shr.    Also  in  Dev.    Also 
written  agle  S.Wor.1    [egl.] 

1.  An  icicle. 

Midi.  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  (1790).  Lei.1  Aigle,  Iggle.  War.3 
3ron.  iggle.  w.Wor.1  See  ahl  them  aigles  'angin'  to  the  thack; 
tis  mighty  teart  this  marnin'.  Shr.1  It  must  a  bin  freezin  'ard 

the  neet,  theer's  aigles  o'  ice  'angin'  from  the  aisins. 

2.  A  spangle,  tinsel  ornament.  ?  Obs. 

Shr.1  Aigles,  obs.  ?  Han  'ee sin  Bessy  Pugh  sence  'er'scomen back 
nrom  Lunnun  ;  'er's  got  a  bonnet  as  shines  all  o'er  like  aigles  on 
i  showman  ;  Shr.2  Aigle,  Aiglet,  a  spangle,  the  gold  or  silver  tinsel 
irnamenting  the  dress  of  a  showman  or  rope  dancer. 

3.  Scintillations  such  as  appear  on  the  surface  of  iron  pots 
when  removed  from  the  fire. 

Shr.1  Aigles  ...  are  supposed  to  be  lamillae  of  salts  of  iron, 
aused  by  the  decomposition  of  the  pots  by  the  gases  from  the  fire. 
Mind  w  eer  yo'  put'n  that  marmint  aw'ilde  the  aigles  bin  on  it. 

4.  Comp.  Aigle-tooth,  a  tooth  sharp  and  pointed  like  a 

n.Dev.  Stiverpowl  George,  wi'  th'  aigle  tooth,  ROCK  Jim  an' Nell 
1867)  31. 

[Fr.  aiguille,  a.  needle,  also  used  of  various  things  termi- 
nating in  a  point  (HATZFELD).  See  Aglet,  Haggle-tooth.] 



AIGLED,  ppl.  adj.  Shr.  Covered  with  '  aigles.'  See 
Aigle,  2. 

Shr.2  He's  aigled  all  o'er. 
AIGRE,  adj.     n.Cy.  w.Yks.  Lan.  Dor.    Obsol. 

1.  Sour,  tart. 

n.Cy.  Eager,  Aigre,  sour,  tending  to  sourness,  sharp,  GROSE  ( 1790) 
MS.  add.  (P.1)  Cum.  GROSE  (1790).  Yks.  Aygre  .  .  .  still  in  use 
(HALL.).  w.Yks.1 ;  w.Yks.5  Aagar  beer,  turn'd  sour  with,  or  by 
reason  of,  the  thunder.  n.Lan.  It's  a  lile  bit  ower  aigre  [said  of 
vinegar]  (W.H.H.).  Dor.  Eiger,  BARNES  Gl.  (1863). 

2.  Of  wind:  sharp,  cutting. 

Cum.  Eager,  Aigre,  sharp,  sometimes  applied  to  the  air,  GROSE 
1,1790).  n.Lan.  '.W.H.H.) 

[1.  It  doth  posset  And  curd,  like  eager  (aygre,  1602) 
droppings  into  milk,  SHAKS.  Ham.  i.  v.  69 ;  Aigret,  some- 
what tart,  sharp  or  eager,  COTGR.  ;  Breed  Kneden  with 
eisel  strong  and  egre,  CHAUCER  R.  Rose  217.  2.  It  is  a 
nipping  and  an  eager  ayre,  SHAKS.  Ham.  i.  iv.  2.  OFr. 
aigre,  sharp,  keen,  sour.] 

AIGRE,  see  Eagre. 

AIK,  see  Hake. 

AIKER,  see  Acre. 

AIKERIT,  adj.  Obs.  Sc.  (JAM.)  Also  written  aikert, 

Twd.  Aikerit,  eared.  Weil  aikerit,  having  full  ears  ;  applied  to 

[A  deriv.  of  OE.  cehher,  eher  (Nhb.),  ear  (WS.),  an  ear  of 
corn ;  see  Icker.] 

AIKIE  GUINEAS,  sb.  pi.     Sc.  (JAM.) 

Rnf.  Aikie  guineas,  the  name  given  by  children  to  small  flat 
pieces  of  shells,  bleached  by  the  sea. 

AIKRAW,  sb.    s.Sc.    The  Lichen  Scrobiculatus  (JAM.). 

s.Sc.  L.  Scmbiculatus,  pitted  warty  Lichen,  with  broad  glaucous 
leaves:  Anglis.  aikraw, LiGHTFOOT/YoraS«>ftaj(i792)85o-i(jAM.). 

[Aik,  oak  +  raw.  For  raw,  cp.  Stane-raw,  a  name  of  the 

AIL,  sb.1  Yks.  Hrt.  Hmp.  Som.  [eal,  el.]  An  illness, 
ailment,  or  complaint. 

Hrt  Staggers  and  other  ails,  ELLIS  Mod.  Husb.  (1750)  III.  i.  69. 
Hmp.  The  ail  or  complaint  layalong  th'  chine,  WHITE  Selborne(l^8S) 
280,  ed.  1853. 

2.  An  evil. 
n.Yks.2  Ails,  evils. 

3.  Comp.  Quarter-ail. 

Som.  Ail,  ailment,  disease  in  the  hind-quarters  of  animals,  quarter- 
ail,  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873). 

[An  ayl,  an  illness,  sickness,  BAILEY  (1721) ;  Aile,  tnor- 
bus,  COLES  (1679).  ME.  The  word  occurs  in  the  form 
tile,  meaning  pain,  in  Ancren  Riwle  (c.  1230)  50.  OE.  egle, 
troublesome,  grievous.  Cp.  Goth,  agio,  distress.] 

AIL,  sb.2  Rarely  sing.  Nhp.  War.  Won  Hrf.  Glo.  Brks. 
Hrt.  Ess-.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W.  and  all  sw.  counties. 
Also  written  aile  Wil.  Cor.1 ;  eyle  Wil.1 ;  ile  War.  Hrf.2 
Ess.1  Ken.12  Wil.1  w.Som.1  Dev.  Cor.1;  oil  Sus.1  Hmp.1 
Dev.4;  oileCor.1;  hail  Wil.  ;  hile  Dev.  Cor.1 ;  hoilDor.1; 
hoile  Ken.1  See  below,  [ail,  m.  oil.] 

1.  The  beards  or  awns  of  barley  or  any  other  bearded 
grain  ;  rarely,  the  husk  of  any  corn. 

Nhp.1  Ail,  or  Ayl,  the  beard  or  awn  of  barley.  Pile  is  synony- 
mous in  Stf.  and  Wor.  War.  Ails,  or  lies  (J.R.W.).  se.Wor.1 
Hrf.2  lies,  awns  of  barley,  cone  wheat,  &c.  [see  Spiles].  Glo. 
Ails,  called  awns  in  the  north,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M.) ;  Glo.1 
Ails.  Hrt.  Tails,  or  Ails,  ELLIS  Mod.  Husb.  (1750)  VI.  iii.  71.  Ess. 
Ails,  see  Awns,  RAY  (1691).  Ken.12,  Sur.1,  Sus.1  I.W.12Aails, 
beards  of  barley,  called  barley  aails.  Wil.1  The  black  knots  on  the 
delicate  barley  straw  were  beginning  to  be  topped  with  the  hail, 
JEFFERIES  Gt.  Estate  1^1880)  i.  Dor.1  w.Som.1  Ails,  the  beard  of 
barley  when  broken  off  from  the  grain.  These  little  spears  are 
always  called  baar'lee  aayulz.  The  individual  husks  of  any  corn 
are  also  called  aayulz.  The  term  is  only  applied  to  the  separated 
spear  or  husk— never  when  still  attached  to  the  grain.  Ee-v  u-gau  -t 
u  aa-yul  u  daewst  een  dh-uy  oa  un  [he  has  an  ail  of  dust — i.e.  a 
husk  in  his  eye].  Dev.  Yu  can't  use  barley-dowst  vurbedties,  'cuz 
tha  iles  wid  urn  inttt  'e,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sfi.  (1892)  s.v.  Barley-ile. 
Cor.i  Hile,  Aile,  Ile. 

2.  Comp.  Barley-ail. 

Brks.1  Barley-oyles.  Hmp.1  Barley-oils,  the  beard  or  prickles. 
Dev.  Barley-ile,  the  beard  of  ripe  barley,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  ^1892,. 

Hence  Aily,  adj. 

Nhp.1  If  any  of  the  awns  adhere  to  the  corn  after  it  is  dressed  for 
market,  it  is  said  to  be  ally. 

[Ails,  beards  of  wheat,  BAILEY  (1721) ;  An  oile  (beard 
of  corn),  arista,  COLES  (1679);  Iles,  or  Giles,  WORLIDGE 
Syst.  Agric.  (1669) ;  Areste,  the  eyle,  awme,  or  beard  of 
an  ear  of  corn,  COTGR.  ;  These  twice-six  colts  had  pace  so 
swift,  they  ran  Upon  the  top-ayles  of  corn-ears,  nor  bent 
them  any  whit,  CHAPMAN  Iliad  (1603)  xx.  211.  OE.  egl; 
occurs  in  Gospels,  Hwi  gesihst  J>u  ba  egle  on  bines  brobor 
eagan  ?  Luke  vi.  41.] 

AIL,  v.  In  gen.  dial,  use  in  Sc.  and  Eng.  Also  written 
eelieSc.  [el.] 

1.  To  aftect  with  pain  or  uneasiness  ;  to  trouble. 

Sc.  What's  ailin'  ye,  Peter?  IAN  MACLAREN  Auld  Lang  Sync 
(1895)  122.  Wm.  &  Cum.1  What  ails  ta  Jemmy,  CLARK  Seymon 
and  Jammy  (1779)  1.  i.  n.Yks.2  That's  in  'em  that  ails  'em  [persons 
have  naturally  the  kind  of  temper  they  usually  exhibit].  ne.Lan. 
Whatailsthee?  MATHER/rfy//s(i895)258.  e-Lan.1  Not.2  What  ails 
thee  ?  Nhp.2  Dunna  kneow  what  ealt  him.  Glo.  What  ails  you  ? 
BAYLIS  Illtts.  Dial.  (1870).  [What  aileth  you  ?  (K.).] 

2.  To  be  unwell  or  suffering  in  body,  to  have  something 
amiss  with  one  ;  to  ail  away,  to  dwindle. 

Sc.  The  strangirs  sail  eelie  awa'.  RIDDLE  Ps.  (1857)  xviii.  45; 
Ane  skaddaw  that  eelys  awa',  ib.  cii.  i  r.  n.Cy.  (W.W.S.)  Nhb. 
Ailiet  away  (R.O.H.).  Cum.  She's  varra  ailing,  LINTON  Lake  Cy. 
(1864)  295;  Gl.  (1851).  w.Yks.  It  niver  did  ailowt  at  aw  know 
on,  HARTLEY  Budget  (1867)  20.  e.Yks.1  Hoo's  thy  wife,  John  ? 
— Whah,  shee's  nobbut  ailin'.  Wor.  Mr.  Jones  enjoys  a  very 
fair  share  of  health  ;  he's  allus  ailding  (H.K.).  w.Wor.1  This 
casselty  weather  dunna  suit  the  owd  folks;  grandad's  but  aildin' 
like.  Ess.  More  stroken  and  made  of  when  ought  it  [a  calf] 
doo  aile,  More  gentle  ye  make  it,  for  yoke  or  the  paile,  TUSSER 
Husbandrie  (1580)  81,  st.  31. 

3.  To  have  cause  for  dissatisfaction  against,  to  object  to. 
Sc.  What  ails  ye  at  them  as  they  are,  OLIPHANT  Lover  and  Lass, 

ix.  Yks.  What  does  ta  ail  at  him  (S.P.U.);  What  do  you  mean 
about  a  new  chapel,  Sammy  ?'  What  ails  ye  at  t'oud  'un  ?  TAYLOR 
Miss  Miles  (1890)  ii.  Dev.  Somebody  eales  me,  or  is  railing  at  me, 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M.) 

4.  To  hinder,  prevent. 

Sc.  What  suld  ail  me  to  ken  it?  SCOTT  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xviii. 

['  What  can  the  fool  mean  ? '  said  old  Richard,  '  what 
can  he  ail  at  the  dogs  ? '  HOGG  Tales  &°  S6.  288.  What 
ayled  the  O  thou  see  that  thou  fleddest,  COVERDALE  Ps. 
cxiv.  5.  OE.  eglan,  to  trouble,  afflict.] 

AILDY,  a<#.  Yks.(ofe.)  Nhp.Hnt.  [el'di.]  Ailing,  poorly. 

n.Yks.  Ise  grown  seay  healdy,  I  mun  gang  to  bed,  MERITON  Praise 
Ale(  1697)  1.246.  Nhp.1 1  be  very  aildy  to-day.  Hnt.  Aildy  (T.P.F.). 

[A  pronunc.  of  aily,  ail,  vb.  +  -y.] 

AILE,  see  Aisle. 

AILER,  see  Helen 

AILING,  vbl.  sb.    Sc.  Yks.    [e'lin.] 

Sc.  Ailin,  sickness,  ailment  (JAM.).  w.Yks.5  A  long-standing  ill- 
ness is  an  ailing. 

[See  Ail,  v.] 

AILING-IRON,  sb.  War.  Som.  [e'lin-aian,  ea'lin- 
aian.]  An  implement  for  breaking  off  the  ail  or  spear 
from  barley,  sometimes  called  a  piling  iron  or  barley  stamp. 

War.  Ailing-iron,  hand  implement  for  hummellingbarley,  MORTON 
Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863).  w.Som.1  See  Barley-stamp. 

[A  deriv.  of  Ail,  sb.2] 

AILSA-COCK,  sb.  Sc.  n.Irel.  [elsa-kok.]  The  Puffin, 
Fratercula  arctica  ;  so  called  from  its  breeding  about  Ailsa 
Craig  in  the  Frith  of  Clyde  (C.D.).  See  Puffin. 

Sc.,  Ant.  Ailsa  Cock  (so  called  from  its  favourite  haunts),  the 
Puffin,  SWAINSON  Birds  (1885)  220.  N.I.1  See  Puffin. 

AILSA  PARROT,  sb.    Sc.  Ant.    The  Puffin. 

SWAINSON  Birds  (1885)  220. 

AIL-WEED,  see  HeU-weed. 

AIM,  sb.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  War.  [em.]  An  idea, 
conjecture  ;  a  like  aim,  a  shrewd  guess. 

Lan.  I  don't  know,  but  I  have  a  like  aim  (H.M.).  Chs.1  Do 
you  know  who  did  it? — Now,  bur  aw've  getten  a  loike  aim. 
s.Chs.1  I  shall  have  a  better  like  aim,  if  yo'n  tell  me  yur  price. 
Stf.2  Used  by  old  people  in  the  Audley  district.  Bles  dhi, 
wensh.  oiv  nu  loikaim  Der.2  Aim,  attempt  nw.Der.1  Aim,  idea, 
comprehension  of  any  matter.  War.  (J.R.W.) 




[But  fearing  lest  my  jealous  aim  might  err,  And  so  un- 
worthily disgrace  the  man,  SHAKS.  Two  Gent.  in.  i.  ° 
See  Aim,  v.  2.] 

AIM,  v.     Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  War.  Wor.  Hrf. 
Glo.  Dor.  Som.  Dev.     See  below,     [yam,  iam,  earn,  em.] 
1.  To  plan,  intend,  purpose  ;  to  attempt,  endeavour. 

Cum.  I  nobbet  aim't  1  11  ha'  kiss't  her,  GILPIN  Pop.  Poetry  (1875) 
64  Cum.1  He  aims  to  be  a  gentleman.  Cum.  &  Wm.  '  Now 
mistress,'  said  a  hospitable  farmer  to  his  wife  when  a  friend  called. 
'if  you  aim  us  owt,  give  us't  suin'[if  you  intend  to  give  usaglass, 
do  it  at  once]  (M.P.).  Wm.  Aaiming  to  hev  a  good  conscience, 
HUTTON  Bran  New  Work  (1785)  1.  24.  Yks.1  Ah  dizzint  seea  hoo 
thoo  yams  tu  keep  a  wife  when  thoo's  gitten  her,  MACQUOID 
D.  Barugh  (1877)  xxii.  n-Yks.1  Ah's  seear  he  aimed  o'  coming. 
w.Yks.  Ah  hedn't  aimed  hevin'  ony  (J.R.)  ;  w.Yks.5  Whear's 
tuh  aam  going  to  morn  ?  Lan.1  Hoo'd  ha  made  a  rare  wife 
for  onybody  'at  had  ony  sense  —  hoo  would  that  !  Awd  aimt 
her  dooin  weel,  and  hoo  met  [might]  ha  done  weel  too, 
WAUGH  Owd  Blanket  (1866)  iii.  Der.2  Aim,  to  attempt.  War.2 
I  aim  to  do  my  best  for  him.  I  aim  and  scheme,  but  nothing 
goes  well.  Wor.  Aim  to,  to  intend  to  (H.  K.).  w.Wor.1  'Er  aimed  to 
pick  it  up,  but  'twere  too  'eavy  fur  'er  to  'eft  it.  Hrf.2  You  bain't 
haimin  to  muv.  I  did  aim  to  come.  Glo.1  I  aimed  to  come  to 
Gloucester  last  wick.  Dor.  Aiming  to  arrive  about  the  breakfast 
hour,  HARDY  Tess  (1891)  204,  ed.  1895.  w.Som.1  Niivur  muyn 
dhur-z  u  dee-ur,  ee  daed-n  aim  t  aa-t  ee  [never  mind,  there's  a 
dear,  he  did  not  intend  to  hit  you].  Ee  du  aim  tu  bee  mae-ustur, 
doa-unur?  [he  intends  to  be  master,  does  he  not?]  Be  sure 
nobody  widn  never  aim  vor  to  break  in  and  car  away  your  flowers 
['  carry  away  '  is  a  common  euphemism  for  steal].  Dev.3  He  aimed 
to  kill  his  missus,  and  then  he  cut  his  own  droat. 

2.  To  suppose,  conjecture  ;  to  anticipate,  forecast,  expect. 
Yks.  Ah  aims  there's  shops  in  Steersley,  MACQUOID  D.  Barugh 

(1877)  bk.  i.  i.  n.Yks.1  What  o'clock  is  it,  aim  you?  I  never 
aimed  he  wad  ha'  ganned  yon  gate  ;  n.Yks.2  I  aim'd  varry  badle 
[I  acted  on  mistaken  views].  w.Yks.5  Whears  tuh  aim  o'  going 
tul  .  .  .  when  tuh  dies  if  thah  cheats  a  body  an'  leuks  'em  it't  faace 
i'  this  waay  ? 

3.  To  aim  for,  to  have  :  designs  upon;  of  a  road,  &c.,  to  aim 
to,  to  run  in  the  direction  of. 

e.Yks.  Ah'Il  yam  fo'  sum  rich  farmer  sun,  Spec.  Dial.  (1887)  10. 
ne.Yks.1  Yon  rooad  yams  ti  Whidby. 

4.  To  prepare  to  throw,  to  throw. 

w.Yks.  He's  aimed  a  stoan  at  mi  heead  (S.K.C.).  War.2  Don't 
you  aim  at  me.  Glo.1  Aim,  to  throw  stones. 

[1.  The  ground  which  we  aim  to  husband  must  be  fat, 
WALKER  (1680)  ;  That  never  aim'd  so  high  to  love  your 
daughter,  SHAKS.  Per.  n.  v.  47.  2.  Heli  therfor  eymyde 
hir  dronken,  WYCLIF  (1382)  i  Sam.  i.  13  (gesside,  1388)  ; 
Ah,  Nell,  forbear  !  thou  aimest  all  awry,  SHAKS.  z  Hen.  VI, 
n.  iv.  58.  OFr.  aemer,  aesmer,  to  esteem,  consider  ;  Rom. 
adestimare  ;  Lat.  ad+  aestimare.} 

AIM,  adj.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Ess. 
Also  written  earn,  eem  Chs.1  ;  erne  Shr.12  [em.] 

1.  Of  numbers  :  even. 
w.Yks.3  Odd  or  aim,  odd  or  even. 

2.  Straight,  direct,  near,  close,  of  distance,  &c.,  esp.  in  an 
aimer  gate,  a  more  direct  road  ;    so,  a  nearer  way      Fig 
nearly  akin,  related. 

w.Yks.  Eym-anent,  directly  opposite,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add. 
(P.)  Chs.  This  is  the  heamest  road.  Come  heamer  (E.F.)  ;  Chs.1 
You  mun  go  dain  th'  aimer  gate.  He  lived  aimer  this  way  afore 

:  took  yon  farm  ;  Chs.2  Eamby,  close  by,  at  hand  ;  Chs.3  Are 
yow  going  to  Knutsford  by  the  road  ?—  No,  au  knows  an  aimer  gate. 
s.Chs.i  They  liven  eeam  by  the  chapel.  Stf.1  Aimer,  Aymer  ;  Stf.2 
1  hat  big  sojer  theer  wur  aimer  to  th'  target  nor  ony  on  'em.  Put 
s'ePs  a  bit  aimertowart.  Der.  &  Stf.  Aimest  road  (J.K.).  Der.2, 
nw-Der.1  Eighmer.  War.3  w.Wor.1  The  emest  waay  is  across 
the  crafts.  Shr.  It  is  quite  eem  here,  not  a  mile  away  (E.P.)  : 
Aimer  is  a  well-known  word  here  (W.W.S.)  ;  They  bin  too  erne 

'"01'  (G'FJ-)  ;  Shnl  Cross  them  filds.  it's  the 
Thls  road  is  full  as  erne  as  the  tother.     Hrf.2 


fi863)'ll   I'sT' 
3.  Fig.  mean,  stingy,  '  near.' 


[1.  Possibly  wehaveazw  in  the  sense  of  'even'  in  COTGR 
Jouez  vostrejeu,  play  an  aim  cast  (at  bowles)    ME  emne, 

em-  (in  compounds),  as   in  emcristen,  i.e.  even-Christian, 
fellow-Christian  ;  OE.  efn  (emn)  even,  cp.  ON.  jamn.] 
AIMATION,  sb.    n.Yks.    [erne-Jan.]     Guesswork. 

n.Yks.2  We  shall  get  it  by  aimation.  We  rooaded  it  by  aimation 
[took  the  road  we  supposed  to  be  the  right  one],  A  soort  of  aima- 
tion [a  piece  of  guesswork]. 

[Aim,  vb.  (see  2)  +  -ation  ;  a  late  analogical  formation.] 
AIMES.  see  Hames. 

AIMLESS,  adj.    Stf.  Der.    [e-mlas.]    Senseless. 

Stf.1;  Stf.2  Oi  wor  moiSard  till  oi  wor  emless.  Stf.  &  Der.  J.K. 
Der.  He's  a  gawky,  aimless  sort  of  chap  (H.R.). 

[Aim,  sb.  (purpose)  +  -less.] 

AIMSOME,  adj.    Yks.    [I'msam,  ye-msam.] 

n.Yks.2  Aimsome,  ambitious,  speculative.      m.Yks.1 

{Aim,  sb.  (purpose)  +  -some.] 

AIMSTART,  sb.    n.Yks.     [e'mstat.]     A  starting-point. 

n.Yks.2  This  mun  be  your  aimstart. 

[Aim,  sb.  (purpose,  object)  +  start.] 

.AIMY,  adj.    Chs.    [e'mi.]     Shrewd. 

Chs.1  Ee  wur  a  aimy  sort  o'  chap,  ee  wur. 

[Aim,  sb.  (purpose)  +  -y.] 

AIN,sb.  Yks.  Not.  Lin.  Also  written  ane  w.Yks.8 ; 
hane  Lin.  The  awn  or  beard  of  barley  or  bearded  wheat. 

w.Yks.  So  called  in  Keighley district  (J.R.)  ;  Hlfx.  Wds.  ;  w.Yks.3 
Not.3  Lin.  MORTON  Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863). 

Hence  Ainded,  ppl.  adj.  having  awns  or  '  ains.' 

w.Yks.  (J.R.)  ;  w.Yks.2  Ainded  wheat,  wheat  with  bearded  chaff. 

[Anes,  awns,  spires  or  beards  of  barley  and  other 
bearded  grain,  BAILEY  (1770) ;  Flaxen  wheate  hath  a 
yelowe  eare,  and  bare  without  anis,  FITZHERBERT  Hus- 
bandry (1534)  40.  OE.  cegnan,  pi.,  chaff  (Corpus  GL,  1526).] 

AIN,  see  Hen. 

AINS,  see  Even. 

AINT,  see  Anoint. 

AIN'T,  see  Be. 

AIR,  sb.1  In  var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  Ens  fir 
ea(r),  vea(r).] 

1.  The  sky,  clouds. 

Chs.1  The  air  broke  red  [of  an  aurora  borealis].  It  shows  for 
rain,  the  air  is  so  low.  War.  (J.R. W.) 

2.  A  current  of  air  in  a  mine. 

Nhb.  &Dur.  Air,  the  current  or  volume  of  air  circulating  through 
and  ventilating  a  mine,  GREENWELL  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1849). 

3.  Air  of  the  fire,  the  heated  atmosphere  surrounding  a 
fire  ;  to  take  an  air  of  the  fire,  to  warm  oneself. 

Don.  Come  in,  good  woman,  an'  tak'  an  air  o'  the  fire,  Cornh. 
Mag.  (Feb.  1877)  Fit-Lore.  Cav.  Take  an  air  of  the  fire  this 
snowy  day  (M.S.M.).  Con.  Won't  ye  take  an  air  of  the  fire, 
O'Toole  ?  LUCAS  Romantic  Lover  in  Chapman's  Mag.  (Oct.  1895). 
s.Chs.1  Come  thy  wees  (ways,  within  air  o'th  fire,  fur  raly  tha 
looks  heef  starved  jeth  [half  frozen  to  death]. 

4.  The  chill,  in  phr.  to  take  theair  off the  drink.    (In  e.An. 
they  say  to  take  the  aam  oflf  the  drink.    See  Aam.) 

Shr.2  To  take  the  chill  from  beer  is  usually  denoted  by  the 
phrase  '  tak  the  hair  off  the  drink.'  Its  coud,  jist  out  o'  the  cellar, 
yoden  [you  hadden]  better  tak  the  yare  offit 

5.  A  small  quantity  of  anything  ;  a  '  whiff' ;  a  taste. 
S.&Ork.1  Apeerieair,  a  mere  tasting.    Air,  a  very  small  quantity. 

Or.I.  Ere.  JEr,  a  very  small  quantity  (S.  A.S.).  Bnff.1  Gee  me  an  air 
o'  yir  mill.  Tack  in  by  yir  chair,  sit  doon,  an'  tack  an  air  o'  the 
pipe,  an  gee's  a'  yir  uncos. 

6.  pi.  Fits  of  ill-humour;  fretfulness. 

Cum.1  He's  in  his  airs  to-day.  nXin.1  She's  in  her  airs  to-daay. 
Vhp.1  Let  us  have  none  of  your  airs  [applied  to  the  humoursome 
retfulness  of  children].  e.Ken.  She  has  just  got  her  airs,  and  when 
saucepans  fly  I  walk  out  G.G.). 

7.  Comp.  and  attrib.  Air-bleb  ;  -box;  -course;  -crossing; 
gate,  -head,  in  mining :  a  passage  for  ventilation  ;  -peg ; 

n.Yks.2  Air-blebs,  (i)  bubbles  ;  (a)  unsound  schemes.  n-Lin.1  Air 
>leb,  a  bubble.  Nhb.1  Air-boxes,  tubes  of  wood  used  for  ventila- 
lon  in  a  pit  where  there  is  only  one  passage  or  opening,  Min.  Gl. 
Newc.  Terms  (1853).  Nhb.  &  Dur.  Air-box,  a  square  wooden  tube 
used  to  convey  air  into  the  face  of  a  single  drift,  or  into  a  sinking 
:,  GREENWELL  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1849) ;  Air-course,  see  Air-way,  ib. 
Nhb.1  Air-crossing,  an  arch  built  over  a  horseway  or  other  road,  with 
a  passage  or  air-way  above  it,  Min.  Gl.  Newc.  Terms  (1852).  w.Yks. 
Air-gate,  a  road  or  way  driven  in  the  coal  for  purposes  of  ventilation 




(S.J.C.).  s.Stf.  Air-head, a  channels  feets  inches  bysfeeteinches, 
driven  on  a  level  with  the  topof  the  gate-road  [i.e.  the  passage  along 
which  the  coals  are  carried].  Mining  G/.(i852).  n.Lin.1  Air-peg,the 
vent-peg  of  a  barrel ;  also  called  spile-peg  in  Nhp.  Nhp.1  Nhb.  1  Air- 
way, a  passagealong  which  the  current  of  air  travels  in  acollierj'.  Nhb. 
&Dur.  Air-course  or  Air-way, GREENWELI.  Co«/  Ti:  Gl.  (1849).  [Air- 
ways, headings  or  passages  in  a  mine  along  which  there  is  a  constant 
circulation  of  fresh  air  between  the  down-east  shaft,  the  working; 
places,  and  the  up-cast  shaft,  Gl.  Lab.  (1894";.] 

[1.  Where  should  this  music  be  ?  i'  the  air  or  the  earth  : 
SHAKS.  Temp.  i.  ii.  387  ;  When  the  sun  sets  the  air  doth 
drizzle  dew,  ib.  R.  Sr°  J.  in.  v.  127  ;  Nicholas  . . .  ever  gaped 
upward  in-totheeirjCHAUCERC.J1.  A. 3473.  6.  Hoity!  toity! 
cries  Honour,  Madam  Is  in  her  airs,  I  protest,  FIELDING 
Tom  Jones,  viii ;  You  will  get  cured  of  all  these  whims  and 
airs  of  yours  some  day,  BLACK  Madcap  V.  v.  41.  This  usage 
in  the  pi.  is  of  Fr.  origin  ;  cp.  HATZFELD,  Prendre,  sedonner 
des  airs,  affecter  une  certaine  maniere  d'etre.  Fr.  air,  Lat.  ae>:] 

AIR,  sb.2  Or.  and  Sh.  I.  Also  in  Wm.  and  Lan.  [er, 
es(r).]  A  sandbank,  or  ridge  made  by  the  action  of  water; 
a  beach. 

Or.&Sh.I.  They  have  some  Norish  woods  .  .  .such  as  air,  a  sand- 
bank, BRAND  Zetland  (1701)  70  (JAM.);  Most  of  the  extensive 
beaches  on  the  coast  are  called  airs ;  as  Stour-air, Whale-air,  ED- 
MONSTON  Zetl.  (1809)  I.  140  (ib.).  Or.I.  By  beach  and  by  cave. . . 
By  air,  and  by  wick,  and  by  helyer  and  gio,  And  by  every  cold  shore 
which  the  northern  winds  know,  SCOTT Pirate(iB22}  xix.  S.  fcOrk.1 
Aer,  a  sandbank  or  beach  ;  sometimes  a  stone  aer.  Aer,  applied 
to  several  places  having  extensive  '  Aers '  or  smooth  beaches  near 
them  ;  ex.  the  Aers  of  Sellivoe,  the  Aers  of  Strom.  Wm.1  Ayr, 
a  low  headland.  ne.Lan.1  Aire,  land  warped  up  by  floods  or  tides, 
and  liable  to  be  overflowed  by  them. 

[ON.  eyrr  (mod.  eyri),  a  gravelly  bank,  a  small  tongue  of 
land  running  into  the  sea;  cp.  Dan.  ore,  Sw.  or,  found  in 
Helsing-6'r  (Elsinore).] 

AIR,  adj.  and  adv.    Sc.    [er.] 

1.  adj.  Early. 

Sc.  Come  it  air,  come  it  late,  in  May  comes  the  cow-quake, 
RAMSAY  Prov.  (1737)  ;  Air  day  or  late  day  the  fox's  hide  finds 
aye  the  flaying  knife,  SCOTT  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xxvii;  An  air  winter's 
a  sair  winter,  SWAINSON  Weather  Flk-Lore  (1873)  8.  Abel.  You 
wou'd  na  hae  kent  fat  to  mak  o'  her,  unless  it  had  been  a  gyr-carlen, 
or  to  set  her  up  amon'  a  curn  air  bear  [early  barley]  to  fley  away 
the  ruicks,  FORBES  Jrn.  (1742)  2  (JAM.). 

2.  adv. 

Sc.  What  brings  you  out  to  Liberton  sae  air  in  the  morning, 
SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  xxvii  ;  Let  us  awa'  air  til  the  vineyairds, 
ROBSON  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  vii.  12.  Rnf.  Vext  and  sighin'  late  and  air, 
WILSON  Watty  (1792)  9,  Newc.  ed.  Ayr.  I'm  weary  sick  o't  late 
and  air!  BURNS  To  Dr.  Blacklock  (1789  .  Lnk.  She  jeers  me  air 
and  late,  RAMSAY  Gentle  Shep.  (1725)  I.  i.  e.Lth.  Blinkin'  like  an 
air-up  hoolet,  HUNTER  J.  Inwick  (1895)  105. 

Hence  .Airness,  sb.  the  state  or  condition  of  being  early 

Sc.  The  airness  of  the  crap. 

[Quha  is  content  rejoycit  air  or  lait,  DOUGLAS  Pal.  Hon. 
n.  xxix ;  O^er  ich  hit  do  ungledliche,  o£er  to  er  o¥er  to 
late,  Ancren  Riwle,  338.  OE.  cer,  adj.  and  adv.,  former,  for- 
merly, early.] 

AIR,j;.  Or.andSh.I.w.Yks.Lan.Der.War.  Shr.  [ea(r).] 

1.  To  warm,  '  take  the  chill  off.'     e.An.  aam  is  used  with 
the  same  meaning. 

e.Lan.1  Air,  to  warm  moderately,  as  drink.  When  excessively 
cold  it  is  aired  at  the  fire.  Shr.2  Hair. 

Hence  Aired,  ///.  adj. 

Yks.  You  must  use  aired  water  for  the  tea-cakes  (F.P.T.).  Der.2 
Aired  water,  water  with  the  chill  taken  off.  War.  (J.R.W.) 

2.  To  taste. 
S.&  Ork.i 

[1.  This  is  a  specific  use  of  the  vb.  in  the  usual  sense 
of  to  warm,  applied  usually  in  lit.  E.  to  the  drying  of 
damp  linen.  See  Air,  sb.1  4.  2.  See  Air,  sb.1  5.] 

AIR,  see  Ere. 

AIRD,  see  Ard. 

AIREL,  sb.    Obs.     Sc.  (JAM.) 

1.  An  old  name  for  a  flute ;  properly  applied  to  a  pipe 
made  from  a  reed. 

Arg.,  Slk. 


2.  Musical  tones,  of  whatever  kind. 

Rxb.  The  beetle  began  his  wild  airel  to  tune  And  sang  on  the 
wynde  with  ane  eirysome  croon,  Wint.  Ev.  Tales,  II.  203. 

[Probably  a  deriv.  of  air,  Fr.  air,  a  tune,  sound  or  air  in 

AIRESS,  see  Hairif. 

AIRF,  AIRFISH,  see  Argh. 

AIRISH,  adj.  Sc.  n.  and  e.Yks.  [e'rij,  ea'ri/.]  Chilly, 

Sc.  Airish  is  still  commonly  used  all  over  Scotland  for  chilly 
(H.E.F.).  n.Yks.  Airish  is  used  in  the  dales,  but  not  commonly 
(R.H.H.).  e.Yks.  The  mornings  are  airish,  BEST  Rur.  Econ.  (1641) 
18;  (S.K.C.) 

[This  word  is  found  in  CHAUCER,  but  only  in  the  sense 
of  aerial,  belonging  to  the  air  :  (I)  beheld  the  eyrish  bestes, 
Hous  F.  964.  Air+-ish.] 

AIRTLING,  see  Ettle! 

AIRUP,  see  Hairif. 

AIRY,  adj.    Cum.  n.Lin.    [i'ri,  ea'ri.]     Breezy. 

Cum.1  It's  rayder  airy  to-day.     n.Lin.1 

[O'er  airy  wastes  to  rove,  POPE  Windsor  F.  167.  A  ir + -y.] 

AISE,  see  Ash. 

AISH,  sb.  Dor.  [aif.]  One  of  the  strata  of  Purbeck 

Dor.Though  associated  with  the  Burr,  this  bed  [aish]  from  its  fissile 
or  slatycharacter  iseasily  separated  from  it,  DAMON  Geol.  Weymouth 
( 1860)  98.  Dor.  The  tops  of  the  longer  stumps  of  trees  pass  through 
the  burr  into  the  aish,  the  uneven  surface  of  which  often  serves  to 
indicate  the  presence  of  trees  beneath,  ib.  115,  ed.  1884  ;  The  aish 
bed  is  above  the  soft  burr  and  under  a  bed  of  clay  (J.H.M.). 

AISH,  see  Arrish. 

AISLE,  sb.    Sc.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Wil.  Som.  Amer.    [ail.] 

1.  A  space  for  passage  in  any  building ;  esp.  the  central 
thoroughfare  in  a  mill,  shop,  &c.    Cf.  alley,  sb.1 1. 

w.Yks.  Aisle  is  used  in  Keighley  for  any  passage  between  pews  in 
a  chapel,  and  the  alley  past  the  ends  of  looms  ;  the  interval  where 
the  weaver  stands  when  at  work  being  known  as  the  gate  (J.R.) ; 
Aisle,  a  passage  between  seats  in  any  building.  Aisle,  Alley,  are 
also  used  for  the  principal  thoroughfare  in  a  workshop,  and  must 
not  be  confused  with  loom-gate,  nor  with  gangway  (the  thorough- 
fare between  two  buildings  built  overhead),  nor  with  passage  (a 
narrow  way  between  two  buildings).  Gangway,  passage,  aisle,  and 
alley  have  distinct  meanings  in  our  vernacular  (B. K.).  Lan.  The 
passage  between  pewsina  church  is  always  called  an  aisle(S.W.) ; 
I  have  heard  the  space  between  the  counters  of  a  shop  called  the 
aisle  in  Liverpool,  ./V.  &  Q.  (1890)  7th  S.  x.  53.  s.Chs.  Any  pas- 
sage between  pews  (T.D.).  w.Som.1  Aisle,  the  passage  between 
the  pews  in  a  church  or  chapel.  No  distinction  is  made  between 
nave  and  aisles  ;  but  there  is  u  aa-yul  to  every  church  :  see  Alley. 
[Amer.  Instead  of  shopping  they  trade,  and  while  thus  engaged 
recognize  a  friend  across  the  aisle,  N.  &  Q.  (1890)  7th  S.  ix.  406.] 

2.  A  projection  from  the  body  of  a  church,  one  of  the 
wings  of  a  transept. 

Per.  (G.W.) 

3.  An  enclosed  and  covered  burial-place,  adjoining  to  a 
church  though  not  forming  a  part  of  it. 

Sc.  Donald  was  buried  in  the  laird  of  Drum's  aile,  SPALDING 
Hist.  Troubles  in  Sc.  (1792)  II.  282  (JAM.).  Abd.  &  Per.  The  burial- 
place  of  the  laird's  family  is  frequently  called  the  aile  (G.W.). 

4.  Double  rows  of  wheat-sheaves  set  up  to  dry. 
s-Wll.  MARSHALL  Review  (1817)  V.  218. 

[1.  As  up  the  ayle  with  mind  disturb'd,  I  walk,  RICHARD- 
SON Pamela  (N.E.D.).  Fr.  aile,  Lat.  ala,  a  wing.  For  the 
sense  cp.  BAILEY  (1755) :  Isle,  a  long  passage  in  a  church 
or  public  building.  This  is  the  same  word  as  ME.  tie  (yle], 
Fr.  He,  often  Latinized  as  insula  in  legal  documents.  E. 
aisle  owes  its  spelling  to  Fr.  aile,  and  its  pronunc.  to  Fr.  He.] 

AISLE,  see  Hazzle,  v. 

AISLE-TOOTH,  see  Axle-tooth. 

AIT,  sb.1  Var.  dial.  Also  written  eyot.  See  below, 
[ait.]  An  island  in  a  river  ;  an  osier-bed. 

s.Not.  The  osier  ait  above  the  weirs,  Not.  Guard.  (Aug.  8, 1895)  7. 
Wor.Ait,  Nait,  Eyot,  island.  Also  applied  to  an  osier-bed,  whether 
an  island  or  not  (H.K.) ;  The  island  now  called  the  Neight  at 
Deerhurst  on  the  Severn,  ALLIES  Antiq.  (1840)  188.  s.Wor.1 
se.Wor.1  Naight,  an  eyot,  an  osier  bed.  Brks.1  Ait,  or  Aayte,  a  river- 
island,  or  flat  on  the  bank  with  osiers  growing.  Mid.  Fog  up  the 
river  where  it  flows  among  green  aits  and  meadows,  DICKENS  Bleak 





House(i&53)  i.     Hmp.  They  roosted  in  the  aits  of  that  river,  WHITF 
Selborne  (1788)  31,  ed.  1853. 

Hence  Eyoty,  adj.    Of  the  nature  of  an  ait  or  island. 

Hmp.1  That  eyoty  piece  near  the  ford. 

[He  enjoyed  a  party  of  pleasure  in  a  good  boat  on  the 
water  to  one  of  the  aits  or  aislets  in  the  Thames,  EDGE- 
WORTH  Patronage  (1814)  xix  (DAV.)  ;  Ait,  a  little  island  in 
a  river  where  osiers  grow,_BAiLEY  (n2i)_.  Merc,  egeofi, 
OE.  ~igeocf,  an  islet,  deriv.  of  ig,  teg,  Merc,  eg,  island.  The 
termination  with  /  is  prob.  due  to  French  influence  ;  cp. 
Fr.  -et,  -of.} 

AIT,  sb?  Obs.  (?)  Rnf.  A  custom,  a  habit  ;  esp.  used 
of  a  bad  one  (JAM.). 

AITCH,  sb.    w.Yks.    [eat/.]    A  mantelpiece. 

w.Yks.  The  universal  name  for  a  mantelpiece  in  the  villages  about 
Wakefield  and  towards  Leeds  (S.O.A.). 

[Possibly  this  word  is  a  peculiar  use  of  the  name  for  the 
letter  ft.] 

AITCH,  see  Ache. 

AITCH-BONE,  sb.  Yks.  Der.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Mid. 
Hnt.  Suf.  Ken.  Sus.  Hmp.  Dev.  [e'tj-bon.]  The  bone 
of  the  rump  of  beef  ;  the  meat  which  this  bone  includes. 

w.Yks.1  Nache-bone.  Der.1  Nhp.1  The  extreme  end  of  a  rump 
of  beef,  cut  obliquely.  Lei.1  War.3  While  there  is  no  joint  called 
aitch-bone  cut  from  the  carcase  of  the  sheep,  the  haunch-bone  in 
a  haunch  of  mutton  is  by  butchers  also  called  the  aitch-bone.  Mid. 
Ache-bone,  part  of  y»  rump,  RAY  (1691)  MS.  add.  (J.C.)  Hnt. 
(T.P.F.),  Suf.1  Ken.2  Ach-bone.  Sus.2  Hmp.1  Aich-bone.  Dev. 
A  saddle  of  mutton  at  one  end,  and  an  aitch-bone,  not  over-boiled. 
at  the  other,  BLACKMORE  Kit  (1890)  III.  x. 

[The  proper  form,  being  that  identical  with  theorig.  Fr, 
is  nache.—  The  'nache'  in  some  writers,  also  the  'tail- 
points'  by  others,  YOUNG  (BRITTEN,  97)  ;  Upon  the  hue 
bone  and  the  nache  by  the  tayle,  FITZHERBERT  Hush. 
(J534)  53-  The  dial,  forms  have  mostly  lost  the  initial 
n  through  coalescence  with  the  indef.  adj.  an,  hence  ache, 
aich,  aitch.  The  earliest  example  of  the  word  found  with- 
out the  n  is  in  Bk.  St.  A/bans,  where  hack  boon  occurs  ;  see 
SKEAT,  777.  The  ache  bone,  os  coxendicis,  COLES  (1699). 
The  word  does  not  occur  in  JOHNSON  in  any  form.  OF 
nache,  a  buttock  ;  Rom.  natica,  adj.,  from  natis,  a  buttock.] 

AITCHORN,  see  Acorn. 

AITCH-PIECE,  sb.  Cor.  [e-tj-pis.]  The  catch  or 
tongue  of  a  buckle. 


[Named  from  the  shape,  like  that  of  the  letter  HI 

AITEN,  sb.     Obs.    Slk.  (JAM.)     A  partridge. 

[Prob.  ait,  oat  +  hen.  Many  names  of  this  bird  contain 
some  equiv.  of  hen  as  the  latter  element  of  the  comp  •  cp 
Sw.  rapphona,  G.  rebhuhn,  feldhuhn,  Du.  rap-hoen,  EFris 

AITH,sb.    Obs.     Sc.  QAM.) 

Frf.  Aith  or  Aiftland,  that  kind  ofland  called  infield,  which  is  made 
to  carry  oats  a  second  time  after  barley,  and  has  received  no  dung 

AITH,  see  Earth. 

AITHER,  see  Arder,  Either-. 

AITNACH,  sb.    Obs.    Sc.    Also  in  the  forms  etnach 
'  '' 

.u'  .umperernes. 

Abd.  [She]  spies  beneath  a  buss  of-what-ye-ca't  ?  Ay,  etnagh- 

berries  i  [ist  ed.  eatin-],  and  yeed  down  the  brae,  And  there  she 

a  thiiri    Ac  o-     Mil,      iT  ,   ,.  L-"-""J  >*"«"  6*c  Her  ua 

26  (JAM)  S<!  Wud'  TAYLOR  Poems 

CP-  «•&»/,  juniper  (M.  &  D.).] 

Shn  GI°-  Also  written 

1.  A  madcap  frolic,  a  foolish  prank. 

or  Tthe'r.  '  Wamnd  *»'  bin  °ff  now  on  some  wild  aitredan 

V  Tfntri!,m  XT*  noisv  quarrel,  a  fuss. 


'  ^  3nd  adj~    SU-  Cold'  bleak  weather  ;  also 
S.  &  Ork.1  ;  Aitrie,  Aittrie  (JAM.  Siippl.}. 

AIVER,  see  Eaver,  Havour. 

AIVERIE,  adj.    Sc.    [e'vari,  ye-vari.] 

Abd.  &  Per.Aiverie  is  a  very  well  known  word  meaning  not  very 
hungry,  but  eager  to  get  at  food,  &c.  They  are  a'  yevery  to  be  fed. 
Dinna  eat  sae  yivvery  like  [greedily]  (G.  W. ).  Rxb.  Aiverie,  very 
hungry;  a  term  nearly  obs.  (JAM.) 

Hence  Yevrisome,  adj. 

Dmf.  Yevrisome,  having  an  appetite  perpetually  craving  (JAM. 
s.v.  Yevery). 

[Aver,  goods,  possessions  {Apr.  aveir,  Lat.  Jiabere)  + -y. 
So  avery  would  mean  covetous,  hungry,  '  eager  to  have.'] 

AIVERING,  prp.  Sc.  Written  yivverin'  Abd. 
[i'varin,  yi'varin.]  Eager  for,  hungering,y?gr. 

Abd.  I'm  yiverrin'  sair  for  a  kiss  (G.W.). 

AIVRDJ,  sb.    Sc.     [e-vrin.]    The  larboard. 

Bnff.1  In  the  deep-sea-fishing  boatsthereareeight  fishermen,  each 
of  whom  has  his  own  seat  in  the  boat.  The  skipper  holds  the 
aivrin  hank  ;  the  second  man,  the  aivrin  mid-ship  ;  the  third,  the 
mid-aivrin  boo  ;  and  the  fourth,  the  foremast-aivrin  boo. 

[Aivrin,  aifteran,  prob.  for  after-hand,  near  the  hinder- 
part  of  the  ship.] 

AIVY-KAIVY,  see  Havey-quavey. 

AIWAL,  see  Awald. 

AIXES,  see  Access. 

AIX-TREE,  see  Ax. 

AIYAH,  see  Near. 

AIZAC,  see  Haysuck. 

_  AIZAM- JAZAM,  adj.  and  adv.  Stf.  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Glo. 

1.  adj.    Equal  in  weight,  size,  or  value. 

Shr.1  Theer  wuz  fifteen  faggits  i'  one  lot,  an'  sixteen  i'  the 
tother,  an'  I  put  'em  little  an'  big  together,  to  mak'  'em  as  'asam- 
jasam  as  I  could. 

2.  adj.  and  adv.    (i)  Fair  and  square,  equitable ;  (2)  in  an 
equitable  manner. 

Stf.,  War.,  Wor., Glo.  Ayzam-jayzam.  '  Upright  and  downstraight' 
is  an  old  term  of  the  same  meaning,  NORTHALL  Flk-Phr.  (1894). 
War.2  ne.Wor.  Aizam-jaizam,  honest, '  jannock.'  [Of  a  dishonest 
bargain]  That  job's  not  quite  aizam-jaizam  (J.W.P.).  (a)  Stf.,  War., 
Wor.  I  shouldn't  care  if  he'd  only  act  hasum-jasum  with  me  (H.K.). 

[Prob.  a  colloq.  formation  from  lit.  E.  easy.  For '  easy '  in 
the  sense  of  equal,  even,  cp.  the  familiar  phrase  in  Whist, 
'  Honours  easy.'] 

AIZE,  sb.    Sh.I.    [ez.]    A  large  blazing  fire. 

S.  &  Ork.1  Aze. 

[ON.  eysa,^  glowing  embers,  cognate  with  usli,  a  confla- 
gration ;  OE.ysle,  embers.] 

AIZIN',  see  Easing. 

AIZLE,  see  Hazzle,  v.,  Easle. 

AIZLE-TOOTH,  see  Axle-tooth. 

AJY,  see  Agee. 

AKE,  sb.    Cor.     [ek.] 

Cor.1  Ake,  a  groove  in  a  stone  used  for  an  anchor  (peculiar  to 
Cornwall)  to  receive  a  rope  or  iron  band  to  prevent  it  from  slipping. 
Mousehole  fishermen  ;  Cor.2 

AKERATE,  v.    Lin.    [a'karet.] 

1.  To  rust  as  iron  does. 

n.Lin.1  We  fun'  sum  shackles  sich  es  thaay  ewst  to  put  upo' 
prisoners  e'  ohd  times.  Thaay  was  o'must  all  akeraated  awaay, 
bud  oor  Squire  thoht  a  great  deal  on  'em. 

2.  To  blight. 

nXin.1  His  crops  was  that  akeraated  last  year  [1879]  thaay  was 
wo'th,  in  a  waay  of  speaking,  noht  at  all. 

AKERMAST,  see  Acorn-mast. 

AKETHA,  int.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  akether. 
[ake-'Sa.]  Quoth  he  ;  forsooth  !  indeed  ! 

Dev.  Akether,  bin  ma  kit's  ago,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  st.  68  ; 
'  Giggling  akether ! '  shrieked  the  old  woman,  wild  with  resentment, 
'giggling  akether!'  MADOX-BROWN  Dwale  Bluth  (1876)  I.  i; 
Dev.1  An  zo  you  zim  a  is  maz'd,  I'll  warnis ;— no  more  lookee- 
dezee  than  you  be.  I  say  maz'd  akether,  pt.  i.  3  ;  Dev.3  n.Dev. 
Bet  es  tell  en,  Marry  a-ketha,  Emi.  Crtshp.  (1746)  1.  456;  GROSE 
(1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  Cor.  Thee  baan't  St  George,  no  moore  than 
me ;  St.  George  aketha  !  J.  TRENOODLE  Spec.  Dial.  (1846)  55  ;  Cor.1 2 

[?r  ob-  *e9uiv-  to  'Ah'  I*10'*1  he.  With  keth  cp.  ME. 
cwed,qued,  koth,  pret.  of  quefon,  OE.  cweSan,  to  speak.  For 
the  final  a  see  A  (pronunciation  V.  1  &  2).l 





A  sullen  person, 
gloomy,  and   MDu.  akel, 

AKKA-MANNAA,  see  Cakka-man-ah. 

AKKER,  sb.    Pern,     [a'ka(r).] 

s.Pem.  Akker,  a  boat  used  for  carrying  limestone  on  the  Cleddy, 
LAWS  Little  Eng.  (1888)  419. 

AKKERN,  see  Acorn. 

AKLIN,  sb.     Sh.I.     [a'klin.] 

S.  &  Ork.1 

[Cogn.  with  Du.  akelig,  dull 
grief,  n  arm.] 

AL,  see  Alley. 

ALABLASTER,  sb.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan. 
Chs.  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Won  Oxf.  Also  written  ali- 
blaster  Dur.1  Wm.1  ne.Lan.1  nw.Der.1  Oxf.1 ;  allablaster 
Chs.1;  alleyblaster  Nhb.1;  allyblaster  se.Wor.1 ;  all- 
plaister  w.Yks.1  [a'lablasta(r).]  Alabaster. 

Nhb.1,  Dnr.1  Cum.  Sally's  just  like  allyblaster,  Her  cheeks  are 
tweerwosebudsinMay,ANDERSONBrtAWs(i8o5)i6.  Wm.1  w.Yks. 
During  a  fall  of  snow,  children  often  sing 'Snow,  snow  faster,  White 
alablaster '  (S.  K.C.);  'E's  as  fair  as  alleyblaster  (F.P.T.) ;  w.Yks.1 245, 
ne.Lan.1.  Chs.1,  nw.Der.1  n.Lin.1  Thaay  fun  alablaster  at  Gainsb'r 
when  thaay  dug  railroad,  bud  it  wasn't  wo'th  oht.  It's  a  straange  nist 
bairn,  it's  skin's  that  clear  it's  like  alablaster.  Lei.1,  Nhp.1,  War.3 
s.Wor.  Her  dear  flesh  was  allis  as  white  as  halablaster,  PORSON 
Quaint  Wds. (1875)  23.  Oxf.1  DhaaT  bent  noa  guod'luok'n  gyuurlz 
ubuuwt  -nuuw;  wen  -uuy  wuz  yoor  aij  uuy  wuz  uz  faa'r  uz  aH- 
blaa'stuur  [Thar  ben't  no  good-lookin'  girls  about  now  ;  when  I 
was  your  age  I  was  as  fair  as  aliblaster]. 

[Why  should  a  man  whose  blood  is  warm  within  Sit 
like  his  grandsire  cut  in  alablaster,  SHAKS.  M.  Ven.  i.  i. 
84  ;  Albaster,  allablaster,  Albastrin,  white  as  allablaster, 
COTGR.  ;  Alabastrine,  made  of  alleblaster,  FLORIO  (1611). 
In  an  inventory,  temp.  Hen.  VIII,  of  the  furniture  of  St. 
Martin's  at  Dover  is  the  following  entry  :  Item,  ij  imagees 
ofwhytealleeblaster,  jWo«as/.IV.542(BoucHER).  The  form 
alablaster  is  found  in  SYDNEY'S  Arcadia,  319  (ed.  FRISWELL). 
ME.  An  alablaster,  alablastrum,  Cath.  Angl.  This  was 
the  gen.  spelling  of  alabaster  in  the  i6th  and  lyth  cents. 
The  bl-  is  doubtless  due  to  sense-association  with  bleach, 
blanch,  and  other  W-forms  denoting  whiteness.] 

ALACK,  int.  Sc.  n.Cy.  Yks.  Som.  Also  written 
alacke,  alake,  allake.  bla'k.  I 

1.  Alas ! 

S.  &  Ork.1  Alake,  an  exclamation  denoting  sorrow  or  regret. 
Sc.  He  says  how  now  how  now  Childe  Maurice,  Alacke  how  may 
this  bee,  JAMIESON  Pop.  Ballads  (1806)  Childe  Maurice.  Ayr. 
Alake,  alake,  the  meikle  Deil  Wi'  a'  his  witches,  BURNS  To  Mr. 
Mitchell  (1795).  Lnk.  Alake  !  poor  pris'ner,  RAMSAY  Gentle  Shep. 
(1735)  38,  ed.  1783.  n.Cy.  Alake,  alas.  Border  Gl.  (Coll.  L.L.B.) 
w.Yks.  Alack,  a  form  of  'alas,'  Hlfx.  Wds. ;  w.Yks.4  [Allake,  a 
sigh,  bitter  exclamation  (K.).] 

2.  In  comp.  Alack-a-day,an  exclamation  of  grief  or  distress. 
w.Yks.  AJack-a-day,aformof'aIastheday,'////i.  Wds.    w.Som.1 

Alack-a-day  !  an  exclamation  of  sorrow  or  regret.  Alas-a-day  !  or 
Alas  !  are  not  heard. 

[Nay,  what's  incredible,  alack  !  I  hardly  hear  a  woman's 
clack,  SWIFT  (JOHNSON)  ;  Alack  the  heavy  day,  That  I 
have  worn  so  many  winters  out !  SHAKS.  Rich.  II,  iv.  i. 
257;  She's  dead,  deceased,  she's  dead  ;  alack  the  day  !  ib. 
R.  &  J.  iv.  v.  23.  Perhaps  A  (int.)  +  lack,  failure,  fault.] 

A-LADY,  adv.  phr.    e.An.    [ale'di.l    On  Lady-day. 

e.An.  She  gan  her  missis  notidge  last  A'Lady,  A'.  &  Q.  (1855) 
ist  S.  xi.  184  ;  e-An.1  e.Nrf.  A-Lady  (in  common  use),  MARSHALL 
Rur.  Earn.  (1787).  Suf.1  A'l  go  out  of 'as  farm  next  a-Lady. 

[A-,  on  +  Lady  (for  Lady-day).] 

ALAG,  adv.  Nhb.  Cum.  n.Yks.  [ala'g.]  Not  suffi- 
ciently upright ;  too  horizontal,  as  in  placing  a  ladder. 

Nhb.It'sallalag,outoftheperpendicular(R.O.H.).  Cum.1  n.Yks. 
It  lies  alag.  T'stick  laid  alag  ageean  t'wall  [sto 

[stood  at  an  angle  of 

The  sporting  term  for  a 
Also  written  alare.    A 

ig  ageean 
45°]  (I. W.). 

A-LAG,  sb.     Cum.    [ala'g. 
flight  of  geese  (W.K.). 

ALAIRE,  adv.  Obsol.     w.Cor. 
short  time  ago. 

Cor.  N.  &  Q.  (1854)  ist  S.  x.  178  ;  Cor.1 
ALAKANEE,  int.     Obs.    Sc.  (JAM.)     Alas ! 
Rnf.  The  cheeriest  swain  that  e'er  the  meadows  saw ;  Alakanec  ! 
—is  Robin  gane  awa'  ?  PICKEN  Poems  (1788)  20  (JAM.). 

ALAMONTI,  see  Allamotti. 

ALANGE,  see  Elenge. 

ALANNAH,  sb.  Irel.  Also  written  alanna,  alanah, 
alana.  My  child  !  A  form  of  address,  a  term  of  endear- 

Ir.  Miss  Betty,  alanah,  LEVER  H.  Lorr.  (1839)  iii  ;  Whose  then, 
alannah  ?  ib.  Ch.  Cf  M  alley  (1841)  iii ;  He's  well  enough — that's  it, 
alannah,  CARLETON  Traits  Peas.  (1843)  I.  95 ;  Well,  alana,  I  could 
not  help  it,  Flk-Lore  Rec.  (1881)  IV.  117  ;  Have  ye  all  now,  ma'am  ? 
—I  have,  alanna,  God  bless  ye  !  FRANCIS  Frieze  (1895)  21  ;  Alana, 
properly '  my  child ' ;  used  as  a  friendly  or  affectionate  word  of  ad- 
dress, especially  to  the  speaker's  junior  (G.M.H.).  s.Ir.  Whisht ! 
alanna.  .  .  .  There's  no  fear  of  you,  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  28. 

[Ir.  a  leanbh  (prop,  a  leinbh)  my  child  !] 

ALANTOM,  adv.  Obs.  Nhb.  Yks.  Also  written 
alantum,  alantem.  Freq.  used  with  off.  At  a  distance. 

n.Cy.  I  saw  him  at  alangtum.  I  saw  him  alantom  off K. ) ;  N.Cy.12, 
Nhb.1  w.Yks.1 1  spies  alantum  off  two  shooters,  ii.  296. 

[Some  of  our  lads  b'ing  very  kind,  Alantom  followed 
me  behind,  STUART  Joco- Serious  Disc.  (1686)  72.  Alantom 
prob.  repr.  Fr.  en  lointain,  in  the  distance.] 

ALARM,  sb.  Irel.  Wil.  [ala'm.]  A  cry  of  a  bird  or 

Wmh.  What  soort  of  alarm  has  an  otther  ?  (S.  A.B.) 

Hence  Alarm-note,  the  note  of  a  bird  when  startled. 

n.  Wil.  If  you  should  disturb  the  blackbird  he  makes  the  meadow 
ring  with  his  alarm-note,  JEFFERIES  Wild  Life  (1879)  163. 

[Fr.  alarme,  excitement  caused  by  the  approach  of  the 
enemy  ;  OFr.  a  farme .'  the  cry  to  arms.] 

ALARMING,  adv.     Suf.  Wor.     [ala'min.] 

1.  In  an  unusual  manner. 

Suf.  He  went  on  wholly  alarmin',  i.e.  acted  or  spoke  out  of  the 
usual  way,  not  necessarily  greatly,  e.An.  Dy.  Times  (1892). 

2.  Extensively,  very,  exceedingly. 

w.Wor.  [It]  grows  in  woods  alarmin',  S.  BEAUCHAMP  Grantley 
Grange  (1874)  II.  104  ;  They  bin  orl  good  uns.  most  alarmin'  good 
uns,  ib.  N.  Hamilton  (1875)  I.  127. 

ALARUM,  sb.    n.Yks.     [ale-ram.]     Disturbance. 


[A  blanket  in  th'  alarum  of  fear  caught  up,  SHAKS.  Ham. 
ii.  ii.  532.  See  Alarm.] 

ALAS-A-DAY, int.  Obsol.  Yks. and  Som.  Alas!  a  form 
of  pitying. 

Yks.  THORESBYZ.?#.  (1703).  w.Yks.4  Som.  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial. 
w.Eng.  (1825). 

[Alas  a  day  !  you  have  ruined  my  poor  mistress,  CON- 
GREVE  Old  Bachelor  (JOHNSON)  ;  Alas  the  day  !  I  never  gave 
him  cause,  SHAKS.  Oth.  in.  iv.  158  ;  Alias  !  that  harde  day  ! 
CHAUCER  C.  T.  F.  499.  OFr.  a  las  (mod.  Mas),  orig.  Ah, 
weary  !  Cp.  It.  ahi  lasso,  Lat.  lassus,  weary.] 

ALAS-AT-EVER,  int.    Obs.    Yks.    An  exclamation  of 


Yks.  THORESBY  Lett.  (i7O3\      w.Yks.4 

[Equiv.  to  alas  that  ever  /] 

ALASSEN,  conj.  Dor.  Also  written  alassn.  [alavsan.] 

Dor.  Gl.  (1851);  Dor.1  Alassen  I  mid  want  to  stay  Behine'  var 
thee,  79, 

[Equiv.  to  on  less  'en  for  on  less  than,  whence  lit.  E.  unless. 
Onlesse  this  be  done,  si  ce  nest  que  cela  se  face,  PALSGR. 
882.  OE.  on  Ices  banne,  lit.  on  a  less  supposition  than.] 

A-LATE,  rt<fo.    Yks.  Lan.  Wor.    [ale't,  alea't]     Lately. 

w.Yks.1  Alatt,  of  late.     ne.Lan.1  Alayat.    se.Wor.1 

[Alate,  nuper,  COLES  (1679).  The  form  occurs  in  ME.  as 
in  Destr.  Troy  (c.  1400),  4176.  A-,  of  +  late.] 

ALAU,  sb.  Cor.  [alair.]  Nymphaea  alba,  or  water- 

ALAWK,  int.  Der.  War.  Suf.  [al§'k.]  An  exclama- 
tion of  sorrow ;  alas  ! 

Der.2,  nw-Der.1,  War.  (J.R.W.)     Suf.1  [Hence]  Alawkus. 

[A-,  ah  !  +  lawk,  q.v.j 

ALAY,  see  Ally. 

ALBUIST,  conj.     Obs.    Abd.    Though,  albeit. 

Abd.  An'  our  ain  lads,  albuist  I  say't  my  sell,  But  guided  them 
right  cankardly  an'  snell,  Ross  ffelenoi-e(i']68)  62  (in  the  edd.  1789 
and  1812  '  although'  is  printed  instead  of 'albuist'). 

[Etym.  unknown.] 




ALD,  see  Old. 

ALDER,  sb.  [o-lda(r).]  Besides  its  usual  meaning 
(Alnus  glutinosa),  the  name  alder  in  comb,  is  applied  to 
several  other  trees,  (i)  Death  alder,  Euonymus  europaeus 
or  spindle-tree  (Bck.) ;  (2)  Wild  alder,  Aegopodium  poda- 
graria  (Lin.). 

n.Bck.  It  is  thought  unlucky  to  bring  it  [Death  alder]  into  the 
house.  s.Lin.  Wild  alder.  Alder  =  elder,  from  the  superficial 
resemblance  between  the  leaves. 

[OE.  a/or.    The  form  aller  is  still  gen.  in  dial.] 

ALDER-CARR,  sb.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Nrf.  Sut.  Also 
written  owdaker  nw.Der.1  A  piece  of  bog-  or  fen-land 
overgrown  with  alder-trees. 

Der.2  Alder-carr,  a  plantation  of  alders;  carr  being  common  for 
a  plantation  in  a  low  or  flat  situation.  nw.Der.1  Lin.  Alder-carr, 
an  islet  overgrown  with  'the  waterside  tree,'  N.  &  Q.  (1873) 
4th  S.  xii.  297.  War.  (J.R.W.)  Nr£  Wet  pieces  of  land  in  the 
marshy  districts  planted  with  .  . .  alders,  and  hence  called  .  .  . 
alder-carrs,  N.  &•>  Q.  (1874)  5th  S.  i.  132.  Suf.  A  moist  wood  of 
alders,  e.An.  Dy.  Times  (1892). 

[Aldyr-kyr  (Alder-kar  in  Pynson's  ed.),  Alnetum,  viz. 
locus  vbi  alni  et  tales  arbores  crescunt,  Prompt.  Alder  +  carr, 

ALDERLING,s6.  Obs.  Suf.  A  fresh-water  fish  which 
haunts  that  part  of  the  stream  overhung  by  alder-trees. 
See  Aller-trout. 

Suf.  No  longer  used,  but  still  known  to  very  old  people  here 
(F.H.).  Not  known  to  any  of  our  correspondents  in  other  parts 
of  the  country.  A  kind  of  fish  said  to  be  betwixt  a  trout  and  a 
grayling  (HALL.). 

ALE,  sb.1    Var.  dial.    See  below,    [el,  eal,  yel.] 

1.  A  liquor  brewed  from  malt  and  distinguished  from 
ordinary  beer  by  its  strength.    In  Cum.  and  Som.,  how- 
ever, ale  is  weak  beer  brewed  from  the  malt  after  the  beer 
has  been  extracted  from  it. 

Cum.  (J.Ar.)  Brks.1  Ooll'ehevaglasso'aayleora  glass o'  beer? 
Som.  A  liquor  brewed  with  a  proportion  of  malt  from  about  four  to 
six  bushels  to  the  hogshead  of  63  gallons;  ifitcontain  more  malt  it  is 
called  beer ;  if  less,  it  is  usually  called  small  beer,  JENNINGS  Obs. 
Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825).  w.Som.1  Ale  is  usually  sold  in  the  public- 
houses  at  half  the  price  of  beer ;  at  Burton  this  is  precisely  re- 

2.  A  country  festival,  in  which  ale-drinking  forms  the 
chief  part  of  the  delight. 

N.Cy.1  A  merry  meeting  of  country-people,  a  rural  feast,  bride- 
ale,  church-ale.  ne-Lan.1  Oxf.  The  Whitsun  ales  are  common  in 
Oxfordshire,  WRIGHT. 

3.  Comp.  Ale-bink,  -brains,  -brewis,  -brussen.see  below  ; 
-Conner,  -finder,  a  manorial  officer  whose  duty  it  was  to 
look  to  the  assize  and  goodness  of  bread  and  ale  within 
the  precincts  of  the  manor  ;  -feast,  a  public  festival  gener- 
ally held  at  Whitsuntide  ;  -jawt,  -master,  -peg,  see  below ; 
•posset,  a   curd   made   by  pouring  old  ale  over  boiling 
milk ;  -scalp,  see  Ale-brains  ;   -score,  a  debt  at  the  ale- 
house ;    -settle,   see  Ale-bink ;    -shot,   see  Ale-score ; 
•silver,  -soaked,  -soaker,  see  below;  -sop,  (i)  a  refection 
consisting  of  hot  strong  ale  and  toast  or  biscuits,  (2)  a 
drunkard  ;  -spinner,  -stake,  see  below ;  -stalder,  the  stool 
on  which  casks  are  placed  in  a  cellar ;  -stall,  -swab,  -swat- 
tier,  -swizzler,  see  below ;  -taster,  an  officer  appointed  to 
prevent  the  adulteration  of  ale,  see  Ale-conner ;  -Tuesday, 
Shrove  Tuesday;  -weean,  see  below;  -whisp  (obs.),  the 
bush  hung  in  front  of  an  inn  to  show  that  ale  was  sold 
there ;  -wife,  (i)  a  woman  who  keeps  an  inn,  (2)  a  local 
name  of  the  Allice-shad,  Alosa  communis ;  -wort,  an  in- 
tusion  of  malt;  -yottler,  -yottling,  see  below. 

n.  Yks.2  Yal-bink,  also  called  Yal-settle,  an  ale-bench  ;  like  those 
:n  front  of  country  inns  for  outside  smokers.  Yal-brains,  one  who 
has  to  take  his  glass  before  he  can  set  his  wits  to  work.  Yal-brewis 
ale-posset  stiffened  with  bread.  Yal-brussen,  distended  pr '  blown 
up  with  ale  or  liquor.  n.Lin.i  Ale  Conner.  Ale-feast  (obsol.),  a 
public  drinking  usually  held  at  Whitsuntide.  Cum.i  Yal-jaw't 
sickened  by  drinking  ale.  nXin.1  Ale-master,  the  chief  man  at  the 
ale-feast.  Ale-peg,  the  vent-peg  of  a  cask.  Lan.  There's  some 
nice  bacon-collops  o'th  hob,  An'  a  quart  o'  ale-posset  i'th  oon, 
WAUGH  Come  Whoam  (1859).  mXan  i  He's  ne'er  hed  a  sup  o! 
.le-posset,  hesn  d  mi  pertner.  Fooaks'  givin'  o'er  suppin'  id  for 
a  varra  good  reeason  ;  there's  nooan  so  mony  wimmen  con  mek 

id  gradely.  s-Chs.1  Snr.1  Jack,  you  had  better  take  care  of  that 
cold,  I'll  make  you  an  ale-posset  to-night.— Thank  yo',  Missis, 
that'll  tak  car  o'  me,  nod  the  caud.  Lan.1  Hast  paid  thi  ale-score 
at  th'  Blue  Bell  yet  ?  Stf.2  'E's  got  a  ale-score  on  at  that  ale-us. 
n-Lin.1  Ale-score,  the  debt  for  drink  at  an  ale-house  recorded 
with  chalk  marks  on  the  door.  Shr.1  Turn's  a  cliver  workman 
an'  gets  good  money,  but  agen  'e's  paid  'is  ale-score  every  wik 
theer  inna  much  leP  to  tak  wham.  Lan.1  He's  an  ale-shot  at  th' 
back  o'  th'  door  yon,  th'  length  o'  my  arm.  [Ale-silver  (obs.}, 
a  rent  or  duty  annually  paid  to, the  Lord  Mayor  of  London  by 
those  who  sold  ale  within  the  City,  BAILEY  (1721).]  n.Yks.2  Yal- 
sooak'd,  full  of  beer,  drunk.  Yal-sooaker,  an  ale-bibber,  a  sot. 
Sc.  Ale  saps,  wheaten  bread  boiled  in  beer  (JAM.  s.v.  Saps). 
Ken.  Tea  biscuits  are  sometimes  soaked  in  strong  ale  and  called 
ale-sop  or  beer-sop  (P.M.)  ;  Ken.1  Ale-sop  is  customarily  partaken 
of  by  the  servants  in  many  large  establishments  on  Christmas  Day. 
w.Yks.2  Ale-sop,  a  drunkard.  Slang.  Ale-spinner,  a  brewer  or 
publican,  FARMER.  [Ale-stake  (obs.),  a  may-pole,  GROSE  (1790) 
MS.  add.  (P.)]  e.Sus.  Ale-stalder,  or  stolder,  stillion,  HOLLOWAY. 
Suf.1  Ale-stall,  the  horse  or  stool  on  which  casks  of  beer,  wine,  &c. 
are  placed  in  cellars.  I  do  not  recollect  the  word  stall  applied  to 
any  other  description  of  horse  or  stool.  n.Yks.2  Yal-swab,  -swattler, 
-swizzler,  an  ale-bibber,  a  sot  Chs.1  At  the  court  leet  for  the 
manor  and  lordship  of  Over,  held  Nov.  1880,  ale-tasters  were 
elected  for  each  of  the  townships  of  Over,  Marton,  and  Swanlow 
(see  Warrington  Guardian,  Nov.  20,  1880).  n.Lin.1  The  ale-taster's 
oath  is  given  in  Sir  William  Scrogg's  Practice  of  Court  Leet  (1714) 
15.  w.Som.1  Ale-taster,  an  officer  still  annually  appointed  by 
ancient  court  leet ;  at  Wellington  his  duties,  however,  have  entirely 
fallen  into  disuse.  Dev.  The  last  day  of  the  carnival  would  be 
the  '  wettest,'  and  might  well  be  called  Ale  Tuesday.  Every 
parish  had  its  church-ales  on  several  anniversaries,  of  which  that 
at  Shrove-tide  was  usually  one,  Reports  Provinc.  (1893).  n.Yks.2 
Yal-weean,  the  female  publican.  nXin.1  Ale-whisp.  the  bush  which 
was  suspended  in  front  of  a  public-house  to  indicate  that  drink 
wa.s  sold  there  (obs.).  A  bush  of  ivy  or  other  evergreen  was  for 
ages  the  sign  of  a  tavern  both  in  England  and  the  neighbouring 
continental  lands.  There  is  an  engraving  of  a  mediaeval  inn  with 
a  bush  hanging  before  it  in  Cults'  Scenes  and  Characters  of  the 
Middle  Ages,  p.  543.  [Ale-wife,  Alosa  communis,  SATCHELL.] 
Yks.  If  you  have  any  ale-wort  near  you,  make  strong  tea  of  it, 
KNOWLSON  Cattle  Doctor  (1834)  84.  n.Yks.2  Yal-yottler,  an  ale- 
bibber,  a  'sot.  Yal-yottling,  given  to  pot  companionship. 

[1.  Ale  and  beer  have  been  in  common  use  as  names  for 
the  same  intoxicating  drink  among  the  various  tribes  of 
Germanic  people  from  the  earliest  times.  The  Alvismdl 
says  :  'Tis  called  ale  (67)  among  men,  beer  (bjorr)  among  the 

S)ds  ;  '  beer '  being  the  Southern,  '  ale '  the  Northern 
ermanic  word.  2.  For  information  about  country  ales, 
esp.  the  Whitsun-ale,  see  BRAND  Pop.  Antiq.  1. 2^9.  DOUCE 
says  that  Ale  means  a  feast  or  merry-making,  as  in 
the  words  Leet-ale,  Lamb-ale,  Whitsun-ale,  Clerk-ale, 
Bride-ale  (whence  Bridal),  Church-ale,  Scot-ale,  Mid- 
summer-ale, &c.  (BRAND,  I.e.)  Lesfestes  du  village,  wakes, 
ales,  ploughmens  feasts,  or  holy  daies,  COTGR.  OE.  ealu 
ON.  67,  ale  ;  also,  a  feast,  a  banquet,  freq.  in  comps.,  as  in 
ON.  erfi-6'l,  a  wake,  a  funeral  feast ;  OE.  oryd-ealu,  a  bride- 
feast,  the  marriage  feast,  a  '  bridal.'] 

ALE,  see  Old. 

ALE-BERRY,  sb.  Cum.  [ye'lbari.]  A  dish  consist- 
ing of  ale  boiled  with  butter,  sugar,  and  bread. 

Cum.1  Yel-berry,  formerly  given  at  funerals  for  dinner. 

[Aleberry,  a  beerage  or  kind  of  food  made  by  boiling 
ale  with  spice,  sugar,  and  sops  of  bread,  or  with  oatmeal, 
BAILEY  (1755).  ME.  Albery  vel  alebrey,  alebrodium, 
Prompt— Ale  +  berry.  ME.  bery  for  brey,  bre,  OE.  briw, 

ALE-DRAPER,  sb.  Obs.  Yks.  Lin.  An  innkeeper  or 

n-Yks.1  Ale-draper,  a  term  now  obs.,  but  occurring  in  the  Whitby 
parochial  register  a  century  ago.  n-Lin.1  July  8th  (1747)  Thomas 
Broughton,  farmer  and  ale-draper,  Scatter  Par.  Reg.  Burials. 

[Ale-draper,  a  seller  of  malt-liquors:  an  alehouse- 
keeper  or  victualler,  BAILEY  (1721) ;  No  other  occupation 
have  I  but  to  be  an  ale-draper,  CHETTLE  Kind-Harts  Dreame 
(I592) ;  Two  milch  maydens  that  had  set  up  a  shoppe  of 
ale-drapery,  ib.  (NARES).  Ale  +  draper  (humorously  ap- 
plied to  the  alehouse-keeper's  business).] 




ALEER,  ad].     I.W.    |>li3-(r).]     Empty ;  unladen. 

I.W.1  Goo  whooam  wi'  the  wagon  aleer. 

[A-  prob.  repr.  OE.  ge ;  cp.  gelcere,  empty  ;  or  the  pref. 
may=on  (the  pref.  of  state  or  condition).  See  Leer.] 

ALEGAR,  sb.  Obsol.  n.Cy.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Stf.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Lei.  Won  e.An.  Also  written  allekar 
Wm.1;  alliker  n.Yks.2  ;  elliker  w.Yks.1:  elekar  w.Yks.5 ; 
aliker  e.Lan.1 ;  allegar  Chs.1  s.Chs.1  Stf.1 ;  allecar,  alle- 
kur  n.Lin.1  Vinegar  made  from  ale  ;  malt  vinegar  ;  sour 
ale  used  as  vinegar. 

N.Cy.1,  Cum.  Gl.  (1851).  Wm.  Ya  drop  o  alligar  may  be  an 
ocean  to  sic  tiny  inhabitants,  HUTTON  Bran  New  Wark  (1785)  1-  91  i 
An  gav  him  sum  alleker,  WHEELER  Dial.  (179°)  56 !  Wm.1  w.Yks. 
Elekir,  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (Mar.  16,  1889) ;  Fetch  a  pint  of  allica 
(F.P.T.)  ;  Born  wi'  soa  mich  eliker  i'  ther  blooid,  HARTLEY  Puddiif 
(1876)  258  ;  Her  face  turned  as  sahr  as  elliker,  Saunterer's  Satchel 
(1879)  21  ;  T'privates  is  allaud  rost  mutton,  an  a  bottle  a  helligar 
an  waiter,  wha  wine  they  call  it,  TOM  TREDDLEHOYLE  Bairnsla 
Ann.  (1847)  46  ;  Sittin  astride  of  a  barril  at  we  used  to  mack 
helliger  in,  ib.  M.  Muffindoaf '(1843)  35  ;  Salt  an  pepper,  mustard 
an  helliker,  Pudsey  Olm.  (1888)  14.  Lan.  Deeds  _as  sharp  as 


an'  co'  for  a  gill  o'  ale  fresh  drawn.  Chs.1  Allegar,  vinegar,  origin- 
ally such  as  was  made  from  ale,  but  now  applied  to  all  kinds  of 
vinegar.  Wilbraham  says  the  word  is  generally  used  with  the 
adjunct  'vinegar' — allegar-vinegar,  but  it  is  not  so  used  now  at 
Macclesfield.  s.Chs.1  Key's  shedden  my  drop  o'  allegar.  Der.2, 
Not.1  Lin.1  That  pancheon  is  chock-full  of  alegar.  n-Lin.1  Alegar, 
sour  ale  used  as  a  substitute  for  vinegar.  Lei.1  Alegar  is  to  ale 
what  vinegar  is  to  wine.  '  Malt  vinegar '  is  perhaps  its  modern 
equivalent  Wor.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M.)  e-An.1,  Suf.1 

Attrib.  in  Alegar  strikers,  thin  gruel  flavoured  with 

Chs.1  s 

[Alegar,  sour  ale ;  a  kind  of  acid  made  by  ale,  as  vine- 
gar by  wine,  which  has  lost  its  spirit,  JOHNSON  ;  Alegar 
(q.d.  Ale-eager),  sour  ale  or  beer,  a  sort  of  vinegar,  BAILEY 
(1721) ;  Aleger,  the  vinegar  made  of  sour  ale,  BLOUNT 
(1681) ;  Alegar,  quo  nomine  rustici  agri  Line.  &*  per  totum 
Angliae  Septentrionalis  tractum  Acetum  cerevisiae  non  lupu- 
latae  appellant,  q.d.  Ale  Eager,  vel  Eager  Ale,  i.  e.  sour  ale, 
SKINNER  (1671) ;  Soure  and  tarte  thynges  as  venegre  and 
aleger,  BOORDE  Dyetary  (1542)  296 ;  With  venegre  or 
eysel  or  with  alegere,  Cookery  Books  (1430)  28.  Ale  +  egre 
(Fr.  aigre,  sharp,  sour).] 

ALE-HOpF,  sb.  Yks.  Shr.  Sus.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written 
ale-hoove  in  Shr.  and  Sus.,  alliff  in  e.Sus.  [el-uf, 
i'l-uv.]  The  ground  ivy,  Nepeta  Glechoma. 

w.Yks.2  At  Eyam  it  is,  or  was,  used  in  the  brewing  of  ale  instead 
of  hops.  Shr.,  Sus.  Ale-hoove,  i.  e.  that  which  will  cause  ale  to 
heave  or  work  \_sic\.  DeV.  Where  ale-hoof  and  the  borage,  too,  Held 
forth  their  gems  of  blue,  CAPERN  Ballads  (1858)  128.  Cor.  Jack 
would  take  the  children  and  collect  bitter  herbs  to  make  the  beer 
keep,  such  as  the  ale-hoof  (ground-ivy),  mugwort. ...  and  pellitory, 
HUNT  Pop.  Rom.  w.Eng.  (1865)  I.  44. 

[Ale-hoof,  ground-ivy,  so  called,  because  it  serves  to 
clear  ale  or  beer—Hedera  terrestris,  L.,  BAILEY  (1721) ; 
Ale-hoof  (herb),  Hedera  terrestris,  COLES  (1679) ;  Patte  de 
chat,  Cat's-foot,  ale-hoof,  tune-hoof,  ground  ivy,  Gill 
creep  by  the  ground,  COTGR.  (1611) ;  '  The  women  of  our 
Northerne  parts,  especially  about  Wales  and  Cheshire, 
do  tunne  the  herbe  ale-hoof  into  their  ale  ;  but  the  reason 
thereof  I  know  not :  notwithstanding  without  all  con- 
trouersie  it  is  most  singular  against  the  griefes  aforesaid  : 
being  tunned  vp  in  ale  and  drunke,  it  also  purgeth  the 
head  from  rheumaticke  humors  flowing  from  the  brain, 
GERARD  Herball  (1597)  11.856.  Ale  +  hoof;  hoof  repr.  an 
earlier  hove  (Prompt.  250),  OE.  hofe,  the  ground  ivy.  In 
ME.  the  ordinary  name  for  the  plant  was  hat-hove  (houe) ; 
see  Voc.  786.  29,  Prompt,  (notes)  250,  and  Meals  and 
Manners  (E.E.T.S.  No.  32)  68.] 

ALE-HOUSE,  sb.  Widely  diffused  throughout  the 
dial.  Also  written  aalhouse  Wxf.1 ;  ale-hus  Nhp.1; 
ale'us  w.Yks.2;  alus  n.Yks.1  Ken.1;  al-hoos  ne.Yks.1 ; 
yalhoose  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  e.Yks.1 ;  yale-hus  Nhp.1 ; 


yalus  n.Yks.1;  yelhus  Nhp.1;  ellus  e.An.1    [e-las,  ea'las, 
ye'las.]    A  house  where  ale  is  sold. 

Sc.  Na,  sir,  I  never  gang  to  the  yill  house,  Scorr  Rob  Roy  (1817) 
xiv.  Edb.  We  jogged  on  till  we  came  to  the  yill-house  door,  Mom 
Mansic  Wauch  (1828)  xiii.  Wxf.1  Yks.  Wi'  lads,  te  t'yal-house 
gangin',  INGLEDEW  Ballads  (1860)  227.  n.Yks.1 2  ne.Yks.1  Ah  seed 
him  i  t'yal-hoos  suppin  yal.  e.Yks.1  w.Yks.  Ale'us,  Wkfld.  Wds. 
Nhp.1  Alehus,  a  small  public-house,  or  beer-shop.  e.An.1  w.Nrf. 
Shaking  off  the  ashes  from  his  short  black  pipe  on  to  the  clean 
sanded  floor  of  the  al'us,  ORTON  Beeston  Ghost  (1884)  4.  Ken. 
An'  dare  was  aluses  by  swarms,  MASTERS  Dick  and  Sal  (c.  1821) 
st.  63.  Sus.  De  butcher  kipt  a  aluss  too,  LOWER  Tom  Cladpole 
(1831)  st.  54.  Som.  Yal'house,  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825). 
e.Som.  W.  &J.  Gl.  (1873). 

[Would  I  were  in  an  ale-house  in  London,  SHAKS. 
Hen.  V,  in.  ii.  12.  ME.  The  word  ale-hus  occurs  in  Horn. 
ii.  n.  OE.  eala-hus  (Laws  of  Ethelb.).] 

ALEING,  si.  O*5.  Ken.  An  entertainment  given  with 
a  view  to  collecting  subscriptions  from  guests  invited  to 
a  brewing  of  ale. 

Ken.1 ;  Ken.2  An  aleing,  i.e.  wheremirth,  ale,  and  music  are  stirring ; 
'tis  a  custom  in  West  Kent  for  the  lower  class  of  housekeepers  to 
brew  a  small  quantity  of  malt,  and  to  invite  their  neighbours  to  it, 
who  give  them  something  for  a  gratification  ;  this  they  call  an 
aleing,  and  they  do  it  to  get  a  little  money,  and  the  people  go  to 
it  out  of  kindness  to  them. 

[Aleing  or  aling,  vbl.  sb.  from  ale  (taken  as  a  vb.,  see 
Ale)  +  ing.} 

ALENTH,  adv.  n.Sc.  GAM.)  In  the  direction  of  the 
length.  In  phr.  to  come  alenth,  to  arrive  at  maturity  ;  to 
vaefar  alenth,  to  go  great  lengths  ;  to  be  far  alenth,  to  be 
!ar  advanced,  to  make  great  progress  or  improvement. 

[Alength,  at  full  length,  along,  stretched  along  the 
ground,  JOHNSON  ;  Alength,  in  longum,  COLES  (1679).  A-, 
on  +  length.} 

ALEXANDER(S,  sb.  Sc.  Cor.  Written  allsanders 
Cor.12  ;  alshinder,  elshinder  Sc.  A  plant-name  :  Smyr- 
nium  olusatrum,  or  Horse-parsley. 

Sc.  Dear  me !  there's  no  an  alshinder  I  meet,  There's  no  a  whinny 
bush  that  trips  my  leg  .  .  .  But  woos  remembrance  frae  her  dear 
retreat,  Donald  and  Flora,  82  (JAM.).  Cor.1 2 

[Alexandra,  the  herb  great  parsley,  Alexanders  or 
Alisaunders,  COTGR.  ;  Herbes  and  rootes  for  sallets  and 
sauce  :  Alexanders  at  all  times,  TUSSER  Husbandrie  (1580) 
94;  Alysaunder  herbe  or  stanmarche,  Macedonia,  Prompt. 
OE.  alexandre  (in  the  Leechdoms) ;  also  AFr.  alisaundre, 
the  horse-parsley.  Fr.  alisandre  (PALSGR.).  The  MLat. 
name  was  Petroselinum  Alexandrinum.} 

ALEXANDRA  PLOVERS,  sb.     e.An. 

e-An.1  Alexandra  Plovers,  Kentish  plovers  (Aegialitis  cantiana], 
so  called  by  Breydon  gunners,  E.  T.  BOOTH  in  Rough  Notes. 

ALGATE,  ALGATES,  ALL-GATES,  adv.  n.Cy.  Nhb. 
Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Der.  Lin.  [§'l-get,  9'1-geat,  Nhb.  9'1-giat, 
Wm.  9'giat.] 

1.  In  every  way,  by  all  means. 

N.Cy.1  Nhb.  Aa've  sowt  ford  all  gyets  (R.O.H.);  Nhb.1  Aa've 
been  up  and  doon  aallgates.  Wm.1  Augeates,  in  all  ways.  n.Yks.2 
They  tried  all  geeats  to  get  it.  Chs.1  Obs.  Der.2  Lin.  All-gates, 
all  means,  STREATFIELD  Lin.  and  Danes  (1884)  315 ;  n-Lin.1 

2.  However,  at  all  events,  at  any  rate. 

[1.  Algates,  by  any  means,  BAILEY  (1755) ;  Wyll  you 
algates  do  it?  levoulezvousfaire  tout  a  force?  PALSGR.  829; 
Algatys  or  allewey,  Omnino,  omnimodo,  penitus,  Prompt. ; 
So  that,  algates,  she  is  the  verray  rote  Of  my  disese, 
CHAUCER  M.  P.  xxn.  43.  2.  Algate,  notwithstanding,  COLES 
(1677) ;  Algates,  for  all  that,  KERSEY  ;  Algates  songes 
thus  I  made  Of  my  feling,  myn  herte  to  glade,  CHAUCER 
M.P.  in.  1171.  The  older  form  was  alegate,  i.e.  allegate, 
in  every  way ;  see  Gate.] 

ALGERINING,  sb.  Chs.  The  act  of  prowling  about 
with  an  intention  to  steal ;  robbery. 

Chs.  It  were  nobbut  that  algerining  gallows-tang,  Joe  Clarke, 
CROSTON  Enoch  Crump  (1887)  14  ;  Chs.1  He  goes  about  algerining 
and  begging  [often  said  of  a  tramp]  ;  Chs.3 

[Prob.  from  Algerine,  an  inhabitant  of  Algiers, 
greatest  commerce  of  the  Algerines  consists  in  the  mer- 




chandize  which  they  obtain  by  the  piratical  plunder  of  the 
Christians  over  the  whole  Mediterranean,  BAILEY  (1755).] 

ALIAN,  sb.    Obs.     Hrt. 

Hrt.  A  sheep  suckling  a  lamb  not  its  own,  or  a  lamb  suckled  by 
a  sheep,  not  its  dam,  ELLIS  Mod.  Hush.  (1750)  IV.  i.  115. 

[For  alien,  that  which  belongs  to  another.] 

ALICE,  sb.  Nrf.  Dev.  [ae'lis.]  In  plant-names :  (i) 
Saucy  Alice,  Polygonum  persicaria  (Nrf.  Yarmouth) ; 
(2)  Sweet  M\ce,Arabisalpina,  Alyssum  maritimum  (Dev.). 

Dev.4  Sweet  Alice,  Alyssum  maritimum.  Alyssum  or  Allison 
has  been  changed  into  (i)  Anise .  . .  and  (a)  Alice. 

[Alyssum,  botanical  Lat.  for  alysson  (PLINY),  Gr.  «Xwow, 
the  name  of  a  plant ;  Skvams,  curing  madness,  d  (prev.)  + 
\vatra  (madness)  Cp.  COLES  (1679) :  Alysson,  Alyssum, 
wild  hemp  or  madwort  ;  Alyssus,  an  Arcadian  fountain 
curing  the  biting  of  mad  dogs.] 

ALICK,  sb.  Ken.  [ae'lik.]  Smyniium  olusatntm  ; 
also  called  Alexanders,  q.v. 

Ken.  [At  Dover]  men,  women,  and  children,  sailors  and  country- 
folk, all  call  it  by  one  name — Alick. 

ALIE,  sb.  Sh.  and  Or.I.  A  pet,  a  favourite.  See 
Alie,  v. 

S.  fcOrk.1  An  alie  lamb. 
2.  Comp.  Alye-caddie.    A  pet  lamb. 

ALIE,  v.    Sh.I.    To  pet,  to  cherish. 

Sh.I.  (W.A.G.)    S.  &  Ork.1 

[Supposed  by  some  to  be  connected  with  ON.  a/a,  to 
bear,  to  nourish,  spec,  used  of  the  rearing  of  a  pet  Iamb, 
but  the  form  is  difficult  to  account  for.] 

ALIE,  adv.  Som.  Dev.  [alai-.]  In  a  recumbent  posi- 
tion, lying  flat. 

w.Som.1  The  grass  is  shockin  bad  to  cut,  tis  all  alie.  Zend  out 
and  zit  up  the  stitches,  half  o'm  be  alie  way  this  here  rough  wind. 

[A-,  on  -f-  lie,  sb.  from  lie,  vb.,to  be  in  a  horizontal  position.] 

ALISON,  see  Elsin. 

ALIST,  adv.  Obs.  Sc.  To  come  alist,  to  recover  from 
faintness  or  decay ;  used  with  regard  to  one  recovering 
from  a  swoon  (JAM.). 

Sc.  But  well's  my  heart  that  ye  are  come  alist,  Ross  Helenore 
(1768)  8. 

[Perhaps  repr.  OE.  alised  (y,  le)  freed,  let  loose,  pp.  of 

ALIVE,  adj.    Cor.    [slai'v.] 

Cor.2  When  a  mineral  lode  is  rich  in  tin,  copper,  &c.,  it  is  said 
to  be  alive,  in  contradistinction  to  deads,  q.v. 

ALK,  see  Auk. 

ALKIN,  phr.  used  attrib.  n.Sc.  Yks.  Chs.  Also 
written  allkyn,  alkyn  (JAM.)  ;  allkins  n.Yks.1  m.Yks.1 
Of  every  kind. 

Sc.  They  still  say  'aw  kin  kind  '  (JAM.).  n-Yks.1  Of  all  sorts, 
various  and  intermingled.  m.Yks.1.  Chs.13 

[ME.  alkyn.  pere  schall  bou  alkynne  solas  see  (solace 
of  every  kind),  York  Plays,  493;  Alkyn  crafty  men  (  = 
craftsmen  of  every  kind),  P.  Plowman  (B.)  vi.  70  ;  more 
commonly  alkynnes  (see  P.  Plowman,  glossary).  OE. 
ealles  cynnes,  of  every  kind,  gen.  of  eall  cynn.] 

ALKITOTLE,  sb.  n.Dev.  Also  written  alkithole 
(HOLLOWAY).  [alkittwtl.]  A  foolish  fellow. 

n.Dev.  Go,  ya  alkitotle  ?  ya  gurt  voolish  trapes  !  Exm.  Crtshp. 
(1746)1.470;  Go,  ya  alkitotle,  why  dedst tell  zo?  16.  1.577;  I  mind 
an  alkitotle  o't  Avore  a  month  had  got  a-quot,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell 
(1867)  St.  61. 

[I  am  an  oaf,  a  simple  alcatote,  an  innocent,  FORD 
Fancies  (N.E.D.).] 

ALL,  adj.  and  adv.  Van  dial.  Also  written  a'  Sc. 
[931,  91,  9,  Sc.  a.] 

1.  adv.    Entirely,  quite,  fully. 

w.Yks.2  He  fell  down  and  all  dirtied  his  brat.  Sur.1  It's  all  ten 
year  agoOj  [meaning  ten  years  and  more].  Som.  I  should  want  all 
vivepoun  toboot,RAYMONDSawa«rfSaAi'«a(i894)6o;  w.Som !Her 
gid  n  all  so  good's  he  brought.  Her  and  he  be  all  o'  one  mind  about 
\  «°T- ,  7  USed  fret)uent'y  as  an  augmentative,  as  '  all  abroad.' 

2.  With  sb.,  having  the  taste  or  smell  of. 

0W  Arif     G       This  pan  is  a"  onions-    What  is  this  bottle  all  ? 

3.  All,   not  implying  totality,  but  the  completion  of  a 
series ;  therefore  equivalent  to  last,  final. 

w.Som.1  Plaise,  sir,  all  the  coal's  a  finished — i.e.  the  last  of  it. 
Aay  shl  dig  au-1  mee  tae-udeez  tumaar'u  [I  shall  dig  all  my  pota- 
toes to-morrow — i.e.  I  shall  complete  the  digging].  This  would  be 
perfectly  intelligible,  even  if  the  speaker  had  been  digging  con- 
tinuously for  weeks  previously.  So, '  I  zeed  em  all  out '  means  not 
that  I  saw  the  whole  number  depart,  but  the  last  of  them. 

4.  All,  adj.,  followed  by  a  noun  in  the  sine. :  every. 

Sc.  Ane  couldna  hae  een  to  a'  thing,  SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  xv  ; 
I  thought  you  were  named  Robbie  A  Thing  from  the  fact  of  your 
keeping  all  kinds  of  goods,  RAMSAY  Remin.  (1859)  II.  128.  w.Sc. 
The  world  lay  besotted,  and  swalteringin  all  sorte  of  superstition, 
Blame  of Kirkburiall,  xiii.  In  Scotland  even  when  'the'  is  used,  the 
noun  that  follows  is  in  the  singular,  as  '  He  has  all  the  kin'  o'  things 
needed.'  The  English  structure  is,  however,  also  used  (JAM. 
Snppl.\  Frf.  He  was  standin'  at  the  gate,  which,  as  a'  body  kens, 
is  but  sax  steps  frae  thehoose,BARRiE  Thrums  (1889)  211,  ed.  1894. 
Ir.  Is  that  generally  believed  ? — It  is  by  a'  man  (W.J.K.). 

5.  Comp.  and  phr. 

I.  All-a-bits,  in  pieces  or  rags ;   —  about,   see   below ; 

—  abroad,  —  acock,  see   Abroad,  Acock  ;    —  afloat,  in 
disorder ;  —  ahuh,  see  Ahuh  ;  —  ains,  see  Even  ;  —  along, 
(i)  continuously  from  the  first,  (2)  at  full  length  ;  —  along 
of,  —  along  on,  see  Along  of ;   —  among,  mingled  con- 
fusedly together;    -a-muggle,  disorderly,  untidy;  — and 
some,  one  and  all ;  —  as  is,  the  whole  of  the  matter,  all  that 
remains  ;  • —  as  one,  the  same  thing ;  —  as  one  as,  just  like ; 

—  at  a  bang,  —  at  a  slap,  all  at  once  ;  —  at  home,  quite  sane ; 
-aveer,  altogether ;   -a-yock,  see  Ahuh ;  —  b'ease,  easily, 
quietly;  —  but,  (i)  except,  (2)  almost;  —  ends  and  sides, 

(1)  all  around,  in  every  direction,  (2)  unreliable,  scatter- 
brained ;  —  evers,  hyperbolical  phrase  meaning  for  a  long 
time,  for  all  occasions ;  -fare,  for  good  and  all  ;    —  fives, 
a  game  of  cards  ;  -fore ;  — for  nothing,  in  vain  ;  -heal,  —  in, 
see  below  ;  —  in  a  charm,  all  singing  or  talking  at  once  ; 
-in-all,  very  intimate  ;  —  in  a  lump  like  a  dog's  breakfast, 
an  Ir.  comparison  ;  —  in  a  muggle,  see  all-a-muggle ;  —  in 
a  piece,  stiff  with  cold  or  rheumatism  ;  -in-one,  at  the  same 
time  ;  —  intents  and  purposes,  the  best  of  one's  ability,  as 
much  as  possible  ;  -in-the-well,  a  boy's  game  ;  —  makes,  all 
kinds;  —  manner,  (i)  all  sorts,  (2)  see  below,  (3)  in  an  ex- 
traordinary way ;  —  manner  o'  gatherins,  —  manner  o'  what, 
see  below;  -manners,  all  sorts,  all  kinds  (gen.  used  dis- 
paragingly) ;  —  my  eye  and  Betty  Martin,  an  expression  of 
incredulity  ;  —  my  lone,  alone  ;  —  my  lime,  my  best  exer- 
tions ;   —  nations,  profusion ;    —  naught,  of  no  value  or 
importance;    --  of,  used  with  sb.   in  a  quasi-adjectival 
manner ;  —  of  a  hot,  suddenly,  unexpectedly  ;  —  of  a  huh, 
see  Ahuh  ;  —  of  a  kidney,  much  alike,  of  the  same  kind ; 

-  of  an  upshot,  unexpectedly ;  —  of  a  piece,  (i)  of  an 
eruption  or  sore  :  almost  entirely  covered,  (2)  stiff,  crip- 
pled by  rheumatism,  (3)  evidence  to  prop  up  a  false  story ; 

—  of  a  pop,  swampy ;  —  ofaquob,  see  below;  —  of  a  rattle, 
at  once;  — ofarow,  a  child's  game;  — ofasken,  (i)  dazed, 

(2)  oblique,  awry  ;  —  of  a  swim,  very  wet ;  —  of  a  twitter, 
trembling;  — on,  continually,  without  stopping;    —  one, 
all  the  same  ;   —  one  as,  just  like ;  —  one  for  that,  not- 
withstanding, in  spite  of;  —  on  end,  (i)  eager,  expectant, 
(2)  in  confusion;  —  on  for,  in  earnest  for;    -over,  -over- 
back,  -sales,  see  below  ;  -same,  of  no  consequence ;  —  sainf 
time,  nevertheless,  notwithstanding ;  —  serene,  quite  satis- 
factory ;  —  shirt-neck,  see  below ;  -sides,  all  together ;  -so, 
corruption  of  all-save,  except ;  —  so  be,  all  the  same, 
however ;  —  so  be  as,  although ;  —  sorts,  (i)  a  scolding, 
(2)  very  much ;  —  that,  —  to  that,  more  of  the  same  nature  ; 

—  that  ever,  barely,  only  just ;  —  that's  in  it,  merely;  —  the 
birds  in  the  air,  —  the  fishes  in  the  sea,  two  games  played 
by  children  in  Suf. ;    —  the  go,  in  the  fashion  ;  —  the  one, 
the  only  one  ;  —  there,  of  competent  understanding ;  —  the 
same  as,  like,  even  as ;  —  the  wear,  fashionable ;   -to,  see 
below ;   —  to  a  muggle,  see  -a-muggle ;   —  together  like 
Brown's  cows,  an  Ir.  comparison;  — to  naught,  (i)  quite, 
completely,  altogether,  (2)  see  below ;  —  to  nothing,  see 
all  to  naught  (i) ;   —  to  one  side  like  the  handle  of  a  jug,  an 
Ir.  comparison ;  —  to  smash,  ruined  ;  —  under  one,  at 
the  same  time  ;    —  up,  all  over,  ended  ;   —  upon  heaps, 
in  disorder ;  -ups,  —  within  itself,  see  below. 




Dur.1  All-o-bits,  broken.     n-Lin.1  He  brok  my  cheany  tea-pot  wi' 
John  Wesla'  head  on  it  all  e'  bits,  an'  then  said  a  metal  un  wo'd  do 
for  a  ohd  thing  like  me.     A  man  who  has  become  a  bankrupt  is 
said  to  have  tumbled  all  e'  bits.     Brks.1  A  carriage  badly  smashed 
by  an  accident  is  said  to  be  all  in  bits.      w.Yks.  All  about,  nearly; 
also  close  at  hand.    Ther'd  be  all  abaht  a  score  o'  fowk  at  t'funeral. 
Whear's  yahr  Jim  ? — Aw,  he's  all  abaht  [near  by],  Leeds  Men. 
Siippl.  (May  9,  1891) ;    It  wor  all  abaht  twenty  thahsand  'at  he 
failed  in  (J.R.).     War.2  All  about,  in  a  state  of  confusion.     We're 
all  about,  we've  got  the  painters  in  the  house.      All  about  it,  the 
whole  matter.     Yo'r  Joe  hot  our  Lizzie,  an'  'er  tank'd  'im  agen  wi' 
th'  broom,  an'  that's  all  about  it.       Hrf.  &  Shr.  In  the  county  of 
Hereford,  to  get  all  about  in  one's  head,  means  to  become  light- 
headed, muddled,  confused.     That's   all   about   it,   BOUND  Prov. 
(1876).     Oxf.1  MS.  add.     w.Yks.3  All  afloits  [all  afloat],  all  in  dis- 
nrder.     (i)  w.Yks.2  You  have  all  along  been  my  friend.   Stf.2  nXin.1 
Iv'e  gone  on  that  foot-trod  all  along  ony  time  this  tho'ty  year.    Th' 
Hea  runs  all-long  o'  west  side  o'  Ketton  Parish.      Lei.1  A  wur  a- 
callin'  of 'im  all  along.    Shr.1  'E's  bin  comin'  all  alung ;  Shr.2  This'ns 
all  alung.     w.Som.1  Aay  toa'uld  ee  zoa  airl  ulau-ng  [I  told  you  so 
throughout].     T-u  biin  shau-keen   saar'us  wadh-ur   au-1    ulau-ng 
[it  has  been  shocking  harvest  weather  without  change  from  the 
commencement],     (s)  s.War.  A-la-in  out  all  alon'  on  the  flur,  Why 
John  (G.H.T.).    w.Som1.  Ee  aup  wai  uz  vuys  un  aa-t-n  au'l  ulau-ng 
[he  up  with  his  fist  and  hit  him  down  flat].     Aay  eech  me  veot  un 
vaald  au'l  ulau-ng  [I  caught  my  foot  and  fell  at  full  length].     Lin.1 
All-amang-pur,  mixed  confusedly  together.      Brks.  'Hev'ee  seed 
aught  o' my  bees?'  'Ee's.Iseenem.'  '  Werbe'em  then?'  'Aalamang 
wi'  ourn  in  the  limes.'     'Aal  amang  wi'  yourn  !'    exclaimed  the 
constable,    HUGHES,   T.  Brown  Oxf.  (1861)  xxiii.      I.W.1   When 
different  flocks  of  sheep  or  herds  of  cattle  are  mixed  together,  they 
are  said  to  be  '  aal  amang  one  another.'     Wil.  Allemang,  HOLLO- 
WAY  ;   Wil.1  Zweethearts,  an  wives,  an  children  young,  Like  sheep 
at  vair,  be  ael  among,  SLOW  Smilin  Jack.    w.Som.1  In  a  muddle, 
confusion.     Uur  /mud  au-1  tiie  u  muug'l,  poo-ur  soal,  aa-dr  ee  duyd 
[she  seemed  all  to  a  muggle,  poor  soul,  after  he  died].     n-Lin.1 
All  and  some,  one  and  all.      Lei.1  Oi'll  tell  yer  missus  on  yer,  an' 
that's  all  as  is.      War.2  If  yo'  don't  like  it,  yO'  can  lump  it,  and 
that's  all  as  is.     w.Wor.1  The  pot's  purty  nigh  emp,  but  I'll  give 
'ee  ahl-as-is.      Shr.1  Now  Turn,  all  as  is  is  this ;  if  yo'  dunna  stop 
a-wham  an'  be  tidy  I  mun  lave  yo' !  so  now  yo'  knowen.    Wil.1 
Aal  as  is  as  you've  a-got  to  do  be  to  volly  on  hoein'  they  turmuts 
till  I  tells  'ee  to  stop !     e.Yks.  Pay  which  of  us  you  lik,  we're  all  as 
yan  (W.H.).      s.Stf.  It's  all  as  one  whichever  did  it,  PINNOCK  Blk. 
Cy.  Ann.  (1894) ;  Stf.2  ri.Lin.1  It's  all's  one  to  me  whether  you  paay 
me  noo  oro'  Setterda'  neet.     se.Wor.1  Thee  cunst  g66  ar  stop,  Bill ; 
it'sall  asonc.     Shr.1  It's  all  as  one  to  me.     Som.  Gen'le-volkor  poor 
volk,  'tis  all  as  one,  RAYMOND  Love  and  Quiet  Life  (1894)  194.    Ir.The 
clergy  lived  upon  the  best  footin'  among  one  another,  not  all  as  one 
as  now,  YEATS  Fit-Tales  (1888)  195.       s.Ir.  At  last  he  became  all 
as  one  as  tipsy,  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  247.       w.Yks.  T'stuff  went 
dahn   o'   t'flooar   all   at   a   bang   [or   slap],    Leeds  Merc.    Suppl. 
(May  9,  1891).      nXin.1  He's  all  at  hoame  when  ther's  oht  to  do, 
but  he  talks  straange  an'  random  when  he's  sittin'  by  th'  fireside. 
Wxf.1  Aul-aveer,  altogether.     Shr. ,  Hrf.  He's  going  along  all  b'ease, 
BOUND  Prov.  (1876).     Rdn.  All-bease,  gently,  quietly  :  put  for '  all 
by  ease,'  MORGAN  Wds.  (1881).     (i)  w.Yks.2  I've  got  'em  all  obbut 
six.     Lan.  All  dacent  folk  can  laugh,  obbut  buryin  chaps  [under- 
takers], CLEGG  TH  Derby  (1890)  36  ;   Aw  cuddent  be  moore  cum- 
furtublur  o  whome,  obut   iv  thee  un   me  wer'n  wed,  ORMEROD 
Felleyfro  Rachde  (1856)  43  ;  Lan.1 ' Aw've  finished,'  said  Dick, '  obbut 
polishin  off  wi'  summut,'  BRIERLEY  Irkdale  (1865)  244,  ed.  1868. 
(2)  Nhb.1  When  want  has  aabut  owertyen  us,  She  aaways  keeps 
maa  heart  abuin,  WILSON  Pitman's  Pay  (1843)  13.     n.Yks.2    Chs.1 
He's  awbur  done  'is  wark.     (i)  n-Lin.1  Gether  them  things  up, 
thaay're  of  all  ends  an'  sides.     (2)  She's  alus  of  all  ends  an'  sides, 
we  can  niver  fix  her  to  noht      n.Yks.  He  was  for  all  iwers  in 
finishing  it  (I.W.).     w.Yks.5  Tawak  abart  brass !  he's  brass  eniff  fur 
awalivvers!      n-Lin.1  He's  books  enif  e'  that  room  for  all-ivers. 
ne.Yks.1  He's  gone  for  all-fare.     Slang.  The  customers  are  fond  of  a 
'  hand  at  cribbage,'  a  '  cut-in  at  whist,'  or  a  'game  at  all  fours,'  or 
'  all  fives,'  MAYHEW  Land.  Labour  (1864)  I.  267.       w.Som.1  All- 
vore,  the  wide  open  or  hollow  furrow  left  between  each  patch  of 
ground,  ploughed  by  the  same  team,  at  the  spot  where  the  work  was 
begun  and  finished.    Dev.  All-vore,  a  trench  left  in  ploughing,  the 
result  of  two  furrows  lying  away  from  each  other  (opp.  to  By-vore) 
in  the  final  '  pitch.'    It  is  produced  by  '  throwing  abroad,'  Reports 
Provinc.  (1884)  32,  s.v.  Throw-abroad.     Oxf.1  Twuz  all  for  nuthin', 
MS.  add.    m.Yks.1  All-heal,  a  miner's  term  for  a  new  working. 
w.Yks.4  All  in,  the  cry  by  which  school  children   are  summoned 
from   their   playground  to   their   school   business.  .  .   .   Ringers 

still  ring  '  all  in  '  as  their  last  peal  before  the  commencement 
of  Divine  service.  n.Wil.  The  birds  was  all  in  a  charm  this 
mornin'  (E.H.G.).  Brks.1  All  in  a  charm,  a  confused  noise 
as  when  children  are  talking  and  playing  together  around  one. 
Nhp.1  All-in-all,  very  intimate.  n.Lin.1  All  in  a  piece,  stiff  with 
rheumatism,  frozen,  coagulated.  I'm  all  in  a  peace  like  a  stock- 
fish. nw.Der.1  Aw-i-one,  at  the  same  time.  s.Wor.  Farmer  J  — 
was  a  bad  mon,  he  cussed  me  to  all  intents  and  purposes,  PORSON 
Quaint  Wds.  (1875)  23.  Nhb.1  All-in-the-well.  A  circle  is  made, 
termed  the  well,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  placed  a  wooden  peg, 
with  a  button  balanced  on  the  top.  Those  desirous  of  playing 
give  buttons,  marbles,  or  anything  else,  for  the  privilege  of  throwing 
a  short  stick,  with  which  they  are  furnished,  at  the  peg.  Should 
the  button  fly  out  of  the  ring,  the  player  is  entitled  to  double  the 
stipulated  value  of  what  he  gives  for  the  stick.  The  game  is  also 
practised  at  the  Newcastle  Races,  and  other  places  of  amusement 
in  the  North,  with  three  pegs,  which  are  put  into  three  circular 
holes,  made  in  the  ground,  about  two  feet  apart,  and  forming  a 
triangle.  In  this  case  each  hole  contains  a  peg,  about  nine  inches 
long,  upon  which  are  deposited  either  a  small  knife  or  some  copper. 
The  person  playing  gives  so  much  for  each  stick,  and  gets  all  the 
articles  that  are  thrown  oft  so  as  to  fall  on  the  outside  of  the  holes 
(HALL.).  ne.Lan.1  O-i-t-well,  the  game  '  three  throws  a  penny. ' 
Nhb.1  They  he'  fornitor,  an'  crockery,  an'  byuts,  an'  shoes,  an' 
aamacks  o'  things.  Wm.  I'd  fun  ev  o'  macs,  Bayth  cooartin',  en' 
feytin'.  BLEZARD  Sngs.  (1848)  33.  w.Yks.  A  common  phrase  is 
'  all  maks  an'  manders,'  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  9, 1891) ;  'E'll  'ev 
au  maks  o'  toys  at  'cam  to  laake  wi'  (F.P.T.).  m.Yks.1  I  went  in 
to  buy  a  bonnet-shape,  and  he  showed  me  au  maks.  Chs.1  Oocon 
mak  a  dinner  o'  aw  macks ;  oo  con  mak  one  aht  o'  a  dish-clout. 

(1)  nw.Der.1  That  shopkeyper's  aw  mander  a  things  e  his  shop. 

(2)  Glo.2  He  came  and  did  all  manner  [of  insolence  or  injury]. 
Sus.1  All  manner,  undefined  goings-on  of  a  discreditable  nature. 
There's  been  a  pretty  start  up  at  the  forge  this  morning !  Fighting 
and  all  manner.     (3)  Wor.  I've  been  very  bad,  and  the  t'other  night 
a  was   a   talking   all  manner,  and   a   didn't   knaaw  what  a  was 
a   saying    (H.K.).        Nrf.   All   mander   o'   gatherins,   all   mander 
[manner]  o'  what,  omnium  gatherum  (E.M.).     Suf.  All  manner  o' 
what,  all  sorts  of  things  (C.T.) ;    All  manner  a  wot,  indiscrimi- 
nate abuse  (WRIGHT).    Brks.1  Thaay  was  a-zaayin'  all  manners  o' 
things  about  her.      I.W.1  I  zid  aal  manners  of  folks.    Dur.1  All  my 
eye  and  Betty  Martin,  a  familiar  expression  used  to  show  that,  as 
regards  some  particular  transaction,  there  has  been  some  deceit,  im- 
position, or  pretence :  it  is  thought  to  have  had  its  origin  in  the  begin- 
ning of  the  old  Romish  hymn — O  mihi  beate  Marline.       Cant.  AH 
my  eye,  All  my  eye  and  Betty  Martin.    First  used  as  a  contemptuous 
parody  on  a  popish  penitential  prayer,  Life  B.  M.  Carew  (1791). 
Slang.  As  for  black  clothes,  that's  all  my  eye  and  Tommy,  POOLE 
Hamlet  Travestied,  i.  I  (FARMER).      All  my  eye,  All  my  eye  and 
Betty  Martin,  All  my  eye  and  my  elbow,  All  my  eye  and  Tommy, 
All  nonsense,  rubbish,  FARMER.      Gall.  Oh,  Patrick,  do  not  faint 
away  again  and  leave  me  all  my  lone,  CROCKETT  Raiders  (1894)  254. 
N.I.1  All  my  lone,  A'  my  lane,  or  All  his  lone,  alone.      [Amer.  All 
of  my  lone,  a  negro  vulgarism  for  '  alone,'  FARMER.]     w.Som.1 1  can 
zee  very  well  t'll   take  me  all  my  time  vor  to  get  over  thick  job. 
w.Yks.3  There  were  all  nations  of  things  on  the  table.     All  nations 
enough,  superabundance.     w.Yks.  If  a  person  is  telling  a  tale  to 
another,  and  this  latter  knows  it  to  be  untrue,  he  would  probably 
exclaim,  '  Aw,  that's  all  nowt ! '     It  is  also  said  when  persons  use 
arguments  (in  advancing  an  opinion)  which  are  of  no,  or  little, 
weight,  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  9,  1891).       Lei.1  All  of  a  heap, 
All  of  a  dither,  All  of  a  mess,  All  of  a  puther,  All  of  a  tremble. 
Oi  wur  struck  all  of  a  heap.     Som.  A  witness  came  on  the  prisoner 
all  of  a  hot,  Spectator  (Feb.  16,  1895)  230.      w.Som.1  All  of  a  ugh. 
Jimp.  All  of  a  kidney.     Said  of  two  people  or  two  families  whose 
habits,  tempers,  or  tastes  agree  in  most  things,  '  Oh  they  are  all  of 
a  kidney,'  with  a  certain  amount  of  depreciation  and  mild  con- 
tempt (H.C.M.B.).       Cor.  All  on  a  nupshot,  unexpectedly,  in  a 
great  hurry,  THOMAS  Randigal  Rhymes  (1895)  66.       (i)  w.Yks. 
His  face  war  a  sad  seat,  it  war  all  of  a  piece  (J.R.).     n-Lin.1  Her 
legs  is  all  of  a  peace  wi'  harvist-bug  bites.     (2)  He  was  a  nim'le 
yung  man  twenty  year  sin',  but  he's  all  oi  a  peace  noo,  and  walks 
wi'  crutches.     (3)  Tha'z  no  'keyshun  to  say  no  more — it's  all  of 
a  piece  (J.R.).    Shr.1  That  theer  end  o'  the  yord's  all  of  a  pop 
wuth  las'  neet's  rain.     76.  All  of  a  quob.     This  expression,  often 
used  when  speaking  of  boggy  land,  is  sometimes  also  employed 
to  denote  that  peculiar  condition  in  the  body  of  a  calf  or  sheep 
which  has  been  struck,  i.e.  died  of  a  kind  of  apoplectic  fit,  where 
the  extravasated   blood  can  be  felt   under  the  skin  by  pressure 
of  the  hand  on  the  parts  affected.     Cor.  An'  then  she  dried  up 
all  of  a  rattle,  an'  snorted  brave,  FORFAR  Wizard  (1871)  38, 1.  7. 




Suf.Allofarow,achild'sgame(HALL.);  'Allofarow.'     Theleader 

111111.  1  II  LI  I        III  ill  Lll      L<J     LUG     i  ignij       111C11         I'l  ill  111      111      I  II  i        ICllj        til  C 11 

'All  ofa  row,'  when  the  game  ends  (F.H.).  Lan.  (i)  When  aw  got 
up  aw  wur  o'  of  a  sken,  CLEWORTH  Da/tie  Dick  (1888)  so;  (a)  All 
of  a  sken  is  applied  to  anything  awry,  whether  lit.  or  Jig.  (S.W.) 
Stf.2  It's  been  reenin'  cats  and  dogs,  an  th'  feld's  aw  ofa  swim.  Lan. 

us  an  one  wneiner  ye  oo  or  wnetner  ye  aoant.       w.som.*  wur 
aay  goo-us,  ur  wur  aay  doa-un,  t-aez  au-1  waun  tu  mee  [whether 
I  go,  or  whether  I  do  not,  it  is  just  the  same  to  me].      Ir.  Father 
Corcoran  whispered  all  one  as  a  mass . . .  into  Mrs.  Dempey's  own 
ear,  BARRINGTON  Sketches  (1830)  II.  v.       Sus.  Wearing  it  was  all 
one  as  if  you  had  your  head  in  the  stocks,  EGERTON  Flks.  and  Ways 
(1884;  131.      n.Wil.  Simmin  to  I  these  here  vlawers  be  all  one  as 
moondaisies  (E.  H.G. ).    Wil.1 1  be'tirely  blowed  up  all  one  as  a  drum. 
Glo.2  All's  one  for  that  [notwithstanding  your  objection,  the  case 
remains  the  same].    Wil.Mt  medn't  be  true  all  one  for  that.    (i)Som. 
All  on  een,  on  tiptoe,  eager,  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873) ;  w.Som.1  The  writer 
heard  in  reference  to  an  exciting  local  trial :  We  wuz  au'l  un  e'en 
tu  yuur  iie'd  u-kaa'rd  dhu  dai  [we  were  eagerly  anxious  to  hear  who 
had  carried  the  day,  i.e.  won  the  trial].     (2)  Stf.2  What  a  muck  mess 
the'st  gotten  th'  hais  into,  it's  aw  on  end.     War.2  Don't  call  to-day, 
we're  all  on  end.     Shr.1  Them  things  bin  all  on  end  agen,  I  see. 
w.Yks.  He's  all  on  for  dewin'  his  best  to  get  Ben  Tillett  inta  Parlia- 
ment this  next  time,  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  9,   1891).      Slang. 
All-over,  a  game.    The  games  appertaining  to  the  playground  con- 
sisted of  prisoners'  base,  .  .  .  all-over,  WICKHAM  Blue-Coat  Boy 
(1841)  x.    w.Yks.5  All-ower-back,  a  juvenile  game.    Suf.1  All-sales, 
all  times.       w.Som.1  Taez  au-1  sae-um  tu  mee,  aay  tuul  ee,  wuur 
yiie  du  buy  un  ur  noa  [it  is  of  no  consequence  to  me,  I  tell  you, 
whether  you  buy  it  or  not].     Aay  zaed  aay  wiid-n,  au-1  sae-um 
tuym,   neef  yiie-1   prau-mus,   &c.    [I   said   I  would  not  (do  it), 
nevertheless,  if  you  will   promise,  &c.]       w.Yks.  'All  serene,' 
said  Sammywell,  HARTLEY  Sects  (1895)  x.      Colloq.  All  serene 
all  right,  all's  well.     'You're  all  serene,  then,  Mr.  Snape,'  said 
Charley,  'you're  in  the  right  box,'  TROLLOPE  Three  Clerks  (1857) 
xlv  (FARMER).       w.Yks.  All  shirt-neck,  cutting  a  great  figure 
CUDWORTH  Horton  (1886).      I.W.1  Goo  down  to  plough,  allsides- 
I.W.2  We  be  gwyne  to  begin  dreshin  allzides  to-morrow  mornin.' 
Hrf.&  Midi.  Ail-so.  A  Herefordshire  woman  stated  in  my  hearing  that 
by 'three  months  ail-so  a  fortnight '  she  meant  'two  months  and  two 
weeks  '  N.  &  Q.  (1866)  3rd.  S.  ix.  450 ;     Hrf.1  Sixpence  also  two- 
pence [i.e.  all  but  twopence] ;  Hrf.2  That  row  o'  taturs  was  all  rotton 
ail-so  these  few.  Have  you  finished  ?— Yes,  also  that  [i.e.  all  but  that] 
Dev.  Loose  me  ...  I'm  not  in  love  with  you.     I  like  you,  all  so  be 
MORTIMER  Tales  Moors  (1895)  22;   I  wouldn't  back  myself  to  vind 
un,  all  zo  be  as  I  know  the  moor  as  well  as  here  and  there  a  one 
tb.  200 ;  '  Maybe,  you'm  better  hand  nor  me,'  said  Granfer,  testily ; 
all  zo  be  as  you  wornt  borned  afore  me,'  ib.  289      NI  i  (i)  She 
gave  me  all  sorts  for  not  doin'  it.     (2)  She  was  cryin'  all  sorts      It 
was  raining  all  sorts.      w.Ir.  Let  alone  the  two  towers,  and'  the 
bishop,  and  plmty  o'  priests,  and  all  to  that,  LOVER  Leg  (1848)  I 
91.       Cum.1  She  fand  it  varra  sweet  an'  good  an  o'  that.       Sc'. 
Can  you  lift  that  ?— It's  a'  the  teer  [that  e'er]  (  JAM.).    Sus.  Folk  do"n'1alt-sinitdis.jACKSON5o«tta.flrrf//0(i894-i  1.338  •  Sus  i 
Alltsimt  [al    that's  in  it],  merely.       nw.Der.1  AH  the  bfrds'in'he 
air,  a  Suffolk  game.      w.Yks.  Broad-brim'd  hats  is  all  fgoa  wi't 
voThVv"?  wh'  ^N-KS  W,kfld-  Wds~ (l865^     HJ'1  Is  this  »» th"  ol 

frtte  I.  S  ^  ya"  UV  hCr  mflddV'  R'CHARDSON  Sng.  Sol 

I5  I  it^  cS-  Tha  raves  an>  storms  at  sich  a  ra'e,  As  if  tha 
sZ?  V  uf  ^  ENCER  P°emS'  249!  W'Yks'2  He>s  no  a»  there 
af  vo  J  g  ?  y°u!;m°u*,Teddy.  Yer  needn't  let  everybody  know 
as  you  re  not  all  there,  PRIOR  Rente  (1895)  222  n  Lin.1  He  talk. 

Sffi<£lMfti?  hfe'S  a"  5-2S3L  ^e  wants  oht 

tion,  1522,  Almondbury  Ch. :  W  a  crown  of  thon  My  hed  all  to 
torn.       w.Som.1  Where  in  other  dialects  they  say  'all  of  or  'all 
in,'  we  say  '  all  to.'     Aay  wuz  u  streokt  airl  tiie  u  eep  [I  was 
struck  all  of  a  heap].     All  to  a  muck,  All  to  a  sweat,  All  to  a  shake, 
All  to  a  miz-maze,  All  to  a  slatter.     (i)  Myo.  Sure  the  mare  wants 
a  rist,  an'  it'll  shute  her  an'  me  all  to  nothin',  STOKER  Snake's 
Pass  (1891)  iv.      n.Yks.1  Ah  aims  yon's  t'best  stirk,  Jooan. — Ay, 
man,  it  beats  t'ither  all  to  nowght.       e.Yks.1  Ah  can  beeat  him 
all  «  nowt  at  walkin,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)     Chs.3  He's  all  to  nought 
the  best  man.       n-Lin.1  In  theage  wet  years  top-land  beats  warp 
land   all   to  noht.       (2)  n.Yks.1  All  to  nought,  a  phrase  imply, 
ing   an  approach  towards   nothingness   more   or   less   real   and 
effectual.     He  has  gone  away  all  to  nowght,  he  has  wasted  away 
to  a  mere  shadow  ;   n.Yks.2  An  all-to-naught  concern,  a  hollow 
speculation.       w.Yks.  All  to  nowt,  with   no  definite  aim  or  re- 
sult (J.T.).     [It  will  be  all  to  one  a  better  match  for  your  sister, 
AUSTEN  Sense  and  Sensibility,  xxx.]     N.I.1  All  to  one  side  like  the 
handle  of  a  jug.     Lan.  Maister,  maister,  dam's  brossen  and  aw's  to 
smash  (HALL.).    Brks.1  All  to  smash,  totally  wrecked.    w-Som^Au-l 
tiiesmaa-rsh.     [Amer.  All-to-smash.   This  expression  is  often  heard 
in  lowandfamiliarlanguage, BARTLETT.]    w.Som^Tidnworthwhile 
to  go  o'  purpose  vor  that  there — hon  I  comes  up  about  the  plump, 
can  do  it  all  underone.     n-Lin.1  It's  all  up  wi'  them  fine  fine-weather 
farmers  that  keaps  the'r  carriages.     Quite  well  at  ten,  Had  a  few 
friends  to  sup  with  me  ;  Taken  ill  at  twelve,  And  at  one  it  was  all 
up  with  me,  Perversion  (1856)  II.  38.      Oxf.1  'Tis  all  up  wi'n  this 
time  safe  enough.     Slang.  A-double  1,  all,  everything,  a  cobbler's 
weapon  ;  u-p,  up,  adjective,  not  down ;  S-q-u -double  e-r-s,  Squeers, 
noun  substantive,  a  educator  of  youth.     Total,  all  up  with  Squeers, 
DICKENS  N.  Nickleby  (1838)  Ix ;    It's  all  up,  thinks  I,  Raby  Rattler 
(1845)  v.      e.Yks.1  All  uppa  heeaps  [all  upon  heaps],  in  a  state  of 
disorder;  used  in  reference  to  the  furniture  of  a  house,  &c.,  MS. 
add.  (T.H.)     [All-ups,  a  mixture  of  all  qualities  of  coal,  excepting 
fine  stack  raised  from  one  seam  (CD.).]     Sc.  A  lodging  all  within 
itself,  with  divers  easements  [a  house,  from  top  to  bottom,  and 
having  several  conveniences],  Monthly  Mag.  (1798)  II.  436. 
Phr.  II.  For  all,  in  spite  of,  notwithstanding;  for  all  the 
world,  exactly,  precisely ;  for  good  and  all,  for  ever,  alto- 
gether ;  like  all  that,  very  well,  very  quickly. 
^  Ayr.  The  rank  is  but  the  guinea  stamp,  The  man's  the  gowd  for 
a'  that,  BURNS  Fora'  that  (1795)  st.  i.     w.Yks.  O  waint  say  there 
wornt  some  stooans  shifted  for  all  that,  Shevvild  Ami.  (1848)  7 ; 
w.Yks.1  I'll  doot  for  all  ye.     e.Yks.1  Ah  wadn't  gan,  for  all  maisther 
said  Ah  was,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)     Lei.1  Fur  all  a's  a  paa'son,  adoon't 
justly  knoo  'aow  to  tackle  an  o'd  wench  loike  may  [me].    She  would 
for  all  anything  go  for  a  little  walk.       Nhp.1  I'll  do  it  for  all  you. 
Oxf.1  For  all  thee,  in  spite  of  you.     w.Som.1  Her's  a-got  about 
again  nice,  thankee,  and  her's  a-go  to  work  again,  for  all  twadn 
but  dree  weeks  agone  come  Vriday,  the  cheel  was  a-bornd.     Vur 
au-1  yiie  bee  su  kliivur,  yiie  kaa-n  kau-m  ut  [notwithstanding  that 
you  are  so  clever,  you  cannot  accomplish  it].     Aa-y  du  yuur  waut 
yiie  du  zai,  bud  vur  au-1  dhaat,  aay  ziim  t-oa-n  due  [I  hear  what 
you  say,  but  nevertheless,  I  seem  (am  convinced)  it  will  not  do]. 
s.Ir.  It  came  on  ...  mighty  dark  all  of  a  sudden,  for  all  the  world 
as  if  the  sun  had  tumbled  down  plump,  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  285. 
Ir.  Shut  of  them  I'll  be  for  good  and  all,  BARLOW  Lisconnel  (1895) 
205.     w.Yks.1  He's  gaan  for  good  and  all.     Hnt.  For  good  and  all 
(T.P.F.).     w.Som.1  Ees,  shoa-ur!    uur-v  laf-m  naew  vur  geod-n 
au-1  [Yes,  sure !  she  has  left  him  now  for  ever].       n.Lin.1  To  do 
anything  '  like  all  that '  is  to  do  it  very  well  or  very  quickly. 

[1.  It  is  all  full  of  lies  and  robbery,  BIBLE  Nahum  iii. 
i  ;  This  gallant  Hotspur,  this  all-praised  knight,  SHAKS. 
i  Hen.  IV,  in.  ii.  140.  2.  Like  Niobe,  all  tears,  ib.  Ham. 

Dt'-/1*9'  4'  Do  a11  tnvnSe  without murmurynge, TINDALE 
Phil.  n.  14  ;  Vndire  his  lordship  and  his  myght  thou  has 
kasten  all  thynge,  HAMPOLE  Ps.  viii.  7.] 

ALLAGRUGOUS,  see  Malagrugous. 

ALLAGUST,  sb.     Obs.    Sc.    Suspicion. 

Abd.  Fan  they  saw  us  a' in  a  bourich  they  had  some  allagust 
that  some  mishanter  had  befaln  us,  FORBES  Int.  (1742")  16  ;  GROSE 
(1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) 

[Prob.  due  to  a  phr.  in  i6th  cent.  Fr.  Cela  a  le  goust 
(mod.  gout),  that  has  the  smack,  the  taste,  the  'soupfon.' 
Goust,  the  taste ;  also  a  smack  or  savour.  Gouster,  to 
taste,  also  to  have  some  experience,  a  little  insight,  mean 
knowledge  in,  COTGR.] 

ALLAMOTTI,  sb.    Or.I.    Also  written  alamonti ;  ala- 
mott!  S.  &  Ork.1    The  Storm  Petrel,  Procellaria  pelaeica. 
Or.I.  SWAINSON  Birds  (1885)  an.     S.  &  Ork  i 



ALLAN,  sb.     Cum.    [a'lsn.] 

Cum.1  A  bit  of  land  nearly  surrounded  by  water ;  an  island. 
ALL-ANERLY,  adj.  and  adv.     Also  written  alanerlie, 
allanerlie,  allenarly,  allenarlie. 

1.  adj.  used  as  sb.    Only,  sole. 

Sc.  My  doo,  my  unfylet  ane  is  but  ane,  she  is  the  all-anerlie  o' 
her  mither,  ROESON  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  vi.  9. 

2.  adv.    Only,  solely. 

Sc.  Who  are  accustomed  to  pay  to  their  own  chiefs,  allenarly, 
that  respect,  SCOTT  Leg.  Mont.  (1830)  iii.  Edb.  Scotland  ...  is 
not  like  Goshen  in  Egypt,  on  whilk  the  sun  of  the  heavens  and  of 
the  gospel  shineth  allenarly,  SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  xxxviii. 

[1.  James  our  second  and  allanerlie  son,  HOLINSHED  Scot. 
Chron.  (1587)  II.  51,  ed.  1806  (N.E.D.).  2.  That  the  licence 
granted  to  beneficed  persons  to  sett  tacks  be  restrained 
either  to  life  rent  tack  or  to  a  nineteen  yeare  tack  allanerlie, 
Row  Hist.  Kirk  Scot.  (1650)  218,  Wodrow  Soc.  AII+ 
anerly,  q.v.] 

ALLAN  HAWK,  sb.  Or.  and  Sh.I.  Sc.  Irel.  Also 
written  holland  hawk  Ayr.  N.I.1 ;  oilan  auk  Ant. 

1.  The  Great  Northern  Diver,  Colymbus  glacialis. 

Ayr.  SWAINSON Birds  ( 1885)  213.  N.I.1  Ant.  Oilan  auk.  Allan 
or  Holland  hawk  is  used  by  those  who  are  ignorant  (S.A.B.). 

2.  The  Red-throated  Diver,  Colymbus  septentrionalis. 

3.  Richardson's     Skua,    Stercorarius    crepidatus.      See 

e.Sc.  Allan  hawk,  the  aulin,  so  called  on  the  shores  of  the 
Solway  Frith  (JAM.  Sufpl.).  N.I.1  The  skua  was  called  allan-hawk 
in  Mourne,  co.  Down. 

ALLAVOLIE,  ALLEVOLIE,  adv.  and  adj.    Sc.  QAM.) 

1.  adv.    At  random. 

Sc.  I  spoke  it  quite  allevolie. 

2.  adj.    Giddy,  volatile. 

Sc.  An  alle-volie  chield,  a  volatile  fellow. 

[Repr.  the  Fr.  phr.  a  la  voile,  in  full  sail.  Cp.  COTGR. 
(s.v.  Voile),  Navire friand  a  la  voile,  an  excellent  sailer.] 

ALLECAMPAGNE,  see  Elecampane. 

ALLEE-COUCHEE,  phr.  Cor.  Also  written  alley- 
couchey.  [ae'li-kufl.]  To  go  to  bed. 

Cor.  Look  ere,  I'm  a-goin'  to  allee-couchee  ef  et  lasts  like  this, 
'  Q.'  Troy  Town  (1888)  v  ;  About  ten,  as  we  was  thinkin'  to  alley- 
couchey,  there  comes  a  bangin'  on  the  door,  ib.  Noughts  and 
Crosses  (1891)  211  ;  Cor.1 

[Fr.  aller  (se)  coucher,  to  go  to  bed.] 

ALLEGATE,  v.     Irel.    [a'liget]    To  argue,  dispute. 

Ir.  They'll  bicker  and  allegate  about  every  hand's  turn,  BARLOW 
Idylls  (1892)  180. 

[Why,  belike  he  is  some  runagate,  that  will  not  show 
his  name.  Ah,  why  should  I  thus  allegate?  he  is  of 
noble  fame,  PEELE  (1599)  III.  68,  ed.  1829.  A  by-form  of 
allege,  to  -adduce,  to  bring  forward,  formed  from  the  ppl. 
stem  of  Lat.  allegare.] 

ALLEGATION,  sb.    Ldd.    A  dispute,  quarrel. 

Ldd.  The  country  people  would  say '  No  more  of  your  alligations' 

ALLEGOGER,  vb.    Ess. 

Ess.  Allegoger,  to  go  out  to  a  ship  to  sell  provisions,  Ess.  Arch. 
Soc.  (1863)  II.  183.  [Failed  to  obtain  further  information  about 
the  word.  ] 

ALLEKAY,  sb.  Sc.  ?  Obs.  Also  written  allakey, 
allekay,  alikay.  The  bridegroom's  man,  he  who  attends 
on  the  bridegroom,  or  is  employed  as  his  precursor,  at  a 
wedding  (JAM.). 

Sc.  The  bridegroom  appoints  two  male  attendants,  termed  ex  qfficio 
allekeys,  Edb.  Mag.  (Nov.  1818)  412  GAM.)  ;  On  Friday  next  a  bridal 
stands  At  the  kirktown  :  I  trow  we'll  hae  a  merry  day,  And  I'm  to 
be  the  alikay,  The  Farmer's  Ha.,  st.  51,  53  (JAM.).  Frf. 

[Prob.  the  same  word  as  OFr.  alacay,  a  term  applied  to 
crossbow-men  in  the  isth  cent.  See  DUCANGE  (s.  v. 
Lacinones).  Hence  Fr.  laquais,  a  valet,  a  body-servant,  a 
lacquey.  See  LITTRE  (s.v.).] 

ALLELUIA,  or  ALLELUIA  PLANT,  sb.  [aelilu'ya.] 
(i)  Genista  iinctoria  (Shr.) ;  (2)  Oxalis  acetosella  (Dor.). 

Shr.1  Alleluia,  Genista  tinctoria,  dyer's  green-wood.    Dor.  Wood- 
sorrel  at  Whitchurch  is   Alleluia  Plant,  Samm  Dioc.  Gas.  (Jan. 
1891)  I4;(G.E.D.). 
VOL.  I. 

[Allelujah,  the  herb  wood-sorrel,  or  French  sorrel, 
BAILEY  (1755) ;  Allelujah,  wood-sorrel,  Oxys,  COLES  (1679). 
Fr.  alleluia,  plante  de  lafamille  des  Oxalide'es,  qui  fleurit  au 
temps  pascal,  HATZFELD.  The  plant  was  so  called  because 
it  blossoms  between  Easter  and  Whitsuntide,  when  in 
the  Catholic  Liturgy  psalms  ending  with  'alleluia'  were 
sung  in  the  churches.  The  plant  bears  the  same  name 
in  G.  (SANDERS),  Fr.  (LITTRE),  It.  (FLORIO),  Sp.  aleluya 
(BARCIA).  From  MLat.  alleluia,  the  'Hallelujah'  season. 
Heb.  hallelu-jah,  i.e.  praise  ye  Jah  (or  Jehovah).] 

ALLEMAND,  v.  Obs.  Ayr.  To  conduct  in  a  formal 
and  courtly  style. 

Ayr.  He  presented  her  his  hand  and  allemanded  her  along  in 
a  manner  that  should  not  have  been  seen  in  any  street  out  of 
a  king's  court,  GALT  Annals  (1821)  308. 

[A  vb.  formed  from  Allemande,  a  name  given  to  various 
German  dances.  These  outlandish  heathen  allemandes, 
SHERIDAN  Rivals,  in.  iv.  130.  Fr.  allemande,  (i)  Air  lent 
a  quatre  temps,  (2)  Danse  a  deux  temps  d"un  mouvetnent  vif 
(HATZFELD).  Allemand,  a  native  of  Germany ;  Lat.  Ala- 

ALLEMASH-DAY,  sb.     Obs.    Ken.    See  below. 

Ken.1  Allemash-day,  the  day  on  which  Canterbury  silk-weavers 
began  to  work  by  candlelight.  This  word  is  certainly  obsolete 
now  [1895]  (P.M.);  GROSE  (1790). 

[GROSE  (1790)  suggests  that  allemash  repr.  Fr.  allumage, 
a  lighting ;  from  allumer,  to  light,  set  on  fire.] 

ALLEN,  see  Old-land. 

ALLER,  ALLER-TREE,  sb.1  Widely  diffused  through- 
out the  dialects.  Also  written  ellar  Cum.1 ;  eller  s.Sc.  HAM.) 
N.Cy.1  Nhb.1  Dur.1  n.Yks.18  ne.Yks.1  w.Yks.15  n.Lan.1 
ne.Lan.1  Sus.1;  owler  w.Yks.12345  ne.Lan.1  e.Lan^Chs.12 
s.Chs.1  Der.2  nw.Der.1  n.Lin.1  Shr.1  Hrf.1 ;  owlder  w.Yks.2  ; 
oiler  Nhb.1  Wor. ;  ollern  Shr.1;  olerChs.1  [e-la(r),  o'la(r).] 

1.  The  alder,  Alnus  glutinosa. 

Bwk.  He  used  no  coals,  but  a  few  green  allers,  HENDERSON  Pop. 
Rhymes  (1856)  8.  N.Cy.1  Aller,  the  alder-tree.  Nhb.  Beneath  the 
allers,  darktin',  Coquet  Dale Sngs.  (1852)  120;  Nhb.1  w.Yks.  Yon's 
an  owler-tree,  doon  by  t'beck  (F.P.T.).  Lan.  Th'  poke  wur  .  . . 
i'th'  tip  top  un  o'  hee  owler-tree,  BUTTERWORTH  Sequel  (1819)  13 ; 
My  foot  is  on  my  native  heath  once  more,  barring  that  there  are 
two  inches  of  solid  owler  intervening  betwixt  the  two,  BRIERLEY 
Marlocks  (1867)  6;  There  is  an  old  rhyme  which  mentions 
peculiar  boughs  for  various  tempers,  as  an  owler  [alder]  for  a 
scolder,  HARLAND  &  WILKINSON  Flk-Lore  (1867)  238  ;  Aw  could 
mak  one  eawt  of  a  lump  o'  owler  any  day,  BRIERLEY  Irkdalc 
(1865)  xiii.  Chs.  As  dreesome  as  Bostock's  drumbo  that  th'  owlers, 
meetin'  across,  made  dark  at  noonday,  CROSTON  Enoch  Crump 
(1887)  12  ;  Chs.1  Der.  Roland  . . .  clutched  at  a  friendly  oler-tree, 
VERNEY  Stone  Edge  (i868~>  v.  Shr.1  There  is  a  place  near  Wem 
called  '  The  Owlers.'  Dor.1  By  black  rin'd  allers  An'  weedy  shallers, 
140.  w.Som.1,  Dev.1,  nw.Dev.1 

2.  The  soles  of  clogs ;  so  called  from  being  made  of  alder- 

Nhb.1  He  has  on  a  pair  o'  new  allers.  Lan.  I'd  some'at  to  do  to 
bant  him,  but  I  leet  him  taste  o'  mi  owler,  now  and  then,  WAUGH 
Chim.  Corner,  Manch.  Critic  (Aug.  14,  1874) ;  Lan.1  Owler  [is]  used 
metaphorically  as  a  synonym  for  clogs.  He  up  wi'  his  foot  an'  gan 
him  some  owler,  i.e.  kicked  him. 

3.  Comp.  (a)   Black-aller,  (i)  the  buckthorn,  Rhamnus 
frangula,  (2)  the  alder,  Alnus  glutinosa ;    Whit-aller,  the 
common  elder,  Sambucus  nigra. 

(i)  I.W.  Black-alder,  a  translation  of  the  old  Lat.  name,^/««s  nigra. 
w.Som.1  Black-aller.  Often  so  called  to  distinguish  it  from  the 
whit-aller  or  elder.  nw.Dev.1  Cor.  Black-aller,  Rhamnus  frangula 
(berry-bearing  alder).  (2)  w-Som.1  The  common  alder  is  occa- 
sionally called  the  Black-aller.  Whit-aller,  the  elder. 

(b)  (i)  Aller-bed,  see  below ;  (2)  -bur,  a  knot  or  knob 
in  the  alder-tree ;  (3)  -bury,  see  below ;  (4)  -float,  a  kind 
of  trout ;  (5)  -grove,  (6)  -trout,  see  below. 

(i)  nw.Dev.1  Aller-bed,    a   marshy  place  where  alders   grow. 

(2)  Nhb.1  Aller-burs,  or  knots,  the  turner  makes  into  snuff-boxes. 

(3)  Dev.  Aller-bury,  a  plantation  of  alders,  Monthly  Mag.  (1808) 
II.  421.     (4)  N.Cy.1  Aller-float,  species  of  trout  frequenting  deep 
holes  of  shady  brooks  under  the  roots  of  the  aller.     (5)  w.Som.1 
Aller-grove,  a  marshy  place  where  alders  grow  ;  an  alder  thicket. 
The  term  always  implies  marsh,  or  wet  land.      '  U  rig'lur  aulur 
groav'  would  mean  a  place  too  boggy  to  ride  through.     (6)  Nhb.1 




Aller-troot,  the  small  brandling  trout  or '  skegger,'  called  from  their 
habit  of  haunting  the  roots  of  alder-trees  that  grow  by  the  side  of 
the  stream.  OLIVER  Fly-Fishing  (1834)  17. 

[The  alter,  oiler,  owler  forms  repr.  OE.  alor,  the  alder. 
Ellar  (eller)  repr.  ON.  6'lr  (elri-) ;  cp.  OHG.  elira,  erila 
(mod.  eller,  erle).  Aulne,  an  aller  or  alder-tree,  COTGR.  ; 
Judas  he  iaped  with  luwen  siluer  And  sithen  on  an  eller 
honged  hym  after,  P.  Plowman  (B.)  i.  68.] 

ALLER,  sb.2  Dev.  [o'la(r).]  A  boil,  carbuncle, 

Dev.  Aller,  a  pin-swill,  a  whitloe,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) 
n.Dev.  Suke  died  .  .  .  A-cause  her  aller  wanted  letting,  ROCK  Jim 
an'  Nell  (1867)  31.  Dev.1  Aller,  an  acute  kind  of  boil  or  carbuncle, 
so  called  from  the  leaves  of  the  aller  being  employed  as  a  remedy. 

[Etym.  unknown ;  but  see  word  below.] 

ALLERNBATCH,  sb.  Som.  Dev.  jWlanbEetf.]  A 
boil,  a  botch  or  old  sore. 

w.Som.1  Allernbatch,  a  boil  or  carbuncle.  Pinswill  is  the  com- 
moner term.  n.Dev.  Dame,  'e've  a-tiched  a  allernbatch,  ROCK  Jim 
an'  Nell  (1867)  23 ;  Ner  the  allernbatch  that  tha  had'st  in  thy 
niddick,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  24  ;  Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  421 ; 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (M.)  Dev.1,  nw.Dev.1 

[The  relation  between  this  word  and  aller  (a  boil)  is  un- 
certain. It  may  be  a  comp.  of  aller,  or  aller  may  be  a 
shortened  form  of  allern-batch,  with  latter  element  sup- 

ALLEY,  s*.1  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Der.  Lin.  Lei. 
Nhp.  War.  Shr.  Ess.  Ken.  Som.  Dev.  [a'li,  ae'li.] 

1.  The  aisle  of  a  church. 

Cum.  Oh  how  my  heart  would  lowp  for  joy  To  lead  her  up  the 
ally,  RELPH  Misc.  Poems  (1747)  76.  Wm.  When  she  . . .  woked  up 
t'ally,  first  yan,  an  then  anudther  glooard  at  her,  CLARKE  Spec.  Dial. 
(ed.  1877)  Pl-  i-  J9-  w.Yks.1  Wid  getten  hauf  way  daan  t'middle 
alley,  when  Billy  turned  back,  TOM  TREDDLEHOYLE  Bairnsla  Ann. 
(1853)  35.  ne.Lan.1  nXin.1  A  woman  from  Kirton-in-Lindsey  in- 
formed the  author  that  she  never  heard  the  passages  between  the 
pews  in  churches  called  anything  but  alleys,  until  the  Puseyites 
began  to  make  people  particular  about  'them  soort  of  things.' 
The  north  aisle  of  the  choir  of  Lincoln  Minster  was  formerly  called 
the  chanters'  alley.  Lei.1  Alley,  a  gangway  in  a  church.  The 
various  alleys  are  distinguished  as  'side-alley,'  'middle  alley,' 
'cross-alley,'  &c.  Nhp.1  War.3  Work  about  y»  door  &  alles, 
SI.  155.  $d.,  Aston  Ch.  Ace.  (1714).  Som.  We  poor  voke  be  alwiz 
foc'd  to  zit  in  the  alley,  PULMAN  Sketches  (1842)  76,  ed.  1871  ; 
w.Som.1  Miss  F.  said  her  seat  [in  church]  was  on  the  left  side  of 
the  middle  alley.  Dev.  1713  pd  for  stones  to  mend  y°  allier  is., 
E.  Budleigh  Chwdn.  Ace.  (T.N.B.) 

2.  A  pathway  down  the  middle  of  a  large  room  (as  in  a 
factory  between  the  rows  of  machines). 

w.Yks.  A  passage  past  the  ends  of  looms  in  a  weaving-shed  is 
known  as  '  t'broad  alley '  (J.R.) ;  Alley,  a  central  or  main  roadway 
in  a  room,  usually  down  the  middle  of  it  (F.R.). 

3.  A    pathway    in  a  garden   between    flower-beds,  or 
between  the  rows  of  hop-bines  in  a  Kentish  hop-garden. 

Shr.1  Yo'  can  play  i'  the  gardin  if  yo'n  mind  to  keep  on  the  alley, 
cause  yore  faither's  dug  the  ground.  Ess.  Sawe  dust  spred  thick 
makes  alley  trick  [neat,  tidy],  TUSSER  Husbandrie  (1580)  33,  st.  35. 
Ken.  (i)  The  space  between  two  rows  of  hop-hills.  (2)  By  associa- 
tion of  ideas,  also  a  row  of  hop-hills,  e.g.  the  Lew-alley  is  the 
outside  row  planted  rather  closer  together  to  serve  as  a  '  lew '  to 
the  garden  (P.M.). 

Hence  Alley-budge,  -wagon. 

Ken.  Alley-budge,  or  Alley-wagon,  a  kind  of  barrow  on  four 
wheels  for  conveying  and  distributing  manure  into  a  hop  garden, 
constructed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  pass  up  the  alleys  between  the 
hills,  when  the  bines  are  grown  (P.M.). 

4.  See  below. 

,,C'?s'';.The  gangway  between  two  rows  of  cows,  which  in  very 
old-fashioned  shippons  stand  tail  to  tail.    War.  (J  R  W  ) 

5.  Fig.    A  way,  means,  device. 

Der.  Polks  knows  as  thou'lt  be  for  t'parish,  and  t'poor  folk,  and 
none  o  these  crooked  alleys  for  raisin'  t'wind,  so  thee  go  in,  Wkly. 
feleg.  (Dec.  22,  1894)  12,  col.  i 

.It*  Tretheadu  anu  timbers  of  §reat  Part  °f  the  north 
Y I  f  m  £hr^ch  Was  broke  'n'  pM-  T™™.  (1731) 

XLI  229  (N.E.D.).  3.  An  alley  in  a  garden,  HybetKra 
subduhs,  ambulatio  COLES  (1679);  Thlse  dosVr  alleys 
must  be  ever  finely  gravelled/ BACON  Essay  (Garden) 

I  am  the  flour  of  the  feeld  and  the  lilie  of  aleyes,  WYCLIK 
Sng.  Sol.  (1382)  ii.  i.  5.  The  same  fig.  sense  is  found 
in  Fr. :  Apres  bien  ties  alle'es  et  des  venues  on  est  tombe 
d'accord,  HATZFELD.  Fr.  alle'e,  a  passage,  ppl.  sb.  of  aller, 
to  go.] 

ALLEY,  sb.2  n.Cy.  Dur.  Wm.  Yks.  Nhp.  [a'li.]  A 
limit  or  '  ring '  in  games  (see  below) ;  the  line  marking  the 
goal  in  a  game  of  football ;  the  conclusion  of  the  game 
itself  when  the  ball  has  passed  the  boundary. 

N.Cy.1  Alley,  end  of  a  game  at  football.  Dur.1  At  the  end  of  the 
game  of  football,  shinny,  &c. ,  the  ball  must  pass  a  certain  line  or 
mark,  which  is  called  the  alley.  Wm.1  The  circle  marked  on  the 
ground  in  games  of  marbles  is  called  an  alley ;  so  also,  in  burn-ball, 
the  circle  or  space  in  which  the  '  pitcher '  stands.  Put  thi  marbles 
in  t'  t'alley.  w.Yks.1  Nhp.1  The  space  between  the  two  stones 
which  mark  the  goal  in  the  game  of  football. 

Comp.  Alley-mouth. 

Lan.iElly-mouth,  a  bound  orgoal  in  thegame  of  football.    ne.Lan.1 

[A  special  meaning  of  Alley,  sb.1] 

ALLEY,  sb.3    Cor.    [ae'li.]    Local  name  for  the  Alii 
shad,  Alosa  vulgaris. 

Cor.1  Alley,  theallis-shad ;  from  its  bony  nature  sometimes  locally 
called  chuck-childern  ;  Cor.2 

[A  form  of  allice  (or  allis),  also  allowes.  Fr.  alose,  Lat. 
alausa,  a  kind  offish,  the  same  as  Clupea.] 

ALL-FIRED,  adj.  and  adv.     Brks.  Amer. 

1.  adj.  Enormous,  excessive. 

[Amer.  A  low  expression  ;  probably  a  puritanical  corruption  of 
hell-fired,  designed  to  have  the  virtue  of  an  oath  without  offending 
polite  ears.  The  doctor  will  charge  an  all-fired  price  to  cure  me, 
BARTLETT.]  Colloq.  '  Look  at  that  'ere  Dives,'  they  say, '  what  an 
all-fired  scrape  he  got  into  by  his  avarice  with  Lazarus,'  HALIBURTON 
Clockmaker  (1835)  ist  S.  xxiv  ;  You've  been  an  all-fired  time  .  .  . 
in  selling  those  jars,  PAYN  Thicker  than  Water(iS&^)  xvii  (FARMER). 

2.  adv.   Exceedingly,  intensely. 

Brks.  '  I  be  so  all-fired  jealous  I  can't  abear  to  hear  o'  her  talkin' 
to —  ' ...  To  me,  you  were  going  to  say,'  HUGHES  T.  Brown  Oxf. 
(1861)  xl. 

Hence  All-flredly,  adv.    Enormously. 

Amer.  Rum  does  everything  that  is  bad  ;  wonder  if  it  is  rum 
that  makes  potatoes  rot  so  all-firedly,  BARTLETT. 

ALL-GOOD,  sb.  Hmp.  [§'l-gud.]  Plant-name  for 
Chenopodium  Bonus- Henricus. 


[All-good,  herb  Mercury,  Good  Henry,  COLES  (1677) ; 
Algood  groweth  .  . .  about  waves,  and  pathes,  and  by 
hedges,  LYTE  Dodoens,  560 ;  Bon-Henry,  the  herb,  Good 
Henry,  Good  King  Harry,  and  All-good,  COTGR.] 

ALL-HALLOW(S,  sb.  Cum.  Lan.  War.  Shr.  Hrt.  Hmp. 
Also  written  Alhalon,  Alhollan,  All-hollan,  All-hollands. 
[9'1-alaz,  5'1-alan.] 

1.  All  Saints.    The  festival  of  All  Saints. 
ne-Lan.1  All  Saints'  day  (Nov.  i).     War.  (J.R.W.) 

2.  In  comp.  (i)  -cakes,  a  special  kind  of  cake  made  at 
All-hallowtide ;    (2)  -day,  All   Saints'   day,  the  first  of 
November  ;  (3)  -eve,  the  eve  of  All  Saints,  see  Hallow- 
e'en ;  (4)  -tide,  the  season  of  the  festival  of  All  Saints. 

(i)  s.Hmp.  In  some  places  plum  cakes  are  made  on  this  day, 
and  for  some  weeks  afterwards,  which  are  called  All-holland 
cakes,  HOLLOWAY.  Hmp.1  All-holland  cakes,  cakes  cried  about 
on  All  Saints'  day.  (2)  Hrt.  Allhollandy,  ELLIS  Mod.  Hush.  (1750) 
VI.  ii.  40.  Hmp.  All-hollands'  day,  HOLLOWAY.  (3)  Cum.  Aw- 
hallow-even,  All  Saints'  eve,  Gl.  (1851).  (4)  Shr.1  Alhalontid, 
obs.  Hrt.  All-hallows-tide,  ELLIS  Mod.  Husb.  (1750)  VI.  ii.  40. 

[All-hallow,  -s,  repr.  All  +  hallow  (later  hallows),  prop._pl. 
forms  of  an  adj.  ME.  halwe,  OE.  halga,  wk.  form  ofhalig 
(whence  holy),  (a)  The  OE.  pi.  hctigan  passed  througji 
the  forms_halwen,  halowen,  halowe,  halowes.  (b)  The  OE. 
gen.  pi.  halgena  (with  dceg,  fid)  became  halwene,  hallowen, 
hallown,  hallon,  holland.  1.  (a)  All-hallowtide,  the  term 
near  All-Saints,  BAILEY  (1755) ;  Toussaincts(la  Toussaincts) ; 
All- Saints  day,  All-hallow  day,  COTGR.  ;  Betwixt  Alhallow- 
tide  and  Christmas,  MASCALL  Plant.  16.  2.  (a)  Displeasant 
to  god  and  to  all  hallowes,  MORE  Heresyes,  II.  196  (N.E.D.). 
(b)  Alhollantide,  the  first  day  of  November,  BAILEY  (1721) ; 
Lincoln  is  kept  in  close  imprisonment  from  All-hollantidc 
till  the  end  of  Christmas,  HACKET  Life  of  Williams,  II.  131 



[43  1 


(DAV.I;  Farewell,  All-hallown  summer!  SHAKS.  i  Hen. 
IV,  i.  ii.  178 ;  Alhalowen  tyde,  la  tous  sainctz,  PALSGR.  ; 
Of  j>at  tyme  for  to  an-oj>er  tyme  of  halowene,  Eng.  Gilds, 

ALL-HEAL,  sb.  [6'1-ial,  9'1-il.]  (i)  Pnmella  vitlgaris 
(n.Yks.  w.Chs.);  (2)  1/iscum  album  (Sc.).  So  called  from 
their  supposed  medicinal  value. 

Chs.1.  Chs.2  Pi-mulla  viilgaris  has  several  provincial  names  re- 
ferring to  its  real  or  supposed  healing  qualities. 

[(i)  Priint'lla,  the  herb  Self-heal,  COLES  (1679) ;  Oing- 
tereule,  Self-heal,  Hook-heal,  Sicklewort,  Brunei,  Prunel, 
Carpenters  herb,  COTGR.  (2)  They  call  it  (Mistletoe) 
in  their  language  All-heale,  HOLLAND  Pliny,  I.  497. 
Also  in  the  Herbals  as  follows :— All-heal,  or  Clown's 
All-heal,  Panax  coloni,  HILL  Herbal  (1812) ;  All-heal, 
Panax,  JOHNSON  ;  All-heal,  Panax,  COLES  (1679)  ;  Clownes 
Woundwoort,  or  Alheale,  GERARD  Herbal,  851.] 

ALLICA,  see  Alegar. 

ALLICOMGREENYIE,  sb.  Gall.  A  game  played  by 
girls  at  country  schools,  similar  to  '  Drop-handkerchief* 
in  England. 

Gall.  They  form  into  a  circle  ;  one  goes  round  on  the  outside 
with  a  cap,  saying — '  I  got  a  letter  from  my  love,  And  by  the  way 
I  drop'd  it,  I  drop'd  it.'  She  drops  the  cap  behind  one  of  the 
party,  who  runs  out  and  in  and  across  the  circle  as  quickly  as 
possible.  If  the  follower  breaks  the  course,  she  fails.  Then  the 
one  caught,  or  the  one  who  fails,  stands  in  the  circle,  and  the  other 
goes  round  as  before  (JAM.  Suf>pl.~}. 

ALLICOMPAIN,  see  Elecampane. 

ALLIGATOR'S  BACK,  sb.  Glo.  Som.  A  serrated 
ridge  of  tiles. 

Glo.,  Som.  The  house  is  built  with  a  roof  sloping  two  ways, 
and  surmounted  by  an  ornamental  erection  known  in  the  building 
trade  as  an  '  alligator's  back "...  which  runs  the  whole  length  of 
the  roof,  Bristol  Times  and  Mirror  (Apr.  26,  1889)  5,  col.  6; 
The  three  or  four  instances  in  which  I  have  met  with  the  word 
all  belonged  to  the  Bristol  district  (G.E.D.). 

ALLIGOSHEE,  sb.  War.  Shr.  Glo.  Also  written  allee- 
go-shee  Glo.  [aligo-Ji.]  A  game  in  which  children  link 
arms  and  skip  backwards  and  forwards,  singing  verses  as 
given  below. 

War.  All-i-go-shee,  alligoshee,  Turn  the  bridle  over  my  knee, 
GOMME  Trad.  Games  (1894)  I.  7.  Shr.  Betsy  Blue  came  all  in 
black,  Silver  buttons  down  her  back.  Every  button  cost  a  crown, 
Every  lady  turn  around.  Alligoshi,  alligoshee,  Turn  the  bridle 
over  my  knee,  BURNE  Flk-Lore  (1883)  523.  Glo.  Barbara,  Barbara, 
dressed  in  black,  Silver  buttons  all  up  your  back.  Allee-go-shee, 
allee-go-shee,  Turn  the  bridle  over  me,  GOMME  Trad.  Games 
'iSg^  I.  7. 

ALLIMENT,  see  Element. 

ALLISTER,  adj.  Obs.  Rxb.  (JAM.)  Sane,  in  full 
possession  of  one's  mental  faculties. 

Rxb.  He's  no  allister,  he  is  not  in  his  right  mind. 

[Alastair  is  Gaelic  Alexander.  If  from  the  personal 
name,  I  should  think  it  would  be,  '  he's  no  the  Allister' ; 
cf. '  he's  no  the  Sandy  '  or  '  the  Sam.'  I  do  not  know  the 
word  (G.W.).] 

ALLONGE,  adv.  Obs.  Sc.  Som.  Also  written  all 
anys  (JAM.).  Together. 

Sc.  All  anys,  together  ;  in  a  state  of  union  (JAM.).  Som.  Let's  go 
allonce,  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825). 

[All  +  once.  ME.  ones,  anes,  enes,  formed  from  ene,  OE. 
aene  (once),  with  -s  advb.  gen.  suff.] 

ALL  ONLY,  adv.     n.Yks.     [q-lianli.] 

n.Yks.2  Alleeanly,  or  Allonely,  solely,  or  without  exception. 

[I  sey  not  this  al-only  for  these  men,  CHAUCER  Tr.  fi-» 
Cr.  v.  1779:  Out-take  Richesse  al-only,  ./?.  Rose,  5819. 
All  +  onto  (OE.anltc).] 

ALLOT,  v.  Obsol.  Nrf.  Suf.  Amer.  To  anticipate,  look 
forward  to,  intend.  Gen.  constr.  used  with  on  or  upon. 
In  pass,  to  be  pleased. 

Nrf.  I  am  allotted  [glad  or  pleased]  to  see  you.  So,  1  am  told  by 
a  man  of  75,  used  to  speak  his  grandmother  and  other  old  folk 
(F.H.).  Suf.  I  allot  on  seeing  him  [shall  have  pleasure  in,  &c., 
count  on  seeing  him]  (F.H.).  [Amer.  I  allot  upon  going  to  Boston. 
Used  by  uneducated  people  in  the  interior  of  New  England, 

ALL  OUT,  ac/v.1  Sc.  Irel.  Yks.  Lan.  Not.  Lin.  Nhp.  Aus. 
1.  Completely,  altogether,  fully. 

Sc.  All  out,  in  a  great  degree,  beyond  comparison  (JAM.).  Ir. 
He's  now  in  his  grave,  and  thank  God,  it's  he  that  had  the  dacent 
funeral  all  out,  CARLETON  Traits  Peas.  (1843)  II.  102;  Glory  be 
to  God  !  but  thaf  s  wonderful  all  out,  ib.  I.  2 ;  Not  far  from  sixty 
[years  of  age],  if  he  was  not  sixty  all  out  (G.M.H.X  w.Ir.  I'm 
not  sich  a  gommoch  all  out  as  that,  LOVER  Leg.  (1848)  I.  164. 
n.Yks.1  Yon's  t'best,  Joss. — Ay,  all  out.  w.Yks.3  It  is  almost, 
if  not  all  out,  as  bad  as  thieving.  s.Lan.  They'r  dun  oleawt, 
BAMFORD  Dial.  (1850)  208,  ed.  1854.  Not.1  sw.Lin.1  She's  very 
gain  on  five,  if  not  five  all  out.  Your  Bill's  nearly  killed,  if  not  all 
out.  Nhp.1  It's  not  all  out  as  good  as  I  expected.  [Aus.,  N.S.W. 
Now  she  was  nineteen  all  out,  and  a  fine  girl  she'd  grown,  BOLDRE- 
WOOD  Robbery  (1888*1  I.  xv.  ]  Slang.  All  out  the  best,  FARMER. 

[So  are  we  to  take  notice  of  the  good  (gifts),  though  not 
all  out  so  perfect  as  St.  James  advisetn  us,  ANDREWES 
Serm.  xcvi.  (1628)  749 ;  Fowling  is  more  troublesome  but 
all  out  as  delightsome  to  some  sorts  of  men,  BURTON 
Anat.  Mel.  (1621)  II.  ii.  4,  ed.  1836.  ME.  Whan  he  had 
doon  his  wil  al-out,  R.  Rose,  2101  ;  Now  have  I ...  declared 
al-out,  ib.  2935.  Af/+out.] 

ALL  OUT,  adv.*  and  sb.  Van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel. 
and  Eng. 

1.  adv.  Mistaken. 

Bnff.1  For  ass  diver's  he  iz  he's  a'-oot  in  that  opingin.  Slang. 
All  out,  to  be  in  error  ;  quite  wrong,  FARMER. 

2.  Too  late. 

Bnff.1  Y're  a'-oot,  man,  the  meetin's  a'  our. 

3.  Disappointed. 

Bnff.1  Fin  he  saw  it  he  wiz  a'-oot  [or  oot], he  geedintillan  unco  (list. 

4.  Finished,  used  up. 

w.Som.1  Plai-z-r  dhu  suydur-z  au-1  aewt  [please,  sir,  the  cider  is 
all  finished,  i.e.  the  cask  is  empty].  Dhu  woets  bee  au1!  aewt 
[the  oats  are  all  finished]. 

5.  sb.  Interval  for  play,  as  in  phr.  all-out  time. 

w.Yks.  All-out,  time  for  recreation,  play  time  (J.T.) ;  All-aat-time, 
playtime  at  school,  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  9,  1891). 
ALL-OVER,  adv.    Wm.  Yks.  Lin. 

1.  Over  the  whole  body,  in  every  part,  completely. 
Wm.  Thoo's  fair  o-ower,  my  luv,  RICHARDSON  S«^.  Sol.  (1859 

iv.  7.     e.Yks.1  He's  his  fayther  bayn  all-ower. 

2.  Everywhere. 

n.Yks.  (I.W.)     n-Lin.1  Taaties  hes  faail'd  oil  oher  to  year. 

[1.  He  is  all-over  mistaken,  BENTLEY  Phalaris  (1699)  130. 
2.  A  south-west  blow  on  ye  And  blister  you  all  o'er ! 
SHAKS.  Temp.  \.  ii.  324.  Cp.  ME.  ouer-al  (in  P.  Plowman), 
ouer  alle  (in  Cath.  Angl.),  everywhere,  passim.} 

ALL-OVERISH,  adj.  Lan.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Brks.  Som. 

1.  Slightly  out  of  sorts,  but  with  no  particular  ailment. 

ne.Lan.1  All-overish,  neither  sick  nor  well.  Der.a  War.  All- 
overish,  queer-like  (J.R.W.).  w.Som.1 

2.  Nervous,  with  a  sense  of  apprehension. 

n.Lin.1  Brks.1  All-overish, feelingconfusedorabashed.  Cor.There's 
a  kind  o'what-I-can't-tell-'ee  about  dead  men  that's  very  enticin',tho' 
it  do  make  you  feel  all-overish,  '  Q.'  Three  Ships  (1890)  iii.  Colloq. 
When  the  mob  began  to  gather  round  I  felt  all-overish,  MAYHEW 
Land.  Labour (1864)  III.  52;  The  elder  of  the  brothers  gave  a  squeal, 
All-overish  it  made  me  for  to  feel,  GILBERT  Bab  Ballads  (1869)  184 ; 
All-overish,  an  indefinite  feeling  which  pervades  the  body  at  critical 
periods,  when  sickening  for  an  illness,  or  at  a  moment  of  supreme 
excitement,  FARMER. 

[All-over,  q.v.  +  -ish.  The  suffix  doubtless  suggested  by 
'  feverish.'] 

ALLOW,  v.  Irel.  Glo.  Ess.  Ken.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W. 
Dor.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Amer.  [alau1,  aletr.] 

1.  To  suppose,  consider,  be  of  opinion. 
Glo.  I  'low  as  'tis  time  mother  wur  a-got  downstairs,  BUCKMAN 
Darke's  Sojourn  (1890)  xi.  Ken.1  He's  allowed  to  be  the  biggest 
rogue  in  Faversham.  Sus.  She  cry'd  an  'lowd  tud  braak  ur  hert, 
LOWER  Tom  Cladpole  (1831)  st.  18.  Hmp.  If  you  ask  a  peasant 
how  far  it  is  to  any  place,  his  answer  nearly  invariably  is  ;I  allow 
it  to  be  so  far,'  WISE  New  Forest (1883)  280;  Hmp.1  I.W.  She  doos 
well  enough  Zundays  and  high-days,  .  .  .  but  I  'lows  she's  most 
too  high  vur  work-a-days,  MAXWELL  GRAY  Annesley  (1889)  I.  164. 
se.Dor.  (C.  W. ')  w.Som.1 1  do  low  eens  there's  dree  score  o'  taties  in 
thick  there  splat.  Uw  muuch  d-ee-Iuw  dhik  dhae'ur  rik  u  haay? 

G  2 




[how  much  do  you  consider  that  rick  of  hay  ?  i.  e.  how  much  it  con- 
tains]. Dev.  I  do  not  allow  myself  to  reckon  like  you  [I  do  not  suppose 
myself  capable  of  calculating  as  quickly  as  you  can],  Reports  Provinc. 
(1877)  127.  Cor.  Paul  an'  me  allowed  to  each  other  that  we'd  set 
up  in  fine  style  at  Kit's  House,  '  Q.'  Troy  Town  (1888)  iv.  [Amer. 
The  lady  of  the  cabin  seemed  kind,  and  allowed  we  had  better  stop 
where  we  were,  BARTLETT.  U.S.  Some  thought  Barnes  must've 
swallowed  a  tadpole,  .  .  .  while  others  allowed  that  may  be  he'd 
accidentally  eaten  frogs'  eggs  some  time  and  they'd  hatched  out, 
MAX  ADELER  Elbow  Room  (1876)  v.] 
2.  To  advise. 

Uls.  N.  &  Q.  (1874)  sth  S.  i.  245  ;  I  allow  her  to  come  (M.B.-S.). 
Cav.  I  don't  allow  you  to  sell  your  pig  at  a  loss  to  yourself  (M.S.  M.). 
N.I.1  Doctor!  A  wouldn't  allow  you  to  be  takin'  off  that  blister  yet. 
Ess.  This  point  I  allow  For  servant  and  cow,  TUSSER  Husbandrie 
(1580)  74,  st.  30.  w.Som.1  I  d'allowee  vorto  put  thick  there  field 
in  to  rape,  arter  you've  a-clain  un,  and  then  zeed-n  out. 

[1.  The  Self-Tormentor  of  Terence's,  which  is  allowed 
a  most  excellent  comedy,  Spect.  No.  512  ;  The  principles 
which  all  mankind  allow  for  true  are  innate,  LOCKE 
(JOHNSON)  ;  To  alowe,  to  declare  to  be  true,  approbo, 
BARET.  2.  The  sense  of  '  advise  '  is  developed  from  the 
old  meaning  once  common  —  'to  approve  of,  sanction.' 
Truly  ye  bear  witness  that  ye  allow  the  deeds  of  your 
fathers,  BIBLE  Luke  xi.  48.  OFr.  alouer,  to  praise,  com- 
mend ;  Lat.  allaudare.] 

ALLOW,  int.  n.Yks.  Brks.  A  cry  used  in  setting  dogs 
on  to  the  chase. 

n.Yks.  (I.W.)  Brks.1  Allow,  allow!  thus  shouted  twice  to  a  dog 
to  incite  him  to  chase  anything. 

[From  allow,  vb.,  in  the  sense  of  '  to  sanction.'  The  cry 
means  '  We  allow  (the  chase)  !  '] 

ALLOWANCE,  sb.    Sc.  Irel.  Yks.  Wor. 

1.  Permission. 

N.I.1  There's  no  allowance  for  people  in  here. 

2.  A  limited  portion  of  food  or  drink  allowed  to  work- 
men between  meals. 

Yks.  He  was  going  homewards  as  soon  as  he  had  finished  his 
'lowance,  FLETCHER  Wapentake  (1895)  190.  ne.Wor.  When  are 
you  goin'  to  have  your  'lowance  ?  (J.W.P.) 

3.  Phr.  at  no  allowance,  at  pleasure,  unsparingly,  un- 

Edb.  Vagrants  in  buckram  and  limmers  in  silk,  parading  away  at 
no  allowance,  MOIR  Mansie  Wauch  (1828)  vii.  Slang.  I  found 
Dawes  junior  pegging  into  Dawes  senior  no  allowance,  and  him 
crying  blue  murder,  READE  Jack  of  all  Trades  (1858)  i. 

[1.  Permission,  a  permission,  leave,  licence,  allowance, 
COTGR.  2.  His  allowance  was  a  continual  allowance  given 
him  of  the  king,  a  daily  rate  for  every  day,  BIBLE  2  Kings 
xxv.  30.  Hence  phr.  '  at  no  allowance,'  without  limitation. 
His  people  pluck  him  at  no  allowance,  CARLYLE  Fred.  Gt. 
III.  vin.  v.  42.  Fr.  alouance,  allowance  (PALSGR.),  deriv.  of 
OFr.  alouer,  see  Allow,  v.] 

ALLOWED,  ppl.  adj.     Som.    [aleu'd.]    Licensed. 

w.Som.1  Dhik-ee  aewz  waud-n  nuvur  ulaewd  [that  house  was 
never  licensed]. 

[There  is  no  slander  in  an  allow'd  fool,  though  he  do 
nothing  but  rail,  SHAKS.  Twelfth  Nt.  i.  v.  101  ;  An  allowed 
cart  or  chariot,  HOLLYBAND.  Allowed,  pp.  of  allow  (vb.), 

ALLS,  sb.  pi.  Dur.  w.Yks.  n.Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Wor 
Also  written  awls  Dur.1;  nails  s.Wor.1  se.Wor.1  folz 
ealz.]  Belongings,  goods  and  chattels,  especially  work- 
men's tools. 

Dnr.  !'  To  pack  up  his  awls'  is  spoken  of  a  person  departing  in  haste 
w.Yks.s  Pack  up  thee  awals  an'  tramp.  n-Lin.1  '  Pack  up  your  alls 
and  slot  off  is  a  common  form  of  dismissal,  used  by  masters  to  work- 
men. Lei.1  Alls,  a  workman's  tools  and  appliances  :  often  used  for 
personal  luggage  generally.  Nhp.1,  War.2,  s.Wor.1  se.Wor1  'Pick 
up  your  nails  and  cut'  is  a  form  of  ordering  an  objectionable  person 
to  leave. 

[It  is  doubtful  whether  alls  in  the  phrase  '  pack  up  your 
alls  is  all  used  as  a  sb.  in  pi.,  or  whether  it  repr  .awls 
Perhaps  orig.  the  phrase  contained  the  word  awls  which 
was  changed  by  a  humorous  pun  to  alls.  So  N  E.D 

bid  me 

ALLS,  see  Aries. 

ALLS-,  see  Halse-. 

ALL  TO  PIECES,  adv.  phr>  Der.  Wor.  Amer.  Aus. 
Thoroughly,  altogether. 

Der.2  He  ca'd  me  a'  to  pieces.  s.Wor.  It's  too  hot  all  to  pieces, 
PORSON  Quaint  Wds.  (1875)  29.  [Amer.  I  beat  him  last  night  at 
pokerall  topieces,  BARTLETT.  Aus.,  N.S.W.If  we  fell  offhe  stopped 
still  and  began  to  feed,  so  that  he  suited  us  all  to  pieces,  BOLDRE 
WOOD  Robbery  (1888)  I.  i.] 

[We'll  bend  it  to  our  awe,  Or  break  it  all  to  pieces, 
SHAKS.  Hen.  V,  i.  ii.  225 ;  I  bid  thy  master  cut  out  the 
gown ;  but  I  did  not  bid  him  cut  it  to  pieces,  ib.  T.  Shrew, 
iv.  iii.  129.] 

ALL  TO  PIECES,  adv.  phr?  Nhp.  Som.  Broken 
down  in  health  or  finances  ;  exhausted,  collapsed. 

Nhp.1  A  person  who  has  failed,  or  been  sold  up,  or  in  a  state  of 
bankruptcy,  is  said  to  be  all  to  pieces.  w.Som.1  Poo-ur  oa'l  blid, 
ee-z  au'l  tiie  pees'ez  wai  dhu  riie'maat'iks  [poor  old  blood,  he  is 
quite  done  up  with  the  rheumatism].  Aew-z  dh-oa-1  au's  ? — Oa ! 
au'l  tiie  pees'ez  [How  is  the  old  horse  ? — Oh  !  quite  knocked  up], 
Colloq.  Fifty  thousand  pounds  .  .  .  won't  come  before  it's  all 
wanted ;  for  they  say  he  is  all  to  pieces,  AUSTEN  Sense  and  Sensi- 
bility (181 1)  xxx.  Slang.  The  Oxford  men  were  now  all  to  pieces ; 
their  boat  was  full  of  water,  Echo  (Apr.  7,  1884)  3,  col.  i. 

ALLUM,  see  Aum. 

ALL-UTTERLY,  adv.  Obs.  Sc.  (JAM.)  Also  written 
alluterlie,  alluterly.  Wholly,  completely. 

[So  whan  she  saw  al-utterly  That  he  wolde  hirof  trouthe 
faile,  CHAUCER  Hous  F.  296.  All  (ME.  al)  +  utterly.} 

ALL- WORKS,  sb.  Ken.  A  man  employed  on  a  farm 
to  do  odd  jobs.  Used  adjectivally,  of  horses  :  doing  odd 
jobs,  not  in  the  regular  team. 

Ken.  Yes !  he's  the  all-works  on  our  farm.  Tell  All-works 
it's  his  place  to  do  that  (D.W.L.);  The  horses  not  sufficient  in 
number  to  make  up  a  team  are  called  the  odd  or  all-works  horses, 
and  are  looked  after  by  the  odd  man,  oddie,  or  all-works  (P.M.) ; 
Ken.1  ;  Ken.2  An  '  all-works  '  is  the  lowest  servant  in  the  house, 
and  is  not  hired  for  the  plough  or  the  wagon  particularly,  as  the 
other  servants  are,  but  to  be  set  about  anything. 

[With  this  word  cp.  the  common  phr.  '  a  maid-of-all- 
work.'  The  comp.  is  formed  in  the  same  way  as  '  Great- 
heart,'  and  many  of  the  names  in  BUNYAN  P.  P.,  in  which 
the  name  of  the  quality  or  characteristic  (consisting  of 
adj.  +  sb.)  designates  the  possessor  of  the  same,  the  stress 
always  being  on  the  former  element  of  the  comp.] 

ALLY,  sb.  Nhb.  Wm.  Dur.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf. 
Der.  Not.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  Wor.  Shr.  Oxf.  Brks.  e. An.  Sus. 
Hmp.  Som.  Cor.  Also  written  alley  N.Cy.1  Nhb.1  Dur.1 
Wm.1  e. Yks.1  w.Yks.245  Stf.2  nw.Der.1  Lei}  Nhp.1  Shr.12 
Oxf.1  Brks.1  e.An.1  Hmp.1  w.Som.1  Cor.2;  alNhp.1;  olley 
Chs.1  [a-li,  se'li.] 

1.  A  boy's  marble  made  of  alabaster,  fine  white  stone, 
marble,  or  glass.     See  below. 

N.Cy.1,  Nhb.1,  Dur.1,  Wm.1  w.Yks.  Real  marbles,  i.  e.  globes 
made  of  marble,  not  clay.  Also  those  moulded  from  china  clay. 
The  latter,  often  covered  with  small  circles,  were  sometimes  called 
bull's-eyes  or  bullies  (J.T.);  w.Yks.2,  e.Lan.1  Chs.1  When  streaked 
with  red,  it  is  called  a  blood-alley.  Stf.2  Lei.1  A  marble  made 
either  of  white  marble  or  alabaster.  If  streaked  with  red  veins 
it  is  called  a  blood-alley,  if  not  so  marked,  a  white  alley.  Nhp.1 
Al,  or  Alley,  used  by  boys  for  shooting  at  the  ring ;  deriving  its 
name  from  the  term  alabaster,  as  erroneously  applied  to  the 
varieties  of  carbonate  of  lime  which  constitute  marble,  instead  of 
restricting  it  to  sulphate  of  lime  or  gypsum.  These  marbles  are 
generally. denominated  white  als,  or  alleys,  but  when  they  exhibit 
any  of  the  red  veins  they  are  called  blood-alleys,  and  are  doubly 
prized  by  the  possessor.  se.Wor.1,  Shr.12,  Oxf.'  MS.  arfrf. ,  Brks.1, 
e.An.1,  Hmp.1  w.Som.1  A  boy's  marble,  generally  valued  at  from 
five  to  ten  common  marbles  according  to  its  quality.  Cor.  Bright 
blue  et  was,  suthin'  the  colour  of  a  hedgy-sparrer's  egg,  an' shiny- 
clear  like  a  glass-alley,  '  Q.'  Troy  Town  ^1888)  xi ;  Cor.2  [Amer. 
Alley,  an  ornamental  marble,  used  by  boys  for  shooting  in  the  ring, 
&c. ,  BARTLETT.] 

2.  Hence  Ally,  v. 

e.Yks.1  To  place  the  marble  in  the  hole  in  a  game  of  marbles, 
and  thus  score  a  point  against  an  opponent 

3.  Comp.  Ally-taw. 

ne.Yks.1  Ally  taw,  playing  marble,  as  distinguished  from 
'  steeanies  '  and  '  potties,'  i.  e.  stone  or  baked  clay  marbles.  sXan. 




lley-taw, a  large  or' shooting-marble'  (T.R.C.).  Brks.His  small 
private  box  was  full  of  peg-tops,  white  marbles  (called'  alley-taws' 
in  the  Vale)  .  .  .  and  other  miscellaneous  boy's  wealth,  HUGHES 
T.  Bmwn  (1856)  iii.  Colloq.  Inquiring  whether  he  had  won  any 
alley-tors  or  commoneys  lately,  DICKENS  Pickwick  (1837)  281, 
ed.  1847. 

(The  word  occurs  in  DE  FOE'S  Duncan  Campbell;  see 
N.E.D.  Ally,  a  dim.  of  alabaster.} 

ALLYCOMPALY,  see  Elecampane. 

ALLY -LONG-LEGS,  sb.  Stf.  The  '  Daddy-long-legs,' 
or  crane-fly. 


ALMANAC-MAN,  sb.     n.  Lin. 

n.Lin.1  Almanac-man,  the  surveyor  of  the  Court  of  Sewers,  so 
called  because  he  sends  notices  to  the  dwellers  near  the  Trent  of 
the  times  when  high  tides  may  be  expected. 

ALMANIE-WHISTLE,  sb.  Obs.  Abd.  A  flageolet  of 
a  very  small  size  used  by  children  QAM.). 

[Almanie  repr.  ME.Almaine,  OFr.Alemaigne,  Germany. 
In  the  i6th  and  i7th  cents,  almani  was  in  common  use 
for  a  kind  of  dance-music  in  slow  time,  introduced  from 

ALMERY,  see  Ambry. 

ALMOND,  sb.    Glo.    A  gland  of  the  ear  or  throat. 

Glo.1  The  almonds  of  my  ears  came  down.  Colloq.  Almonds  : 
this  term  is  applied  popularly  to  the  exterior  glands  of  the  neck 
and  to  the  tonsils,  HOBLYN  Diet.  Med.  Terms  (and  ed.  1844). 

[Almonds  of  the  throat  are  a  glandulous  substance,  re- 
presenting two  kernels  placed  on  each  side  of  the  uvula, 
at  the  root  of  the  tongue,  KERSEY  ;  The  almonds  of  the 
ears,  Glandulae,  COLES  (1679).] 

ALMOND-FURNACE,  sb.  Obs.  Cdg.  A  furnace  used 
by  silver-refiners,  in  which  the  refuse  of  litharge  is  re- 
duced to  lead  by  being  heated  with  charcoal. 

Cdg.  Almond  furnace,  in  which  they  melt  the  slags  or  refuse  of 
the  litharge  (not  stamped)  with  charcoale  only,  RAY  (1691) ;  (K.) 

[Alman,  or  almond  furnace,  a  furnace  used  by  refiners, 
and  called  a  sweep,  for  separating  all  sorts  of  metals  from 
cinders,  &c.,  BAILEY  (1721).  Alman  or  almond  repr. 
OFr.  aleman  (mod.  allemand),  i.  e.  German.] 

ALMOND-NUT,  sb.    Cor.    An  almond. 

Cor.  I've  got  ferrings  and  sweetmeats  anow.  .  .  .  Dest  a  like 
men  [them]  with  ame-nuts  or  zeeds  best  inside  ?  J.  TRENOODLE 
Specimens  (1846)  28;  Cor.12 

ALMOUS,  sb.  In  gen.  use  in  Sc.  Irel.  and  n.  counties 
to  Lan.  and  Lin.  FAIso  Sus.  Dev.  Also  written  almisse, 
almose  n.Yks.1;  alomes  Wxf.1;  aamas  Cum.2  n.Lan.1; 
aamus  Nhb.1;  aumas  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.5  n.Lan.1;  aumous 
Lin.1;  aumus  n.Yks.2 w.Yks.1  ne.Lan.1;  awmoss  w.Yks.4 ; 
awmous  sw.Lin.1 ;  awmus  N.Cy.1  Wm.1  n.Yks.12  e.Yks.1 ; 
omas  Cum.1 ;  omus  Nhb.1  [a'mas,  §-mas.] 
1.  Money  or  food  bestowed  in  charity,  gifts  offered  to 
a  child  on  its  first  round  of  visits. 

Sc.  Almous,  Almows  (JAM.) ;  The  silly  friar  behoved  to  fleech, 
For  aumus  as  he  passes,  SCOTT  Abbot  (1820)  xv.  Ayr.  An  extra 
neaveful  to  their  wonted  weekly  almous,  GALT  Sir  Andrew  (1822) 
iv.  Gall.  Gaun  off  like  a  beggar  wi'  his  awmus  on  Monday  mornin', 
CROCKETT  Stiekit  Mm.  (1893)  57.  Wxf.1,  Nhb.1  Dur.  It  is  still 
customary  to  present  a  baby  with  three  articles  '  for  luck '  the  first 
time  it  is  taken  into  a  neighbour's  house.  This  is  termed  the 
'  bairn's  awmous,'  that  is,  alms.  The  articles  usually  consist  of  a 
piece  of  bread,  a  pinch  of  salt,  and  an  egg,  but  matches  are  some- 
times substituted  for  the  last,  N.  &  Q.  (1878)  5th  S.  x.  37.  Cum. 
The  gift  to  a  regular  beggar  was  sometimes  in  money,  but  more 
frequently  in  victuals.  Regular  beggars  carried  bags  (pokes) 
rolled  up  in  their  apron  for  the  accommodation  of  meal,  a  handful 
of  which  was  always  an  acceptable  awmous  (M.P.)  ;  Cum.1  Omas, 
in  former  times  a  handful  of  oatmeal  or  a  slice  of  barley  bread, 
and  in  later  times  a  halfpenny  or  a  penny.  Wm.  The  mendicant 
.  .  .  departs  with  his  awmus  of  meal,  GIBSON  Leg.  and  Notes 
(1877)17.  ne.Yks.1  What  awmous  a'e  ya  gotten  ?  w.Yks.  Awmoss, 
an  alms,  THORESBY  i«#.  (1703) ;  w.Yks.1  Hedto  a  poor  neighbour 
at  com  daily  to  thy  door  for  an  aumus  ?  w.Yks.4  An  awmoss. 
Lan.  Pretty  Mrs.  Marg'ret  .  .  .  hes  always  yet  an  awmas  for 
Bess,  ranty  an'  feckless  o'  body  as  she  is,  THORNBER  Penny  Stone 
(^45)  15;  Lan.1  He  lives  o' aumas.  n.Lan.1  The  following  quatrain 
is  still  remembered  by  some  of  the  old  inhabitants  of  Furness, 
as  the  usual  address  of  beggars  soliciting  alms  :  '  Pity,  pity 

paamas,  Pray  give  us  aamas  ;  Yan  for  Peter,  two  for  Paul,  Three 
for  God  'at  meead  us  all.'  e.Sus.  Almcs,  HOLLOWAY.  s.Dev. 
Omes,  alms,  Fox  Kingsbridgc  (1874). 

2.  A  small  portion  ;  a  definite  quantity. 
n.Yks.1  In  Cleveland  a  messenger  sent  to  a  shop  for  a  shilling's- 
worth  of  such  and  such  an  article,  and  returning  with  what 
seems  to  the  purchaser  a  very  small  proportionate  quantity,  is 
greeted  with  the  remark,  'Why,  what  an  ommus  thee  has  getten ' ; 
as  if,  like  alms,  it  had  been  sparingly  or  grudgingly  doled  out ; 
n.Yks.2  I  think  I've  got  my  aumus,  i.  e.  the  number  of  articles 
I  bespoke.  A  dear  aumus,  very  little  for  the  money.  e.Yks.  A've 
coonted  this  money,  and  that's  thy  awmus  ;  e.Yks.1  Is  that  all 
bacon  we're  gannin  te  hev  te  bray-cast  ?  what  a  awmus  !  m.Yks.1 
There,  that's  thy  aumas ;  thou'll  get  no  more.  One  holding  a  sack 
to  be  filled  will  cry  out  when  the  sack  is  full, '  Hold  on  !  I've  gotten 
my  aumas.'  w.Yks.  Awmous,  a  helping  (B.K.) ;  Awmous,  a  cart 
load,  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  59.  Lin.  When  a  labourer 
has  been  filling  a  cart  with  manure,  corn,  &c. ,  he  will  say  at  last 
to  the  carter  or  wagoner,  '  Haven't  ya  got  your  aumous?'  (HALL.); 
Lin.1  They  gave  me  such  an  aumous  of  provender.  swXin.1  Oh, 
what  an  awmous  !  said  ironically  of  a  small  gift  of  corn  on  St. 
Thomas'  Day. 

8.  A  meritorious  act. 

Sc.  It  wou'd  be  an  aumous  to  gie  him  a  weel-payed  skin  (JAM.) ; 
Those  who  leave  so  good  a  Kirk,  it  were  but  alms  to  hang  them, 
Scotland's  Glory,  &c.  (1805)  44  QAM.). 

4.  In  comp.  (i)  Aumas-dish,  a  beggar's  dish  for  alms ; 
(2)  -house,  an  alms-house  ;  (3)  -loaves,  bread  distributed 
to  the  poor  in  church  after  Divine  service ;  (4)  -woman, 
a  woman  supported  by  charity. 

(i)  Ayr.  While  she  held  up  her  greedy  gab,  Just  like  an  aumos 
dish,  BURNS  Jolly  Beggars  (1785).  (2)  w.Yks.  Amus-hahses, 
BANKS  Wkfld.  IVds.  (1865)  ;  w.Yks.5  Aumas-houses.  (3)  n.Yks.2 
Aumus-leeaves,  charity  loaves.  (4)  w.Yks.5 

[Almose,  eleemosyna,  LEVINS  Manip.  ;  Lefsir,parc/iarite', 
Wit  sum  almous  thou  help  me,  Metr.  Horn.  (Spec.  E.  E.  II. 
94) ;  God  .  . .  jelde  ow  for  oure  almus  that  je  jiven  us 
here  !  P.  Plowman  (A.)  vn.  120  ;  Ilk  dai  man  him  )>ider  bar 
For  to  bide  his  almus  bar,  Cursor  M.  19052  ;  Almus,  messe 
and  bedes,  HAMPOLE  P.  C.  3722  ;  An  almus  doer,  elimosi- 
narius,  Cam.  Angl. ;  Almesse  or  almos,  elimosina,  Prompt. 
ON.  almusa  (also  olmusa),  an  alms,  charity,  an  allowance 
to  scholars  in  Icel.  grammar-schools ;  Rom.  alimosina 
(whence  OFr.  almosne,  It.  limosina).  Cp.  OE.  oelmysse 
(-esse),  whence  lit.  E.  alms.] 
ALODDIN,  adj.  Cum.  Wm.  [aio'din.] 

1.  Not  engaged,  unemployed,  on  offer. 

Cum.  I  hard  Ritson's  lass  was  aloddin,  sooa  I  went  and  saw  her 
an  hir't  her.  Does  te  see  the  bonny  lass  wid  a  rose  in  her  breast  ? 
She's  aloddin.  Richardson  is  going  to  build  a  barn,  sooa  there 
will  be  lots  o'  jobs  aloddin.  Jenkinson  has  a  new-cult  cow 
aloddin  [for  sale].  How  Hall  has  been  a  long  time  aloddin'  [to 
let]  (J.A.) ;  Cum.1  She's  still  aloddin  ;  Cum.2,  Wm.1 

2.  Lost,  missing. 

Cum.  They  say  Thomsons  of  Brier  Holme  hev  six  ewes  a-loddin. 

[Prob.  repr.  ON.  afldftun,  on  invitation,  still  open  to  an 
invitation  (to  marry).  Cogn.  with  ON  lafta,  to  invite,  OE. 
laclian,  G.  laden,  to  summon.] 

ALOGHE,  see  Alow. 

ALONE,  adv.    Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  e.An.    [ale'n,  alia-n.] 

1.  Used  with  pronom.  adj. 

Cum.  As  I  was  walking  mine  alane,  SCOTT  Minstrelsy  (1802)  120, 
ed.  1839. 

2.  In  phr.  (i)  all-a-living alone,  left  in  a  helpless  condition 
(used  of  a  sick  person) ;  (2)  let  alone,  to  say  nothing  of, 
besides  ;  (3)  let  me  alone,  let  him  alone,  phr.  expressive  of 
superiority  or  acknowledged  excellence. 

(i)e.An.2  We  have  the  odd  phrase 'all-a-living-alone,' i.e.  quite  en- 
tirely alone,  spoken  compassionately  ofa  sickpersonleftimproperly 
in  a  helpless  condition.  (a)s.Ir.  He  ate  a  whole  village,  let  alone  the 
horse,  LOVER  Leg.  (1848)  II.  435.  Nhb.1  Thor  wis  three  on  them,  let 
alyen  his  fethor.  Cum.8  I's  cum't  ofa  stock  'at  niver  wad  be  freetn't 
toshowafeacetilla  king,  let  aleanan  oald  newdles.  (3)Edb.Letme 
alane  for  whilly-whaing  an  advocate,  SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  xi. 
Ir.  Can  he  swim? — O  let  him  alone  for  that!  He  can  swim 
like  a  fish  (A.S.P.).  s.Ir.  Ned  Sheehy  was  a  good  butler,  .  . .  and 
as  for  a  groom,  let  him  alone  with  a  horse ;  he  could  dress  it,  or 
ride  it,  or  shoe  it,  or  physic  it,  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  281.  Cum. 
Let  Bobby  alone  for  that,  FARRALL  Betty  Wilson  (1886)  7. 




[1.  I  ame  myne  alane  and  poore,  KING  Catech.  (N.E.D.) 
ME.  All  him  alane  the  way  he  tais,  BARBOUR  Bruce,  n. 
146  ;  Walkyng  myn  one  (v.r.  al  myn  oone),  P.  Plowman 
(A.)  ix.  54.  ME.  at,  all  +  ane  (OE.  art) ;  see  Lone.  2.  With 
the  phr.  '  let  me  alone  for  that '  we  may  cp.  SHAKS.  :  Let 
us  alone  to  guard  Corioli,  Cor.  I.  ii.  27  (the  phrase  im- 
plies an  ironical  prohibition  to  help  a  man  who  is  able 
to  manage  the  affair  himself) ;  JOHNSON  (s.v.  Alone).] 

ALONG,  adv.1  Var.  dial,  uses  in  midl.  and  s.  counties  ; 
also  Lan.  Also  written  elong.  [alo'rj,  ala'rj,  slas'q.alu- 

1.  Slanting. 

n.Dev.  Twel  zet  e-long,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746) ;  Along,  for  end-long, 

obliquely,  slanting  ;  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.1 

Comp.  Along-straight,  lying  at  full  length. 

Dor.  She  vow'd  she  zeed  en  wi  her  own  eyes  a-lyen  all  along 

strait  upon    the   groun,   Why  John  (Coll.  L.L.B.X      Som.  Why 

zomebody  must  ha'  zot  on  un  [kitchen  clock]  when  he  wur  down 

along-straight,  RAYMOND  Gent.  Upcott  (1893)  22. 

2.  At  full  length,  lying  flat,  generally  used  with  all;  see 
all  along. 

Dev.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.);  'Along'  now  means  flat,  all 
along  (F.W.C.). 

3.  During  a  period  of  time,  during  the  past. 

w.Som.1  We've  had  middlin'  luck  along,  like.  Dev.  It  is  quite 
usual  to  speak  of  anything  being  done  '  along  in  the  winter,'  or 
other  season,  and  rather  conveys  the  idea  of  repeated  or  continuous 
action  than  of  indefiniteness  as  to  time,  Reports  Provinc.  (1889). 

4.  In  company,  as  well,  into  the  bargain. 

Wor.  Mary  is  going,  and  Fred  will  go  alung  (H.K.).  Sur. 
Taking  the  eggs  to  market  and  the  hen  along,  HOSKYNS  Taipei 
(1852)  139,  ed.  1857  ;  I'm  blest  if  I  don't  think  they  got  their  own 
price  and  ours  along,  ib.  150. 

5.  Forward,  on;  send  along,  to  send  home. 

Lan.  Bring  the  kayther  alung,  BANKS  Manch.  Man  (1876)  i.  Stf.2 
Th'  liver  inna  ready  yet,  but  wfin  send  it  yu  alung.  War.3 
'  I  will  send  it  along  directly  '  is  an  everyday  expression  now  in 
Birmingham.  Shr.1  Shall  I  send  the  mutton  alung  now,  ma'am  ? 
[Amer.  Mrs.  Trollope  has  the  following  words  :  '  We  must  try 
to  get  along,  as  the  Americans  say.'  Lover  also  was  puzzled  to 
discover  what  the  young  American  lady  meant  by  saying  that  she 
was  so  unwell  that  she  '  could  not  get  along,'  BARTLETT.] 

6.  In  phr.  (i)  along  of,  (a)  with,  together  with  ;  (b)  in 
pursuit  of;  (2)  along  with,  with. 

(i)  (a)  s.War.1  Come  and  go  along  of  father.  GIo.  '  Does  'ee 
zell  th'  owld  genelman  'long  o'  this  lot?'  says  one,  BUCKMAN 
Darke's  Sojourn  (1890)  vii.  Ess.  Las'  night  I  passed  them  housen 
by  along  o'  Tom  an'  Jack,  DOWNE  Ballads  (1895)  !9-  Wil.1  Here, 
you  just  coom  whoam  along  o'  I,  an  I'll  gie  'ee  summut  to  arg 
about.  Som.  She'd  garn  t'school  alang  of  us,  LEITH  Lemon  Verbena 
(l895)  I07-  Dev.  Now  and  again  he  comes  and  stops  along  of 
his  granny  for  a  bit,  O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  86.  Slang.  I  walks  in 
my  brown  gaiters  along  o'  my  old  brown  mule,  KIPLING  Brk.  Ballads 
(1892)  Screw Guns,  (b)  Cor. '  Tez  Farmer  Tickle,  I  tell'y!'  I  shouted, 
'and  if  you  axes  again,  I'll  come  along  ofyou  with  mystick/BARiNG- 
GOULD  Vicar(i&i6]  vi.  (2)  Sc.  Mak'  grit  the  Lord  alang  wi'  me, 
RIDDELL  Ps. .  (1857)  xxxiv.  3.  Brks.1  When  a  young  man  is  accused 

He  lived  along  with  the  squire  for  ever  so  many  year.  Sus.  He's 
our  father,  he  lives  along  wi'  us,  EGERTON  F/fcs.  and  Ways  (1884) 
26,  27.  w.Som.i  I  zeed'n  gwain  'long  way  Bob  Milton. 

[2.  He  laid  himself  down  along  upon  the  bed,  indinavit 
sem  lectum,  ROBERTSON  (1693);  Under  yond  yew-trees 
lay  thee  all  along,  SHAKS.  R.  fr  J.  v.  iii.  3.  3.  I  have  all 
along  declared  this  to  be  a  neutral  paper,  ADDISON  Sped 
No.  463.  4.  Demetrius  and  Egeus,  go  along,  SHAKS. M.N.D. 
i.  i.  123.  5.  Let's  along,  And  do  the  murther  first,  ib. 
Temp.  iv. i.  233  6.  You,  Capulet,  shall  go  along  with 
me,  ib.  R '  &•  J  i.  ,.  Io6.  OE.  andlang,  along,  by  the 
side  ;  cp.  G.  entlang.] 

ALONG,  adv.'  I.W.  Dor.  Som.  Dev.  [alo-n,  ahe-n  ] 
Used  as  a  suff.  to  advbs.  It  has  the  force  of  -wards.  ^ 

I.W.  Up  along,  Down  along  (J.D.R.).  w.Dor.  I'm  going  up 
a  ong,  down  along,  home  along  (C.V.G.).  w.Som.1  In-along  up- 
a  ong,  down-along,  here-along,  there-along,  along  yonder  out- 
along.  A  man  said,  '  I  be  gwain  zo  vur-s  Holy  Well  Lake  and  I 
can  t  stap  now,  but  I'll  call  in  back-along  '  [on  my  way  back]  Dev 

'  Along  'isone  of  the  common  as  well  as  most  expressive  of  our  west- 
country  suffixes  —  Down-along,  here-along,  there-along,  in-along, 
yon-along,  Reports  Provinc.  (1887)  3;  Tellee  whot  'tez,  yo'd  best- 
ways  git  tha  lewzide  ov  tha  hadge  gwaine  'omc-along,  HEWETT 
Peas.  Sfi.  (1892)97  ;  Awl-along,  up-along,  down-along  lee,  ib.  140. 
ALONG,  prep.     Dev.     In  the  course  of,  during. 
Dev.  It  was  along  September  month,  Reports  Provinc  (i88g\ 
[Sprinkled  along  the  waste  of  years,  KEBLE  Chr.  Year.] 
ALONG  OF,  ON,  WITH,  prep.  phr.    Irel.    All  n.coun- 
ties  to  Shr.  Glo.  Brks.  Hnt.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  Wil. 
On  account  of,  owing  to. 

Ir.  Where  along  o'  the  weed-dhrifts  an'  shells  there'd  be  grazin' 
most  whiles  for  the  goats,  BARLOW  Bog-land  (  1892)  5.  N.Cy.1  Nhb. 
Ah  wouldn't  have  yc  troubled  along  of  me,  CLARE  Love  of  Lass 
(1890)1.79.     Dur.1,  Cum.1     Yks.  It  were  all  along  of  them  soirees 
that  the  first  flood  came,  BARING-GOULD  Pennyqks.  (1870)  57,  ed. 
1890.    ne.Yks.1  It  warn't  along  o'  me.    e.Yks.1  It  was  all-Iang-o  Bill 
that  Ah  went.     w.Yks.124;  w.Yks.5  It  worrant  longa  me,  it  wor 
longa  thee,  soa  doan't  saay  nowt.     Lan.  It  wor  aw  along  o'  that 
theer  black  jackass,  WESTALL  Birch  Dene  (1889)  II.  287;  Because  it 
wasawlung  with  you,  GROSE  (1790)  ;  Lan.1,  eXan.1,  ne.Lan.1  Chs.1 
Sanshum  fair  !  .  .  .  au  aw'd  cleean  forgetten  aw  along  o'  this  kink 
i'  my  back,  CLOUGH  ;    Chs.2  Aw  long  of  such  a  one  ;  Chs.3Awlong 
o'  ould  ooman,  we  couldna  come.     s.Chs.1  It's  aw  alung  o'  gooin 
alt  i'  the  reen.     s.Stf.  It  was  all  along  o'  him  meetin'  her  at  the 
chapel   soo   often,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.    Ann.  (1895).      Stf.1;   Stf.2 
Theer,  th'  milk's  shed,  an'  it's  aw  alung  o'  thee,  metherin.    Der.2, 
nw.Der.1,  Not.  1    Lin.  An'  all  along  o'  the  feller  as  turn'd  'is  back  of 
hissen,  TENNYSON  Owd  Roa  (1889).       nXin.1  It  was  along  on  a 
letter  missin'  'at  my  mare  got  kill'd.     It  was  all  along  o'  drink 
'at  he  ended  his  sen  e'  that  how.     swXin.1  It  was  all  along  of  him 
that  I  happened  this.     Rut.1  He  come  downstairs  sheddering,  an' 
went  oop  back'ards  along  of  his  rheumatiz.     Lei.1    Nhp.1  It's  all 
along  of  you  that  this  happened.     War.12  s.War.1  It  was  all  along 
of  that  Bill  Hancox'  fancies,  that  the  master  kep'  me  in  school. 
Shr.1  It  wuz  all  alung  on  'im  as  'e  wuz  i'  the  public;    Shr.2  This 
comes  alung  o  gween  wi'  sich  a  chap  as  he  is.     Glo.1    Brks.  Afore 
he  got  his  place  along  of  his  bugle  playing,  HUGHES  T.  Brown  Oxf. 
<i86i)xxxvi;  Brks.1  Ut  be  all  alang  o'  that  ther  coortin'  as  a  dwoant 
do  no  work  o'  no  account.     Hnt.  To-day  I  found  him  digging  in  his 
garden,  having  been  cured  '  all  along  o'  that  goose-grass,'  N.  &  Q. 
1866)  3rd  S.  x.  268.    Ken.  It's  all  alongof  you  that  I'm  in  this  mess 
H.M.)  ;  I  have  heard  the  expression  '  It's  all  through  long  ofyou' 
P.M.).    Snr.1  To  the  question,  'How  did  sin  come  into  the  world  ?' 
a  lad  replied,  '  It  was  all  along  of  Eve  eating  of  that  apple.'     Sus.1 
Master  Piper  he  lost  his  life  all-through-along-on-account-of  drink. 
Hmp.  'Twur  all  along  o'  they  lawyers,  Foresters'  Misc.  (1846)  162. 
Wil.1  'Twer  aal  along  o'  she's  bwoy's  bad  ways  ashertuk  to  drenk. 
Slang.  All  along  of  muzzling  the  bobbies,  MAYHEW  Land.  Labour 
(1864;  I.  36. 

[And  long  of  her  it  was  That  we  meet  here  so  strangely, 
SHAKS.  Cymb.  v.  v.  271  ;  You,  mistress,  all  this  coil  islong 
of  you,  ib.  M.  N.  D.  HI.  ii.  339  ;  I  am  longe  of  this  stryfe, 
Je  suis  en  cause  de  cestestrif,  PALSGR.  427  ;  On  me  is  nought 
along  thyn  yuel  fare,  CHAUCER  Tr.  Sf  Cr.  n.  1001  ;  Al  is  on 
miself  along,  GOWER  C.A.  n.  22;  On  hire  is  al  milif  ilong, 
Rel.  Songs  (STRATMANN).  OE.  gelang,  belonging,  de- 
pending ;  gelang  on,  gelang  at,  because  of,  owing  to.  Cf. 

ALONGSIDE  OF,  ON,  prep.  phr.  Lin.  Sus.  Dor.  Dev. 

n-Lin.1  The  stee's  alongside  on  the  fother  stack.  Sus.  I'd  lie 
down  and  go  to  sleep  alongside  of  it  any  day,  EGERTON  Fits,  and 
Ways  (1884)  33-  Dor.  I  did  bide  alongzide  o'  he  till  the  church  clock 
a'  het  twelve,  HARE  Vil.  Street  (1895)  '39-  Dev.  A  man  and  his 
missus  can  bide  alongside  o'  one  another  till  death  do  'em  part, 
O'NEILL  Told  in  Dimpses  (1893)  26. 

[Along  (adv.1)  +  side.] 

ALONGST,  prep.  Cum.  Chs.  Ken.  Som.  [alo'nst, 
3lae-rjs(t).]  1.  Along. 

Cum.1  Alongst,  used  in  old  deeds.     Chs.1  Alongst  the  road. 
2.  adv.  and  prep.     Lengthwise. 

?  Ken.1  [I  do  not  remember  ever  hearing  this,  and  after  much 
nquiry  can  find  no  one  who  has  (P.M.)]  ;  Ken.2  Alongst  it,  on 
the  long  side  of  it,  SOMNER  Gavelkind,  120.  w.Som.1  Alongst, 
used  very  commonly  in  contrast  to  '  athwart  '  or  '  across.'  You  'ont 
make  no  hand  o'  thick  there  field  o'  ground,  nif  he  idn  a  guttered 
both  ways,  ukraa-s-n  ulangs  [across  and  alongst]. 

[It  was  concluded  they  should  come  alongst  Berwick 




Bridge,  BAILLIE  Letters,  I.  325  (BOUCHER)  ;  The  herald 
flew  From  troop  to  troop  alongst  the  host,  CHAPMAN 
Iliad,  iv.  227.  Alongst  is  formed  fr.  along  with  the  advb. 
suff.  -es  +  parasitic  /,  as  in  against.] 

ALOOSE,  adv.    Nhb.    [aloirs.J     Loose,  free. 

Nhb.1  '  Let  yorsel  alowse,'  was  the  exhortation  of  a  pitman  to 
a  friend  who  was  batting  stiffly  at  a  cricket  match. 

[A-,  on  +  loose  (ON.  lauss).] 

ALOUD,  adv.    Wil.  Som.    [aleu'd.]     See  below. 

Wil.1  That  there  meat  stinks  aloud  [smells  very  bad].  w.Som.1 
As  in  polite  society  we  hear  of '  loud  colours,'  so  in  our  lower 
walk  we  talk  of  'loud  stinks.'  Dhik  rab'ut  fraa'sh  !  ee  stingks 
ulaewd  [that  rabbit  fresh  !  he  stinks  aloud]. 

[The  stuff,  to  quote  the  trenchant  expression  of  an 
onlooker,  '  stank  aloud,'  Dy.  News,  Feb.  1872  (N.E.D.). 
A-,  on  +  loud.] 

ALOW,  adv.1  and  prep.  Sc.  s.Irel.  Lan.  I. Ma.  Ess. 
[alou1.]  Below. 

Gall.  Silver  Sand .  .  .  never  glanced  either  aloft  or  alow,  CROCKETT 
Raiders  (1894)  xi.  Wxf.1  Aloghe,  below.  Lan.  Monthly  Mag. 
(1815)  I.  127.  I. Ma.  Where  am  I?  alaw  or  alaf ?  BROWNE  Doctor 
(1887)  30.  Ess.  As  fleeting  ship,  by  bearing  sayl  alowe,  With- 
standeth  stormes  when  boistrous  winds  do  blow,  TUSSER  Hus- 
bandrie  (1580)  216,  st.  a. 

[Alow,  in  a  low  place,  not  aloft,  BAILEY  (1755) ;  And  now 
alow  and  now  aloft  they  fly,  DRYDEN  (JOHNSON)  ;  Why 
somme  (briddes)  be  alowe  and  somme  alofte,  P.  Plowman 
(B.)  xn.  222.  A-,  on  +  low.] 

ALOW,  adv.2  Sc.  n.Irel.  Nhb.  Yks.  Also  written 
alowe.  [alou1.]  Ablaze,  on  fire. 

Sc.  To  speak  to  him  about  that  .  .  .  wad  be  to  set  the  kiln  a-low, 
SCOTT  Midlothian  (1818)  xlv  ;  Sit  down  and  warm  ye,  since  the 
sticks  are  alow,  ib.  Pirate  (1822)  I.  103.  e.Lth.  Tod-Lowrie  had 
set  the  heather  a-low,  HUNTER  J.  Inuiick (1895)  122.  N.I.1  Alowe, 
lit,  kindled.  Ant.  The  chimley's  alow,  Ballymena  Obs.  (1892  . 
Nhb.  Come  and  ye'll  see  a  sight.  Vender's  the  Fairy  Hill  a'  alowe, 
Denham  Tracts  (ed.  1895)  II.  137  ;  Nhb.1  It  wis  aall  iv  alow  iv 
a  minute.  n.Yks.2 

|  It  kindils  on  (a)lowe,  Wars  Alex.  4177.  In  Ormulum 
16185  there  occurs  o  lo^he  (in  flame).  A-,  on  +  low,  q.v.] 

ALP,  sb.  n.Cy.  Lan.  e.An.  Also  written  olp  e.An.12 
Nrf.1  Suf.1 ;  ope,  awf  Suf.1 ;  alf,  ulf  e.An.1  Cf.  also  Hoop, 
Mawp,  Nope,  Pope.  The  bullfinch,  Pyrrhula  europaea. 

n.Cy.  Alp,  a  singing  alp,  GROSE  (1790).  Lan.1,  e.An.12  Nrf. 
Alpe,  GROSE  (1790) ;  Nrf.1  Suf.  Our  gardeners  slay  the  bullfinches, 
which  eat  the  fruit-buds  of  currants  and  gooseberries —  'mischief- 
ful  alps,'  as  they  call  them,  e.An.  Dy.  Times  (1892) ;  Alpe,  or  alfc 
(F.H.);  Snf.1  [AJp,  the  old  name  for  the  bullfinch,  SWAINSON 
Birds  (1885)  66  ;  MORRIS  Hist.  Brit.  Birds  (1857).] 

[An  alpe  (bu\nnch),Rubidlla,  COLES  (1679)';  A\pe,Fice- 
dula,  Prompt. ;  Alpes,  finches,  and  wodewales,  CHAUCER 
R.  Rose,  658.  The  forms  ending  in  /  (ph)  appear  mostly 
in  compounds,  and  are  perh.  due  to  want  of  stress.  See 

ALPUIST,  conj.  Obs.  Sc.  Also  written  allpuist, 
apiece,  apiest.  Although. 

Sc.  We  had  been  at  nae  great  tinsel,  apiest  we  had  been  quit  o' 
her,  FORBES  Jrn.  (1742)  14  ;  We  cou'd  na'  get  a  chiel  to  shaw  us 
the  gate,  alpuist  we  had  kreished  his  liv  wi'  a  shillin,  ib.  16  ;  A 
bodie  wou'd  nae  car'd  to  meddle  wi  her,  apiece  they  had  been 
hir'd  to  do't,  ib.  17 

[See  Albuist] 

ALRICH,  see  Eldritch. 

ALTER,  v.  Brks.  Som.  [o'lta(r).]  To  change  for 
the  better  (as  in  phr.  to  alter  the  hand)  ;  to  improve  in  con- 
dition, gain  flesh  (used  of  live  stock). 

Brks.  A  man  alters  for  the  better,  but  changes  for  the  worse 
(M.J.B.).  w.Som.1  Neef  ee  doan  au'ltur  uz  an,  ee  ul  zeon  bee  een 
i  baemd  wai  [if  he  does  not  change  his  course  (alter  his  hand)  he 
will  soon  go  to  the  bad  altogether].  Dhai  stee-urz-1  au-ltur,  muyn, 
een  yoa-ur  keep  [those  steers  will  alter,  mind,  in  your  keep]. 
Dhai  au-gz  bee  au'lturd  shoa-ur  nuuf  [those  hogs  arc  altered  sure 
enough  !]. 

ALTERATION,^.  w.Yks.  Hmp.  [o'ltarei/an.]  Differ- 
ence. Also  used  as  adj.  Of  the  weather  :  changeable, 

w.Yks.  See  what  an  alteration  between  me  an'  Wiseman  ;  he 
likes  baths,  an'  'ud  fair  cry  if'c  missed  ?em,  an'  I  can't  abide  'em 

(F.P.T.  j.  Hmp.  I'm  always  much  worse  in  alteration  weather 
(W.M.E.F.  . 

ALTERING,^'.  w.Som.  [o'ltarin.]  Likely  to  improve. 

w.Som.1  Auctioneers  constantly  wind  up  their  advertisements 
of  cattle  sales  in  the  local  press  with, '  The  whole  of  the  stock  is  of 
the  most  altering  description.' 

ALTER Y,adj.    Brks.     [o'ltari.]     See  below. 

Brks.  The  weather  is  said  to  be  a  bit  'altery'  when  it  '  tokens 
for  rain  '  (M.J.B.). 

[Alter,  vb.  +  -y  ;  the  form  prob.  suggested  by  '  rainy.'] 

ALTOGETHER  SO,  adv.  phr.   w.Som.   [^'ItageSa  zoa.] 

w.Som.1  Altogether  so,  just  to  the  same  degree.  Bill's  all  thumbs, 
and  Jack's  altogether  so  vitty  handed. 

ALUNT,  adv.    Sc.    [alirnt.]     In  a  blazing  state. 

Sc.  Hence,  to  set  alunt,  (i)  to  put  in  a  blaze,  (2)  fig.  to  kindle, 
to  make  blaze.  For  if  they  set  the  taxes  higher,  They'll  set  alunt 
that  smoostin'  fire  Whulk  ilka  session  helps  to  beat,  An  when  it 
burns,  they'll  get  a  heat,  HOGG  Pastorals,  16 ;  Sweet  Meg  maist 
set  my  saul  alunt  Wi'  rhyme  and  Pate's  disease,  A.  SCOTT  Poems 
(1811)  (JAM.).  Gall.  That  reed-heed  o'  yours  to  set  them  a-Iunt, 
CROCKETT  Sunbonnet  (1895)  ix. 

[A-,  on  +  lunt,  q.v.] 

ALWAYS,  conj.    Sc.  n.Cy.   Notwithstanding,  however. 

Sc.  The  remonstrants  would  have  opposed  it  (the  coronation  of 
Charles  II),  others  prolonged  it  as  long  as  they  were  able.  Always 
blessed  be  God,  it  is  this  day  celebrated  with  great  joy  and  con- 
tentment to  all  honest-hearted  men  here,  BAILLIE  Lett.  (1775)  II. 
367  (JAM.).  N.Cy.1 

[I  will  not  contende  .  . .  who  is  the  best.  .  . .  Alway  I 
would  advise  him  not  to  deteine  the  childe,  ELYOT  Gov. 
(BOUCHER)  ;  How  be  it  that  he  had  grete  pyte  .  .  .  alwayes 
he  ...  went  his  wayes,  CAXTON  Eneydos,  xxi.  74.] 

AM,  see  He. 

AMACKALLY,  adv.  n.Cy.  to  Yks.  and  Lan.  Not  in 
Sc.  gloss.  Also  written  amackily  Wm.  &  Cum.1 ;  amackly 
Wm.  Lan.1  [ama'kali,  ama'kli.]  To  some  degree ;  in 
some  fashion  ;  as  it  were. 

n.Cy.  GROSE  (1790);  HOLLOWAY;  N.Cy.1  Amackally,  in  a  manner, 
as  well  as  one  can.  Nhb.1  Obs.  Cum.  Did  you  get  your  money  ? 
— Aye,  we  dud  amackaly.  There  wasn't  time,  but  we  gat  it  duin, 
amackily  (M.P.).  Wm.  &  Cum.1  I  send  te  thisan,  to  tell  thec 
amackily  what  dreedful  fine  things  I  sicw,Borrowdale  Lett.  (1787). 
Wm.  We  leeve  in  yan  o  thor  deeals  up  amang  t'fells — a  fell  heead 
spot  amackly  es  yan  ma  say,  CLARKE  Spec.  Dial.  (ed.  1868)  "TRtysh 
Beearin  ;  Fert  neets  an  daes  wer  amackily  o  alike,  Spec.  Dial. 
(1885)  pt.  iii.  i ;  T'poor  fello's  pluck  he  amackily  roosed,  BOWNESS 
Studies  (1868)  80;  Wm.1  w.Yks.  HUTTON  Tour  to  Cams  (1781) ; 
Amackly,  almost,  just  about  (R.H.H.).  Lan.1,  n.L.-ui.1.  ne.Lan.1 

[Amackally  may  be  thus  analyzed  :  Amack=a  mak  (for 
on  mak),  in  a  fashion ;  to  this  the  advbl.  suffix  -ly  has 
been  added,  hence  the  gen.  mg.,  in  a  manner ;  see  Mack.] 

AMAIN,  adv.     Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Yks.    [ame'n,  amea'n.j 

1.  A  coal-trade  term ;    in   full   force,  violently,  at  full 
speed,  quickly. 

Nhb.  &  Dur.  Wagons  or  tubs  are  said  to  run  amain  if  they  get  by 
accident  over  an  incline  bank-head  without  the  rope  being  attached, 
or  through  the  rope  becoming  detached  or  breaking,  NICHOLSON 
Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1888).  Nhb.1  Cum.  Fwok  cud  lock  t'wheels  ov  a 
waggon  to  hinder't  o'  runnin'  amain,  DICKINSON  Lamplugh  (1856)  7. 

2.  Fig.  to  get  amain,  run  amain,  to  get  beyond  control, 
run  riot. 

Nhb.  As  if  maw  wits  had  run  amain,  WILSON  Pitman's  Pay,  &c. 
(1843)  23.  w.Yks.  T'fire  on  t'fell  got  amain  (JE.B.). 

[Amain,  vehementer,  valde,  strenue,  COLES  (1679) ;  Cry 
you  all  amain,  '  Achilles  hath  the  mighty  Hector  slain,' 
SHAKS.  Tr.  &>  Cr.  v.  viii.  13  ;  Brave  warriors,  march 
amain  towards  Coventry,  ib,  3  Hen.  VI,  iv.  viii.  64.  A-, 
on  +  main  (OE.  mcegn).] 

AMAISTER,  v.     Obs.    sw.Shr.    To  teach. 

Shr.  BOUND  Prov.  (1876) ;  Shr.1  An  old  man  near  Leintwardine, 
speaking  of  his  schoolmaster,  said,  "E  used  to  amaister  me,  Sir.' 
Now  [1876]  rarely  heard  ;  Shr.2  I'll  amaister  it  to  you.  I  insert 
this  word  on  the  single  authority  of  a  man  from  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Cleobury  Mortimer,  who  assured  me  that  he  had  repeatedly 
heard  it  in  the  above  sense. 

[How  ich  myghte  a-maistren  hem  to  ...  laboure  For 
here  lyflode,  P.  Plowman  (c.)  ix.  221.  OFr.  amaistrer,  to 
master,  to  teach.] 




A-MASKED,  ppl.  adj.     Obs.    Wil.     Bewildered,  lost. 

Wil.  Met  with  in  old  Wil.  documents  (G.E.D.)  ;  Wil.* 

[Philosophy  is  darke,  Astrology  is  darke.  .  .  .  The  pro- 
fessors thereof  oftentimes  runne  amasket,  JEWEL  Holy 
Script.  (N.E.D.)  Atnasked,  prop,  covered  with  a  '  mask," 
blindfolded  .  A-  (pref.l°)  +  masked.  Cp.  masked  in  FULLER  : 
Leaving  him  more  masked  than  he  was  before,  Holy 
War,  in.  a.] 

A-MASSY,  int.     Dev.     [a-ma'si.] 

nw.Dev.  Massy  I  A-massy  !  A-massy  well  !  A-massy  me  !  are 
aIlcommon(R.P.C.).  e.Dev.  An'  when  'twas  done  (a-maacy  wull!) 
PULMAN  Sketches  (1842)  25. 

[Repr.  Have  mercy  .'  Heaven  have  mercy  on  me  ! 
SHAKS.  Otli.  v.  ii.  34  ;  Have  mercy,  Jesu  !  ib.  Rich.  Ill,  v. 
iii.  178.] 

AMATON,  sb.    Sc.  QAM.) 

1.  A  thin,  bony  person. 
Gall.  (JAM.  Suppl.) 

2.  A  foolish  person  ;  one  yielding  to  anger. 

AMAUNCE,  AMAUNGE,  see  Maunce. 
AMAZE,    sb.    Wxf.     Written    amize.     Amazement, 


[But  soon  our  joy  is  turn'd  Into  perplexity  and  new 
amaze,  MILTON  P.  R.  n.  38.] 

AMBER,  sb.  Ken.  Sus.  [ae-mba(r).]  A  plant-name  : 
applied  to  (i)  All  Saints'  Wort,  Hypericum  androsaemum, 
from  its  smell  (s.Ken.  Sus.)  ;  (2)  St.  John's  Wort,  Hyperi- 
cum per/oratum  (Ken.).  Perhaps  so  called  from  its  pale 
yellow  flowers. 

AMBER,  YELLOW,  see  Yellow  Ammer. 

AMBLE,  v.  Nhb.  Not.  Oxf.  Also  written  aumble 
Nhb.1  [o-mbl,  o-ml.] 

1.  To  walk. 

Nhb.  Obs.  (R.O.H.);  Nhb.1 

2.  To  walk  clumsily,  to  trample.    Cf.  shamble. 

Not.  She's  an  omblin',  shomblin'  sort  o'  lass  (W.H.S.).  Oxf.1 
Amble  about,  to  tread  standing  corn,  &c.  about 

AMBRY,  sb.    Sc.  n.Cy.  to  Yks.  and  Lan.  ;   also  Der. 
Also  written  aumrie  Sc.  ;  aumry  w.Yks.1  Lan.1  •  aumery 
w.Yks.";  aumbry  N.Cy.12;  almery  Nhb.    [a'mbri,  §-mri  .] 
1.  A  chest,  cupboard  where  food  is  kept,  pantry. 

Sc.  Steek  [close]  the  amrie,  lock  the  kist,  Else  some  gear  may 
weel  be  mist,  SCOTT  Donald  Caird  (1818)  ver.  4;  The  only  furni- 
ture, excepting  ...  a  wooden  press,  called  ...  an  ambry,  ib.  Waverley 
(1814)  xxxvii;  He  has  broken  his  face  on  the  ambry  [is  fat 
cheeked],  HENDERSON  Prov.  (1832)  114,  ed.  1881  ;  Ambry,  cupboard 
GROSE  :  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)  Abd.  That  grim  gossip,  chandler- 
chaftedwant,  With  threed-bare  claithing,  and  an  ambry  scant  Ross 
ffelenore  (I?68)  i.  Bwk.  He  kept  his  money  in  an  old  aumrie  of 
very  black  oak,  HENDERSON  Pop.  Rhymes  (  1856)  87.  n.Cy.  GROSE 
(1790);  N.Cy.1;  N.Cy.2  No  sooner  up,  but  the  head  in  the  aumbry 
and  nose  in  the  cup.  Nhb.1  Cnm.  Ton's  welcome  as  may  be  My 
purse  and  my  ambrie  to  share,  ANDERSON  Ballads  (1808)  01  •  Now 
seldom  used  except  in  reference  to  old  buildings,  or  as  a  tempta- 

A°mht?VMyp^  of  °ld,furniture  in  advertisements-'  An  ancient 

Ambne  (M.P.).     Wra.1    Yks.  Gang  to  your  aumbrie,  ifyou  please 

And  fetch  us  here  some  bread  and  cheese,  Denham  Tracts  (edTiSgs 

97-     m-Yks.1     w.Yks.  Aumery,  a  cupboard  where  provisions 

are  kept      Nearly  obs.,  Hlfa.  Wds.;    w.Yks.1  1  hed  some  efter 

asm  breead  i    t  aumry,  ii.  300;  w.Yks."     Lan.  We'n  tarts  an' 

1^\  ?"«  \  -°W^  Saddle  °'  mutton  ''  t>aumry  y°n.  WAUGH 
Jannock  (1874)  „  ;  Oppenyon  drawer  i'  th'  aumrie,  KAY-SHUTTLE- 
WORTH  Scarsdale  (1860)  II.  283  ;  Lan.i,  ?  Chs.1,  Der.1 

umrie'  °r  muckle  aumrie,  a  very  stupid  person. 

Fn  hi  but  wh  t  %  contemPt  to  *  clumsy  person  who  has  nothing 
in  mm  but  what  the  spoon  puts  in  (G  W  ) 

press    °r'  cupboard,  probably 
VCSSels  used  at  mea^  (JAM.). 

....^e  plate  and  utensils  for  House- 

a  cupboard  to  keep  victuals  in,  WORLIDGE  ;  An  ambrey 
(pantrey),  Cella  pennaria,  COLES  (1679) ;  Ambry,  vox  jaw 
fere  obsoleta  ...  a  cupboard's  head,  SKINNER,  Bb  2 ;  Al- 
moire,  an  ambry,  cupboard,  box  ;  .  .  .  Armaire,  a  cup- 
board, ambrie,  little  press,  COTGR.  ;  An  almery,  scrininiii, 
almariolum  ; ...  An  armorie,  armarium,  LEVINS  Manip.  • 
Almery  of  mete  kepynge,  cibutum,  Prompt. ;  Avarice  hatli 
almaries  and  yren-bounde  coffres,  P.  Plowman  (B.)  xiv. 
246.  OFr.  almarie,  armarie,  MLat.  amtariutii,  a  place  for 
implements,  '  arms.'] 

AMBURY,  see  Anbury. 

AMEL,  sb.    Obs.    Sc.   Enamel. 

Sc.  The  amel  of  her  eye,  when  she  smiled,  it  was  impossible  to 
look  steadfastly  on,  Winter  Ev.  Tales,  II.  8  (JAM.). 

[Amel,  encaustum,  COLES  (1679) ;  Esmail,  ammel  or 
enammel,  COTGR.  ;  Ammell  for  goldesmythes,  esmael, 
PALSGR.  ME.  Grene  aumayl  on  golde,  Gawaine,  235. 
OFr.  esmail  (mod.  email).] 

AMELL,/**/).    Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.    [anvel.] 

1.  Among,  between,  amidst. 

n.Cy.  Amell  one  and  two  o'clock,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.) ; 
N.Cy.1 ;  N.Cy.2  Some  pronounce  it  '  ameld.'  Nhb.1  Amell  them  twa 
to  drive  a  bargain,  Joco-Serious  Discourse,  29.  Cum.2  Nearly,  if 
not  quite,  obs.  n.  &e.Yks.  A-mcll  tweay  steauls  the  Tail  may 
fall  to'th  grand,  MERITON  Praise  Ale  (1684)  1.  90.  n.Yks.1  They 
cam'  amell  seven  and  eight  o'clock.  '  Chop  in  amel],'  direction  to 
a  colley  or  sheepdog.  He  fand  it  amell  t'shaffs  [sheaves]  ;  n.Yks.2 
ne.Yks.1  The  form  '  mellem  '  is,  or  was  recently,  used  at  Staithes, 
where  the  fishermen  divide  the  fish  '  mellem  yan  anoother.'  Amell 
tweea  steeals.  e.Yks.  Amell  six  and  seven  o'clock,  MARSHALL  Rur 
Econ.  (1788). 

2.  Comp.   Amell-door,    a    door    midway  between  two 
others ;   -doors,  a  passage ;   -times,  -whiles,  -way,  see 
below.     See  Mell-doors. 

Cum.2  Amell-door,  or  Mell-door,  a  door  between  the  outer  door 
and  that  of  an  inner  room.  n-Yks.1 ;  n.Yks.2  Amell-times,  or  Amell- 
whiles,  intervals.  Amell-way,  in  a  middling  way,  as  we  say  of 
a  person's  health. 

[Amel,  among,  betwixt,  Sc.,  BAILEY  (1755);  Amell, 
among,  betwixt,  COLES  (1677) ;  Erthe  is  vayne  and  voyde, 
and  myrknes  emel,  York  Plays,  6.  STRATMANN  has  the 
forms  a  melle  and  *  melle.  See  Mell.] 

AMEN,  in  comp.  ( i )  Amen-chapel,  see  below ;  (2)  -clerk, 
(3)  -curler,  a  parish  clerk  ;  (4)  -wallah,  a  chaplain's  clerk. 

(i)  Slang.  Amen-chapel,  the  service  used  in  Winchester  School 
upon  Founder's  Commemorations,  and  certain  other  occasions,  in 
which  the  responses  and  Amens  are  accompanied  on  the  organ 
(E.F.).  (2)  Shr.1  Amen-clerk,  obs.  Entry  in  the  Parish  Register 
of  Hopton  Castle,  Shropshire  :  '  Anno  Dofiii,  1636.  Richardus 
Beb  Amen-clericus  sepultus  maij  primo.'  Var.  dial.  Clerk,  called 
Amen-clerk  in  some  places,  PEGGE  Ante.  Eng.  Lang.  (1803)  318. 
(3)  Slang.  LifeB.  M.  Carew  (1791).  (4)  In  the  army  the  chaplain's 
:lerk  is  called  an  Amen-wallah  [Hindustani  for  man  or  person], 

AMENDEN,   int.      Obs.  ? 
disguised  oath. 

e-An.1  Suf.1  A  sort  of  oath,  equivalent  to  '  a  plague,'  or  a  more 
gross  word,  now  disused.  Where  amenden  ar  yeow  a  goen? 
Amenden  take  you.  [Not  known  to  our  correspondents  1 

AMENDMENT,    sb.      Ken.    Sur.    Sus.    Hmp.     Also 
written  mendment   Ken.1   Sus.2  Hmp.1    [ame'ndmant] 
Manure  laid  on  land. 
w.Ken.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)      Ken.1,  Sur.1     Sns.1  You 

down  to  the  ten-acre  field,  and  spread  that  amendment  abroad  ; 
Sus.2,  Hmp.i 

[Chalk,  lime,  and  other  sweet  soil  and  amendments, 
EVELYN  Acetaria  (1699),  ed.  1729,  156.  ME.  Yet  sawe  I 
neuer  tree  that  wold  nought .  . .  receyuen  tylthe  and 
amendement,  LYDGATE  Pylg.  Sowle(N.E.D.).  Fr.  amende- 
went,  manure  ;  see  LITTRE  (s.v.),  DUCANGE  (s.v.  Amenda- 
mentum).  Used  in  this  sense  also  in  Flem. ;  see  BROEC- 
KAERT  Bastaardwoordenboek  (s.v.).] 

AMENDS,  sb.  Der.  Not.  War.  s.Wor.  [ame'nz.]  Phr. 
'o  make  amends,  to  return  a  compliment  or  obligation. 

Der.  Still  commonly  used  (H.R.).  nw-Der.1  s.Not.  Ah  thanked 
im  for  the  tunnips,  an'  told  'im  we'd  mek  'im  amends  when  our 
peas  corned  in  (J.P.K.).  War.  (J.W.R.)  s.Wor.  PORSON  Quaint 
Was.  (1875)  20  ;  (H.K.) 

e.An.     An   interjection  or 






[To make  amends,  in  the  sense  of  to  make  a  return  for 
something  good,  seems  to  be  peculiar  to  the  dialects.     In 
lit.  E.  one  always  'makes  amends'  for  faults  committed 
or  damages  incurred.] 
AMENG,  see  Among. 

AMERICAN,  adj.  Comb.  ( i )  American  breezers,  a  kind 
of  potato  (Oxf.) ;  (2)  —  creeper,  Tropaeolum  Canariense 
(Dev.) ;  (3)  — lilac,  CentrantJius  ruber(Dev.) ;  (4)  —  rake, 
a  machine  for  raking  hay ;  (5)  —  waterweed,  (6)  —  weed, 
Anacharis  alsinastrum  (Lin.  Glo.). 

(i)  Oxf.1  (2)  Dev.4  In  Som.  this  handsome  climber  is  called 
Canary  creeper.  (3)  Ib.  American  lilac,  Red  Valerian.  (4)  nw.Dev.1 
American  rake,  the  turnover  machine  hay-rake.  (6)  Lin.  The 
plant  has  received  other  trivial  names,  such  as  ...  the  American 
weed,  MILLER  &  SKERTCHLY  Fenland  (1878)  x. 
AMEVE,  v.  Obs.  Irel.  To  move. 

Crl.  Freq.  used  by  old  persons  twenty  years  ago  (M.B.-S.).    Wxf.1 
[Whan  she  had  herd  al  this,  she  noght  ameved,  Neither 
in  word  or  chere,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  E.  498.     Ameve,  OFr. 
ameiiv-,  stressed  stem  of  amover,  amouvoir.] 

AMINDED, />/>/.  adj.  Stf.  War.  Glo.  Oxf.  Brks.  Som. 
[amai-ndad.]  Willing,  disposed,  inclined. 

s.Stf.  Her  con  afford  to  put  a  good  spread  on  the  table  when  her's 
aminded,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1889)  63.  War.2  Do  as  you're 
aminded.  Glo.1  You  can  do  about  that  as  you've  got  aminded.  Oxf.1 
I'll  go  when  I  be  amindted.  If  I'd  amindted  I  shall  do6t,  an'  if 
I  ant  amindted  I  shant.  Brks.1  If  a  beant  aminted  to  do  what 
I  axes  e,  e  med  vind  a  plaayce  zome'er  else.  Som.  An'  then  you 
shall  goo,  if  you  be  a'-minded,  RAYMOND  Love  and  Quiet  Life 
(1894)  124.  w.Som.1  I  be  gwain  to  vote  eens  I  be  aminded,  and 
I  baint  gwain  vor  t'ax  nobody. 
[A-  (pref?}+ minded,  q.v.] 

AMISS,  in  phr.  amiss  of.  Suf.  [ami's.]  Amiss  with, 
wrong  with. 

Suf.  What's  amiss  of  John,  that  he  doesn't  go  to  work  ?  Some- 
thing's amiss  of  the  lawn-mower.  In  everyday  use  (F.H.) ; 

AMITAN,  sb.    Sc.  (JAM.)    A  weak,  foolish  person  ;  one 
yielding  to  excess  of  anger. 

[Gael,  amadan,  a  fool.] 
AMMAT,  see  Noon-meat. 

AMMER-GOOSE,  sb.  Sc.  The  great  northern  Diver, 
Colymbus  glacialis. 

Abd.,  e.Lth.  Ammer,or  Emmer-goose,  SWAINSON Birds (1885)  213. 
AMMIL,  sb.    Dev.    [ae'mil.]    A  kind  of  hoar-frost. 
Dev.  There  is  one  peculiar  atmospheric  phenomenon  seen  upon 
Dartmoor,  which  is  of  rare  occurrence, .  .  .  known  to  the  moor-folk 
as  the  '  ammil.'  . .  .  Under  certain  conditions  a  body  of  thin  trans- 
parent ice  encloses  every  tree,  twig,  leaf,  or  blade  of  grass,  PAGE 
Explor.  Drtmr.  (1889)  i ;  The  ammil  continued  for  two  nights  and 
days,  ROWE  Peramb.  Drtmr.  (ed.    1896)  431  ;    Duee  lukee  ;   zee 
tha  trees   be   Hiking   butivul's   marning.     LOkes'z   ef  they   wuz 
covered  wi'  dimonds.     Us  dawnt  offen  zee  tha  ammil  za  thick,  du 
us?  HEWETT  Peas.  Sfi.  (1892). 
[Prob.  a  fig.  use  of  amel,  q.v.] 
AMMUT,  see  Emmet. 
AMON,  sb.    Obsol.    Ken.    A  child's  game. 
Ken.  A  trial  of  skill,  in  which  the  players  endeavour  to  see  who 
can  get  over  the  most  ground  by  means  of  one  hop,  two  steps,  and 
a  jump.  The  game  is  still  practised,  though  the  word  '  Amon '  is  only 
known  to  old  people.    Will  ye  try  a' amon  widme,  Jack!    Playin' 
at  amon  does'n  wear  a  youngster's  boots  out  like  hop-scotch  does 
(A.M.) ;    Name  obs.  round  Ramsgate,  but  a  workman  has  seen  the 
game  played  on  the  sands  under  the  name  of  Fling  (D.W.L.)  ; 

AMONG,  prep.  Var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  Eng.  Also 
written  amang  Sc.  Irel.  Cum.  n.  and  e.Yks.  Lan.  Lin. ; 
ameng  w.Yks.  ;  imangs,  imangis  Sc.  [ama'rj,  arne'rj.] 

1.  Between  ;  used  with  reference  to  only  two  things. 
Chs.3  '  Beat  her  among  her  een,'  a  suggestion  from  a  drover  to 

make  a  '  curst '  cow  go  the  right  way.     [Arner.  The   money  was 
divided  among  us  two,  BARTLETT.] 

2.  In,  into ;  together  with ;  esp.  in  phr.  to  mix  among, 
put  among. 

Sc.  There's  a  mote  amo'  the  milk  (G.W.).     Inv.  To  put  some- 
thing among  milk  or  water  is  to  add  something  to  or  put  something 
into  it  (H.E.F.).    Abd.  Noo,  Mrs.  Birse,  ye  wull  not  pit  fusky  in 
VOL.  I. 

amo'  my  tae  [put  whisky  in  my  tea],  ALEXANDER  Johnny  Gibh  (1871) 
132,  ed.  7.  Per.  Mix  them  a'  amons  ane  anithcr  [in  one  mass] 
(G.W. ).  w.Yks.3  Often  used  without  noun,  as  '  There's  a  flock  of 
geese  and  ducks  amang.' 

3.  In  phr.  (i)  among  them,  in  their  own  hands  ;  (2)  among 
them  be  it,  let  them  settle  it  among  themselves,  it  is  their 
affair ;  (3)  to  be  among  the  hands  of,  to  be  in  the  hands 
of,  to  be  treated  or  used  by. 

(i)  w.&s.Sc.  Imangs  them,  imangis  themsells,  in  their  own  hands, 
together,  in  common  (JAM.  Suppl.).  (2)  Sc.  Amangyou  be't,  priests' 
bairns ;  I  am  but  a  priest's  oye  [grandson],  HENDERSON  Prov. 
(1832)  101,  ed.  1881.  NJ.1  Among  ye  be  it,  blind  harpers  [settle 
it  among  yourselves  :  said  to  persons  quarrelling],  e.Yks.1  w.Yks. 
If  anyone  caame  to  tell  'er  taales  abaht  oother  foalk,  sha'd  listen, 
an'  then  say,  'Amang  'em  be't'  (F.P.T.).  (3)  Per.  It's  amo'  your 
hands.  In  common  use  (G.W.). 

[2.  Vinello's  .  .  .  are  much  used  among  chocolate  to 
perfume  it,  DAMPIER  Voy.  I.  235  (N.E.D.) ;  Bawme  helde 
Among  a  basket  ful  of  roses,  CHAUCER  Hous  F.  1687. 
3.  The  vessel  that  the  potter  made  off  claye  brake  amonge 
his  hondes,  COVERDALE  Jer.  xviii.  4.] 

AMONG-HANDS,  adv.  Sc.  Irel.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Der. 
Not.  Lin.  Also  written  amongans  sw.Lin.1 

1.  Said  of  work  or  any  undertaking  :  done  conjointly,  by 
mutual  help  or  joint  action. 

e.Yks.  Oor  fooaks  is  undher-handed  rayther  then  ower-handed, 
bud  they'll  mannish  amang-hands,  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  91  ; 
e.Yks.1  They'll  manish  te  dee  it  amang-hands.  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.5 
When  there  is  a  task  of  some  difficulty  to  do  in  a  workshop  and  none 
to  whose  lot  it  falls  particularly,  any  unpleasantness  is  speedily 
got  rid  of  by  agreeing  to  do  it  '  ameng-hands.' — A  matter  o'  sixty 
lawyers  hed  been  consulted  .  .  .  soa  ameng-hands  the  property  was 
declared  under  the  cognizance  o'  the  High  Court  o'  Chancery,  ib.  93. 
n.Lin.  It's  a  orphan,  bud  w6  mun  git  it  broht  up  among-han's 
(M.P.) ;  n-Lin.1  Thaay  doan't  keap  a  sarvant  lass  noo,  but  thaay 
get  thrif  th'  hoose-wark  tidy  enif  among-hands.  Th'  bread's  sad, 
but  I  weant  thraw  it  i'  to  swill-tub  ;  we  shall  get  thrif  it  among- 

2.  Between  whiles,  in  the  meantime.    Of  work:  done  at 
odd  moments,  conjointly  with  other  things.     Cf.  atween- 

Ayr.  Had  he  no  dee'd  among  hands  .  .  .  I'm  sure  I  canna  think 
what  would  hae  come  o'  me,  GALT  Entail  (1823)  xxxii.  Ant.  A'll  dae 
it  amang  han's  [after  working  hours,  on  wet  days,  &c.],  Ballymena 
Obs.  (1892).  N.I.iHe'll  daet  amang  bans,  i.e.  he  will  get  it  donesome- 
how,  by  dividing  the  labour,  and  finding  spare  time  for  it.  n-Yks.1 
n.Yks.2  We  can  do't  amang  hands.  w.Yks.  Trottin  a  bit  nah  an 
then  ameng-hands  when  t'road  suits,  TOM  TREDDLEHOYLE  Bairnsla 
Ann.  (1848) ;  w.Yks.1 2,  ne.Lan.1,  Der.2,  nw.Der.1  swXin.1  There's 
a  woman  as  does  the  work,  and  waits  of  her  among-hands.  The 
men  have  two  lunches  a  day,  and  they  want  beer  among-hands. 

3.  Between,  amongst  other  things. 

w.  &  s.Sc.  Imang  hands,  at  hand,  at  command,  in  process,  on 
the  anvil  (JAM.  Suppl.).  Cum.  We've  roughness  [plenty]  amang 
hands,  we've  kye  i'  the  byre,  ANDERSON  Ballads  (1808)  The  Aunty ; 
They  wad  ha  kilt  meh  amang  hands,  an  what  couldei  ha  deunn 
wih  sooa  menny  o'  them,  SARGISSON./OC  Scoap  (1881)  178.  n.Yks.2 
Oor  cart's  i'  t'market  amang  hands  [along  with  similar  vehicles]. 
w.Yks.5  A  farmer  will  cut  up  a  stack  of  bad  hay  and  truss  it  off 
ameng-hands,  i.e.  mix  it  up  with  trusses  of  good  hay  and  send  it 
thus  to  market.  Not.  A've  given  away  a  many  o'  them  flowers 
amongans  (L.C.  M.).  swXin.1  We've  setten  some  larch  with  spruce 

4.  Of  land  :  belonging  to  different  proprietors  intermixed. 
w.Yks.  This  word  is  still  used,  but  much  more  rarely  than  formerly 

(M.F.) ;  w.Yks.1 

AMOO,s6.   Wil.   Children's  name  for  a  cow.    See  Moo. 

WU.  Aumoo,  cow  or  bullock  (now  almost  obs.),  N.  &  Q.  (1881) 
6th  S.  iv.  106 ;  Ahmoos,  used  by  nurses  in  talking  to  children,  on 
the  borders  of  Wil.  and  Som.  (G.E.D.) ;  Wil.1  Used  by  mothers  to 
children,  as  '  Look  at  they  pretty  ahmoos  a-coming  ! ' 

AMOTH,  sb.  Irel.  A  big  soft '  gossoon '  who  would  cry 
for  nothing  (S.A.B.). 

NJ.1  A  blirton  amos  [sic],  a  big  soft  fellow  who  weeps  for  a  slight 

[Ir.  amad,  a  simpleton,  a  foolish  silly  person,  a  fool.] 

AMOVE,  adj.    Brks.    [amu'v.]     Moving  with,  full  of. 

Brks.1  A  copse  is  said  to  be  '  amove  wi'  gaayme.' 

[A-,  on  +  move.] 




AMP,  sb.    Sh.I.    [amp.]    Fear,  terror. 

Sh.I.  (W.A.G.),  S.&Ork.1 

[Norw.  dial,  ampe,  trouble,  troublesome  work.  It  is 
freq.  used  about  the  trouble  with  babies  (AASEN).  Cp. 
Sw.  dial,  ampen,  angry,  anxious  (RiETz).] 

AMPER,  sb.  e.An.  Ken.  Sus.  Hmp.  Dor.  Som.  Dev. 
[a-mpa(r),  ae-mp3(r).] 

1.  An    inflamed    swelling,   pustule ;    a  varicose  vein ; 
matter,  pus. 

e-An.1  A  sort  of  inflamed  swelling.  Nrf.1  Suf.  e.Ang.  (1866) 
II.  325.  Ess.  Amper,  a  swelling  (P.R.) ;  A  rising  scab  or  sore,  allso 
a  vein  swelled  wth  corrupted  blond  (K.) ;  Ess.1  Ken.1  A  tumour  or 
swelling.  Sus.1  Hmp.  Prick  it,  an'  let  th'  amper  out  (J.R.W.); 
Hmp.1  Dor.1  The  chile  is  all  out  in  an  amper.  Som.  A  small  red 
pimple,  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial  w.Eng.  (1825);  W.  &  J.  Gl. ;  Mostly 
used  as  to  gatherings  on  the  fingers  when  '  proud  flesh '  swellings  or 
yellow-heads  come.  I  have  amper  on  one  of  my  fingers  (G.S.). 
w-Som.1  A  blotch  on  the  face.  n.Dev.  Ampers,  red  spots  and 
inflammation  on  the  skin,  particularly  upon  the  veins  of  the  legs, 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 

2.  A  defect  or  flaw  in  cloth. 

Suf.  (P.R.)  Sus.  A  fault  or  flaw  in  linnen  or  woollen  cloth, 
RAY  (1691) ;  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) ;  Sus.1,  Hmp.1 

[Amper,  Ampor,  a  swelling;  also  a  flaw  in  cloth, 
BAILEY  (1721) ;  Amper  vel  Ampor,  vox  Rusticis  agri  Essex, 
usitatissima,  quae  tumorem  vel  phlegmonem  designat, 
SKINNER  ;  An  amper,  ampor,  tumor,  COLES  (1679). 
ME.  pri  ampres  were  an  mancyn  XT  his  to-cyme,  Horn.  I. 
237.  OE.  ampre  (ompre), '  varix,'  a  swollen  vein.] 

AMPERED,  adj.  Ken.  Som.  [ae'mpad.]  Poisoned, 
feste  ed ;  decayed. 

Ken.  Ampred  chees  (K.).    Som.  SWEETMAN  Wincanton  Gl.  (1885). 

AMPERLASH,  sb.  Chs.  Saucy,  abusive  language. 
See  Camperlash. 

Chs.  I'll  have  none  o'  thy  amperlash,  soo  I  tell  thee,  Sheaf "(1879) 

I.  168  ;  Chs.1 

AMPERSAND,  phr.  In  var.  dial,  of  Sc.  and  Eng. 
Also  written  ampassy  Cum.1  Dev.1  Cor.12  ;  amsiam  Oxf. ; 
anpasty  e.An.1;  anparsy  Dur.1  w.Yks.2 ;  anparse 
w.Yks.1 ;  anparsil  w.Yks.5 ;  epse-and  Lin.1 ;  empassy  on 
Shr.1 ;  empus-and  Suf.1 ;  passy  Cor.12 ;  passy-and  Lin.1 ; 
parcy-and  N.Cy.1 ;  parseyand  e.Yks.1  See  below.  The 
sign  &,  formerly  written  at  the  end  of  the  alphabet  in 

S.  &  Ork.1  Aberzeant,  et  cetera.  Abd.  Usually  called  Eppersyand, 
N.  &  Q.  (1880)  6th  S.  i.  500.  N.Cy.1  In  the  old  dames'  schools  it 
was  made  a  twenty-seventh  letter — '  X,  Y,  Z,  and  parcy."  Dur.1, 
Cum.1  n.Yks.2  Amparsy,  or  Amplezant.  ne.Yks.1  Anparsy,  in 
rare  use ;  sometimes  Parsy-and.  e.Yks.1  w.Yks.  X,  Y,  Z,  and 
parcel,  goa  ta  bed,  Flk-rhyme,  Yks.  N.  &  Q.  (1888)  II.  14  ;  Children 
sometimes  conclude  the  alphabet  by  saying  '  X,  Y,  Z,  and  parsil," 
Hlfx.  Wds. ;  w.Yks.125  Chs.  &— per  se — and.  On  battledores 
furnished  to  the  free-school  at  Nantwich  about  the  year  1820-1, 
N.  &  Q.  (1871)  4th  S.  viii.  468.  n.Stf.  He  thought  it  had  been  put 
there  to  finish  off  the  alphabet — though  ampus-and  would  ha'  done 
as  well,  GEO.  ELIOT  A.  Bede  (1859)  xxi.  Not.1  Epsey  and.  Lin.1 
nXin.1  '  From  A  to  andparcy  '  is  equivalent  to  '  from  beginning 
to  the  end.'  Lei.1  Ampus-and.  War.3  Shr.1  Zad  an'  expassy  and 
[ek'spu'si'and]  is  heard  about  Worthen,  In/rod,  xxiii.  Oxf.1  Brks.1 
Amsiam :  always  thus  called  by  children,  and  named  after  the  letter 
Z  when  saying  the  alphabet.  e.An.1  Cmb.1  Ab-er-zand,  commonly 
used  in  the  dames'  schools  at  Wisbech.  Suf.  Beside  [Ampersand, 
Anapasty],  &  is  called  here  Anapaster  and  Amperzed,  e.Ang.  (1866) 

II.  363;  Suf.1   e.Sus.,Hmp.  Amperzed,  HOLLOWAY.  Som.  Anpassey , 
W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873)  ;  JENNINGS  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1869).     w-Som.1  Our 
alphabet  always  ends  with  'aek's,  wuy,  zad,  an'paa'see.'     Dev. 
Ampassy,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892) ;  Dev.1,  Cor.12    Cor.3  In  Red- 
ruth  usually  An-passy-an  or  Am-passy-an.    Colloq.  Any  odd  shape 
folks  understand  To  mean  my  Protean  ampersand,  Punch  (Apr.  17, 
1869)  153. 

[Repr. '  and  per  se—and,'  i.  e. '  &  by  itself=and.'] 
AMPERY,  «<#.    Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  Som.    [se-mpari.] 

1.  Covered  with  blotches  or  pimples  ;  gathered. 

Som.  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873) ;  My  finger  is  getting  ampery  (G.S.). 
w-Som.1  Aanrpuree  fae-usud  [blotchy  faced].  A  very  common 
description  of  persons,  but  it  would  not  be  spoken  of  animals. 

2.  Of  things,  esp.  of  cheese  :  rotten,  beginning  to  decay. 
Ken.  An  amprey  tooth,  GROSE  (1790) ;  Almost  equivalent  to  '  adle.' 

Said  of  an  old  wagon  in  a  rickety  state  and  out  of  repair  (P.M.). 
ne.Ken.  Applied  to  a  creaking  table,  decaying  cheese,  or  to  a  loose 
blade  in  a  knife  (H.M.).  Ken.12  Sur.1  That  cheese  is  middlin' 
ampery.  Sus.  The  doctor  opened  Jim's  mouth  .  .  .  but  seem  naun 
amiss  an  not  won  ampre  ang,  JACKSON  Southward  Ho  (1894)  I. 
251  ;  Sus.1  Especially  applied  to  cheese.  Hampery.  out  of  repair  ; 
Sus.2  Ampre-ang,  a  decayed  tooth.  Hmp.1 
3.  Fig.  of  persons  :  sickly,  unhealthy. 

Ken.  Ampry,  LEWIS  I.  Tenet  (1736).  e.Ken.  'A  ampery  'apoth 
of  cheese,' applied  to  any  one  ofa  weakly  constitution  (M.T.).  Ken.12 
e.Sus.  HOLLOWAY.  Sus.12,  Hmp.1 

[Amper,  q.v. +  -.?.] 

AMPLE,  adj.  Shr.  Also  written  imple  Shr.'  [a'mpl.] 
Complete,  perfect. 

Shr.  Very  commonly  used  (M.L.) ;  Shr.1  It  wuz  all  in  ample  order 
agen  they  comen  back. 

AMPLEFEYST,  sb.    ?  Obs.    Sc.  (JAM.) 

1.  Applied  to  persons  or  animals  :  a  sulky  humour,  a  fit 
of  spleen. 

Lth.,  Rxb.  A  horse  is  said  to  tak  the  amplefeyst,  when  he  be- 
comes restive,  or  kicks  with  violence.  He's  ta'en  up  an  amplefeyst 
at  me. 

2.  Unnecessary  talk,  long  stories. 

Rxb.  We  canna  be  fash'd  wi'  a'  his  amplefeysts.  [Not  known 
to  our  correspondents.] 

AMPLUSH,  sb.  Irel.  s.Pem.  [a'mpluf,  u'mpluf.]  A 
disadvantage,  non-plus,  state  of  unreadiness. 

Ir.  He  was  driven  at  last  to  such  an  amplush  that  he  had  no  other 
shift  for  employment,  CARLETON  Traits  (1843)  i.  w.Ir.  There  was 
no  sitch  thing  as  getting  him  at  an  amplush,  LOVER  Leg.  (1848) 
II.  472.  s.Don.  Amplush,  a  fix,  a  difficulty  ;  used  also  in  Munster, 
SIMMONS  Gl.  (1890).  s.Pem.  I  did'n  expect  it,  a  took  me  all  on  a 
umplush  (W.M.M.). 

[Repr.  non-plus.] 

AMPLUSH,  v.  Bnff.  Irel.  To  reduce  to  a  dilemma,  con- 
fuse in  argument. 

Bnff.1  w.Ir.  He'd  have  namplushed  me  long  ago,  LOVER  Leg. 
(1848)  II.  510. 

[See  Amplush,  sb.~\ 

AMSCHACH,  si.    Sc.    A  misfortune,  accident. 

Sc.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  Bnff.  The  vricht  [wright]  fell 
aff  o'  the  reef  o'  the  hoose,  an  got  a  gey  sehr  namschach  o'  the  head 
(W.G.).  Abd.  But  there  is  nae  need  To  sickan  an  amshach  that 
we  drive  our  head,  Ross  Helenore  (1768)  284. 

A-MULLOCK,  adv.  s.Wor.  Glo.  Untidily ;  in  a  con- 
fused heap.  See  Mullock. 

s.Wor.  Very  commonly  used  (H.K.).  Glo.  Down  er  went  on 
ers  backarl  a-mullock,  BUCKMAN  Dai-he's  Sojourn  (1890)  vii. 

[A-,  on  +  mullock,  q.v.] 

AMY  FLORENCE,  sb.     Obs.     Nhp. 

Nhp.1  Any  female  loosely,  untidily,  and  tawdrily  dressed.  She 
is  quite  an  Amy  Florence.  Now  nearly  obs.  [Not  known  to  our 

AN,  pron.  Sc.  n.Cy. ;  also  Shr.  Also  written  ane  Sc. 
See  One  and  Yan.  [en,  an.]  One. 

Per.  A  bad  ane,  a  good  ane.  Mony  a  ane  thinks  his  neighbour 
a  coorse  ane  [coarse  person]  (G.  W.).  e.Lth.  An'  whan  the  warlock 
bodies  cuist  doun  their  staves,  an'  they  turned  into  serpents  tae, 
Awron's  ane  stude  up  on  its  hint  legs  an'  devoored  them  a', 
HUNTER'/.  Inwick  (1895) 1102.  Edb.  The  weeane(J.W.L.).  Cum. 
Git  up,  my  leuvv,  my  fair  an,  an"  come  away,  DICKINSON  Sng.  Sol. 
(1859)  ii.  10.  s.Wm,  A  dunnan  [dun  an]  and  a  black  an,  HUTTON 
Dia,  Storth  and  Arnside  (1760)  1.  23.  n-Yks.  It  wasn't  t'reetan, 
TwEDVELLClevel.  Rhymes  (i8T$)3T.  w.Yks.1  He's  a  bad  an.  That's 
a  good  an.  Shr.2  A  bad  an. 

AN,  num.  adj.  Sc.  Nhb.  [an,  van.]  The  same, 

Gall.  They  were  fast  comrades,  being  of  an  age,  CROCKETT  Moss 
Hags  (1895)  322.  Nhb.  Ki  Geordy,  We  leve  i'  yen  raw,  weyet, 
I'  yen  corf  we  byeth  _gan  belaw,  weyet,  N.  Minstrel  (1806-7)  pt 
iv.  76. 

AN,  prep.  Sc.  [an.]  By,  about  the  time  of,  often  im- 
plying before. 

w.  &  s.Sc.  I'll  be  back  an  gloaming.  It'll  be  a"  by  an  ye  come  back 
(JAM.  Suppl. ).  Per.  An,  before ;  not  used  so  frequently  as  '  gin'  or 
'gan.'  I'll  be  there  an  an  hour  (G.W.). 

[Prob.  an  unstressed  form  of  Sc.  agane  (see  Again), 
I'll  be  back  agane  gloaming  QAM.).] 



AN,  cow/.1  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  n.  and  w.Yks.  Lan. 
Der.  Also  in  Nhp.  Glo.  e.An.  Sur.  Hmp.  Som.  Dev. 
Written  ant  Der.1  [an,  an.] 

1.  If;  found  also  in  comb.  Antle,  if  thou  wilt. 

Sc.  Ye  may  gae  hame  an  ye  like,  HENDERSON  Prov.  (1832)  58,  ed. 
1881  ;  You'll  wash  my  bluidy  wounds  o'er  and  o'er,  And  see  an 
they'll  bleed  nae  mair,  JAMIESON  Pop.  Ballads  (1806)  The  Twa 
Brothers;  An  they  had  ever  had  the  luck  to  cross  the  Firth,  SCOTT 
Midlothian  (1818)  xi ;  I  fore-ran  A  wee  wee  wife  and  a  wee  wee 
man  ;  And  sae  will  I  you  an  I  can,  CHAMBERS  Pop.  Rhymes  (1870) 
86 ;  The  biggest  salmon  in  the  river  couldna  gie  Jonah  lodgings 
an  it  had  been  willing,  DICKSON  Auld  Min.  (1892)  105.  Abd.An  it 
had  been  a  tyddie  pennyworth,  I  might  hae  chanc'd  to  get  a  mens 
[civility]  o'  her,  FORBES  Jrn.  (1742)  15.  Frf.  Twenty  year  syne 
we  began  life  taegither,  and  an  it  please  God  we  can  begin  it  again, 
BARRIE  Minister  (1891)  xxvi.  Per.  Ye  may  lauch  an'  ye  like, 
neeburs,  IAN  MACLAREN  Brier  Bush  (1895)  278.  Twd.  February, 
an  ye  be  fair,  The  hoggs'Il  mend,  and  naething  pair  [lessen] : 
February,  an  ye  be  foul,  The  hoggs'Il  die  in  ilka  pool,  SWAINSON 
Weather  Flk-Lore  (1873)  39.  Gall.  Whene'er  we  meet  wi'  liquor 
guid,  we'll  drink  an  we  be  dry,  NICHOLSON  Hist.  Tales  (1843)  107. 
n.Cy.  Antle,  an  thou  wilt  (W.W.S.).  Nhb.1  An  yer  gannin  the 
morn,  will  ye  tyek  us  wi'  ye  ?  Cum.  Tou  couldn't  mend  laws  an 
tou  wad,  man,  BLAMIRE  Poet.  Wks.  (c.  1794)  210.  Wm.1  An  tu  dus 
aa'l  [I'll]  whack  tha.  Yks.Antle,  GROSE  (1790)  Suppl. ;  He'd  a  gaed 
hame  that  neight  an'  thou'd  a  let  him,  HOWITT  Hope  on  (1840)  xi. 
n.Yks.12,  m.Yks.*  w.Yks.1  An  he  were.  Antot'hed,  if  thou  hadst. 
Antul,  if  thou  wilt.  It's  nout  at  au,  antul  believe  me,  bud  a  blind, 
ii.  297  ;  w.Yks.5  An  thah  doesn't  let  that  aloan  al  hagel  thee  rig  for 
thuh.  Lan.1  Aw'll  warm  thee,  an  thae  does  it.  ne.Lan.1  He'll 
cum  an  a  sed  sooa.  Der.1  Ant  like  yo  (pbs.  1890).  Glo.  An,  if,  but 
often  joined  with  '  if.'  An  he  comes  here,  I  will  rattle  him,  GROSE 
(1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  e-An.1  An  I  do.  Sur.  When  skulemaster 
talked  o'  teachin'  'em  drawin',  I  up  and  told  him,  an"  'ee  did  it  my 
old  man  should  draw  more  lines  on  'ee's  back  than  ever  the  laads 
did  a'  paper,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  I.  xiii.  Hmp.1  An  I  were 
back,  I'll  pay  you.  w.Cy.  The  western  man  saith  '  Chud  eat  more 
cheese  an  chad  it,'  BLOUNT  (1656).  w.Som.1  An  yiie  plaiz  [if  you 
please].  Dev.1  Colloq.  If  ifs  and  ans  were  pots  and  pans  there'd 
be  no  trade  for  tinkers,  Prov. 

2.  Although.    ?  Obs. 

Sc.  Get  enemies  the  mastery  over  Christ  as  they  will ;  He  will 
ay  be  up  upon  them  all,  an  they  hadsworn't,  GUTHRIE  Sermon  (i  755) 
1 1  GAM.). 

3.  An  if,  if.    See  Nif. 

Nhp.1  An  if  I  did,  what  of  that?  w-Som.1  An  if,  the  regular 
form  of  if."  In  rapid  common  speech  itis  nearly  always  contracted 
into  '  nif.'  Neef  aay  wuz  yiie,  aay-d  zee  un  daam  fuus  [if  I  were 
you  I  would  see  him  d— d  first]. 

4.  An  as  if,  as  it  were. 

n.Yks.  An  as  if  the  getherin'  o'  tweea  armies,  ROBINSON  Whitby 
Sttg.  Sol.  (1860)  vi.  13. 

[1.  This  word  is  mostly  written  and  in  the  old  writers, 
and  is  identical  with  lit.  E.  and,  OE.  and  (ond) '  et.'  The 
forms  and  and  an  both  occur  in  SHAKS.  (in  old  edd. 
mostly  and] :  Ay,  my  lord,  an't  please  you,  J,  Caesar,  iv. 
iii.  258 ;  And  I  were  a  pope  Not  only  thou,  but  every 
mighty  man  .  .  .  Sholde  have  a  wyf,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  B. 
3140.  The  word  and  in  the  sense  of '  if '  does  not  seem  to 
have  come  into  use  bef.  the  beginning  of  the  i3th  cent. 
The  earliest  instance  in  MATZNER  is  fr.  Laymton,  I.  355. 
2.  An  thou  wert  a  lion,  we  would  do  so,  SHAKS.  Love's 
L.  L.  v.  ii.  627.  3.  An  if  freq.  in  SHAKS.  :  It  is  not  lost ; 
but  what  an  if  it  were?  Oth.  in.  iv.  83  ;  An  if  your  wife  be 
not  a  mad-woman,  M.  Ven.  iv.  i.  445.] 

AN,  conj."  Sc.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Glo.  Oxf.  e.An.  Som. 
Also  written  and  Not.  [an.]  Than. 

s.  &  w.Sc.  Its  mair  an  ye  deserve  (JAM.  Suppl.).  Wm.  Warse 
an  that,  BRIGGS  Remains  (1825)  182.  n.Yks.1  Less  an  hau'f  nowght. 
e.Yks.1  That's  waase  an  all.  n.Lan.  The  lov's  better  an  wine, 
PHIZACKERLEY  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  v.  2.  ne.Lan.1  Not.  No  more  and  I 
(J.H.B.).  Glo.  Ale  seems  more  solider  'an  cider  this  cold  weather, 
GISSING  Vill.  Hampden  (1890)  I.  vi.  s.Oxf.  Six  'ear  younger'n  'im 
you  was,  ROSEMARY  Chilterns  (1895)  125.  e.An.1  Little  more  an  a 
half.  Nrf.  We'll  remahmberyar  love  more 'an  wine,  GILLETT  Sng. 
Sol.  (1860)  i.  4.  Som.  I  don't  know  any  maid  I'd  sooner  zee 
about  my  house  .  .  .  an'  I  would  you,  RAYMOND  Sam  and  Sabina 
(1894)49.  w.Som.1  Noauudh'ur  waiz-n  u  naafurul  [no  other  than 
a  natural(fool)].  Dev.  More  an  that,  MOORE  Hist.  Dev.  (.1829)  I.  353. 

AN,  see  Anon. 

AN-,  see  On-. 

ANA,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  (JAM.)  Also  written  anay.  A 
river-island,  a  holm. 

Sc.  The  stones  at  the  head  of  the  anay.  Rib.  The  Ana,  or  island, 
opposite  to  the  library,  was  many  feet  under  water,  Caledon.  Merc. 
(Jan.  29,  1820). 

ANACK,  sb.     Obs.    Hit.    A  kind  of  bread. 

Hrt.  Six  several  sorts  of  [oatmeal  bread]  may  be  made  ...  as 
your  anacks,  janacks,  &c.,  ELLIS  Cy.  Hwf.  (1750)  205. 

[Anack,  a  sort  of  fine  bread  made  of  oatmeal,  BAILEY 

ANAN,  see  Anon. 

ANATE,  adj.    s.Irel. 

Wxf.1  Anate,  prepared. 

ANATOMY,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  and  in  gen.  use  throughout 
dial.  exc.  in  se.  counties.  Also  by  aphaeresis  natomy, 
notomy,  atomy.  The  latter  form  occurs  in  Nhb.1  w.Yks.2 
ne.Lan.1  n.Lin.1  nw.Der.1  Der.2  War.  se.Wor.1  Hrf.12 
w.Som.1  Dev.  Cor.13 ;  ottomy  w.Yks.14  Nhp.1 ;  ottomy 
Irel.  Chs.1  Der.1  War. ;  otomy  w.Yks.4  Hrf.1  Glo.1 ;  nottamy 
n.Cy.1  nw.Der.1  Shr.1 ;  notomize  n.Yks.12  w.Yks.6  War. 
se.Wor.1;  ottimaze,  ottimize  Chs.1  War.  See  below, 
[ana'tami,  a'tami,  no'tami,  o'tami,  -aiz.] 

1.  A  skeleton. 

Sc.  Attamie  (JAM.).  N.Cy.1  Wm.  Wor  thor  giants  alive? .  .  . 
they  er  net  whick  I  racken,  they  er  what  they  coo  otamys,  WHEELER 
Dial.  (1790)  98,  ed.  1821.  n-Yks.1  m.Yks.1  Notomise,  Notomy. 
w.Yks.12;  w.Yks.5  He  use  to  goa  through  a  trap-door  intul  t'cellar 
ivvry  daay  to  luke  ar  it  [his  money],  an'  one  daay  t'trap-door  fell 
ower  him  an'  clickt  him  in,  an'  monny  a  year  at  after  he  wur  fun  a 
notomize.  Lan.  An  gooin  obeawt  stretes  loike  o  lot  o  'notamies, 
ORMEROD  TK  Felleyfro  Rachde  (1851)  i.  e.Lan.1  Notomy.  Chs.1, 
Der.2  Rut.  Yon  lad's  got  a  good  ottamies,  'e  'asn't  got  a  sprained 
bonein'isbody(F.P.T.).  Nhp.1, War.(J.R.W.)  se.Wor.1  Atomize. 
Hrf.1,  Glo.1  Hnt.  Nottomy,  Nattomy  (T.P.F.).  e-An.1 

2.  A  very  thin,  emaciated  person  or  animal,  a  '  bag  of 
bones,'  also  at/rib. 

Sc.  She  is  wasted  to  a  fair  anatomy,  ROY  Horseman's  Wd, 
(1895)  vi.  Nhb.1  He's  just  a  bit  atomy.  She's  gyen  tiv  a  fair  notomy. 
Cum.1  She's  dwinnel't  away  til  a  atomy.  n.Yks.2  He's  pined  tiv 
a  notomize,  there's  nought  left  on  him  but  a  few  beeans  an  a  trifle 
o'  bowels.  Chs.1  The  child  that  she  carried  on  her  arm  was  sup- 
posed to  be  witched,  for  it  went  into  a  nottymaze  and  died 
(s.v.  Witched).  s.Chs.1  Eh,  what  a  nottimize  yo  bin  ;  yo  dun  look 
badly.  Der.1,  nw.Der.1  An-otomy,  Nottomy.  n-Lin.1,  War.  (J.R.W.) 
Wor.  'Er  was  that  wasted,  'er  'ad  got  to  be  a  complete  natomy,  or 
frame  o'  bwones  (H.  K.).  s.Wor.1  Nottomy.  se.Wor.1  Shr.1  A  cer- 
tain faddy  mistress  '  werrited  the  poor  girld  [her  maid-servant]  till 
'er  wuz  a  rael  nottamy.'  Hrf.2  He's  gone  to  an  atomy.  Glo.'Natomy, 
BAYLIS  Illus.  Dial.  (1870).  Oxf.1  Natomy,  Notomy.  'Er  little  un's 
nuth'n  but  a  natomy  [Uur  lit'l  unz  nuth-n  bt  u  nafumuuy].  Suf.1 
He's  wasted  to  a  nottamy.  'Tis  nawn  but  a  nottomize.  Wil.1 
Natomy,  Notamy,  Notamize.  Dor.  Lookzee  didst  ever  zee  zich  a 
leedle  notomy(F.P-).  w.Som.iPoor  blid  !  [blood, i.e.  body]her  idn 
no  otherways'n  nottomy,  her  can't  make  use  o'  nort.  A  proper 
old  nottamy  [oa'l  nau'tumee].  Atomies,  worn-out,  wretched 
creatures.  Dev.  '  And  pray,'  said  the  bishop,  '  were  you  at  all 
inconvenienced  by  keeping  the  body  [a  baby]  a  day  longer?' 
'  Not  a  bit  o't,  my  lord  ;  us  might  have  kep'  un  till  these  day — 
'twas  but  a  poor  atomy  thing,'  Memoir  Russell  (1878)  ix.  Dev.3 
Mary  Ann's  babby  is  a  wisht  atomy  cheel,  and  by  awl  tullin' 
'er  idden  long  vur  thease  wordle.  Cor.  He's  thin  as  a  natamus 
(H.D.L.) ;  Cor.1  Anatomis ;  Cor.3  Notomy,  a  little  dried-up  man. 
Cant.  That  old  dried-up  otomy,  who  ought  to  grin  in  a  glass  case 
for  folks  to  stare  at,  AINSWORTH  Rookuiood (1834)  bk.  in.  ii.  [Nfld. 
Poor  John  is  reduced  to  a  natomy  (G.P.).] 

3.  A  pigmy,  diminutive  person,  a  small  thin  '  slip  of  a 
fellow.'    Cf.  accamy. 

wJr.  The  half  of  what  the  dirty  little  ottomy  wasreadin',  LOVER 
Leg.  (1848)  II.  475.  s.Wxf.  (P.J.M.)  Lan.  Thou  little  otty-motty  ! 
BRIERLEY  Waverloui  (1863)  17,  ed.  1884.  Brks.1  Dost  think  any- 
body 'ud  mind  a  natomy  of  a  chap  like  thee  ? 

4.  Used  contemptuously,  of  a  man. 

Lth.  He's  a  big,  saft,  low-bred,  useless  anatomy  o'  a  man, 
STRATHESK  More  Bits  (1885)  283.  War.  Though  what  could  make 
her  take  up  with  a  poor  notomise  of  a  parson,  as  hasn't  got 
enough  to  keep  wife  and  children,  there's  One  above  knows— 
I  don't,  GEO.  ELIOT  Amos  Barton  (1858)  vi.  Dev.  A  native  of 

H  2 




Torcross  spoke  derisively  of  the  caravan-folk  who  came  to  the 
regatta  as  '  a  passel  of  old  atomies,'  Reports  Provtnc.  (1883)  80. 
5.  A  small  portion  ;  a  particle  of  anything  previously  oi 

larger  bulk. 

n.Yks.2  There's  nobbut  an  atomy  on  t  left. 

[1.  An  anatomy,  sceleton,  COLES  (1679) ;  Scelete,  the 
whole  coagmentation  of  bones  in  their  natural  position, 
also  an  anatomy  made  thereof  .  .  .  which  we  call  a 
skelton  or  skeleton,  COTGR.  ;  Death,  death,  O  amiable 
lovely  death  !  .  .  .  that  fell  anatomy,  SHAKS.  K.  John,  in. 
iv.  25,  40.  2.  One  Pinch  :  a  hungry  lean-faced  villain, 
A  mere  anatomy,  ib.  Com.  Err.  v.  i.  238 ;  Thou  atomy, 
thou  !— Come,  you  thin  thing,  ib.  2  Hen.  IV,  v.  iv.  33. 
The  forms  in  -ize,  as  ottimize,  notomise,  are  prob.  due  to 
anatomise,  vb.] 

ANAUNTERS,  conj.,  adj.  and  sb.  Usually  in  pi.  In 
n.  counties  to  Yks.  and  Lan.  Also  written  enanters 
N.Cy.1  n.Yks. ;  anaunter  Nhb.1 ;  enaunter  w.Yks.1 ; 
ananters  Nhb.1  Dur.1  Cum.  Wm.  n.Yks.  w.Yks.1  ne.Lan.1; 
ananthers  Wm.  n.Yks.12  ne.Yks.1  m.Yks.1;  enanthers 
n.Yks.12  [ana-nt3(r),  a'ntar.] 

1.  conj.    Lest,  in  case  that. 

N.Cy.1  Nhb.1  Ananters  aa  get  well  home.  Dur.1  Cum.  &  Wm. 
'  A'll  just  put  in  a  few  garden  seeds,  ananters,'  said  a  village  shop- 
keeper in  sending  an  order  to  a  customer  in  the  spring  (M.P.). 
Wm.  Step  in  tae  see  yaur  nebbors  en  ant  er  they  will  be  vexed, 
WHEELER  Dial.  (1790)  85,  ed.  1840.  n.Yks.  Ah'd  better  drop,  in 
anters  'at  Ah  gi'es  tha  ower  mitch  ov  a  gud  thing,  TWEDDELL  Clevel. 
Rhymes  (1875)50;  n.Yks.1;  n.Yks.2  Ananthus.  I'll  take  my  cloak, 
ananthers  it  should  rain.  ne.Yks.1  Thoo  mun  stop  here  ananthers 
he  cums.  m-Yks.1  w.Yks.  HUTTON  Tour  to  Caves  (1781)  ;  w.Yks.1 
Ananters  he  does  lick  us.  To  mack  a  girt  bloaz,  ananters  they 
spy  aleet  i  t'other  beacons,  ib.  31,  ed.  1834.  neXan.1 

2.  adj.    Applied  to  '  company'  dishes. 

Cum.  &  Wm.  Ananters  pudding,  an  extra  Sunday  dish  to  be  used 
in  case  of  the  arrival  of  company  (M.P.). 

3.  sb.  comp.  Poke-anaunters. 

Wm.  The  nickname  '  poke-ananthers '  was  given  to  a  good-for- 
nothing  who  always  carried  a  bag  in  case  he  met  with  anything 
worth  picking  up  (J.M.). 

Hence  Anaunterscase,  conj.  lest  it  should  be  the  case. 

N.Cy.1  Nanterscase.  n.Yks.2  Nantherskeease.  ne.Yks.1  The 
form  ananthers  case  was  frequently  used  near  Northallerton  some 
years  ago ;  but  now  obsolete,  or  very  nearly  so. 

[Anger  nould  let  him  speake  to  the  tree,  Enaunter  his 
rage  mought  cooled  be,  SPENSER  Sh.  Kal.  Feb.  199 ;  With 
them  it  fits  to  care  for  their  heir,  Enaunter  their 
heritage  do  impair,  ib.  May,  77 ;  An  aunter  hit  nuyede 
me,  P.  Plowman  (c.)  iv.  437  (an  auenture,  (B.)  in.  279). 
An,  on+aunter  (auenture),  OFr.  aventure,  Lat.  adventura.} 

ANAUNTRINS,  conj.  Obs.  Nhb.  Yks. ;  nantherins 
n.Yks.2  If  so  be,  peradventure. 

n.Cy.  (K.) ;  N.Cy.2  Nhb.  GROSE  (1790).  n.Yks.2  Nantherins. 

\Anauntrins,  if  so  be,  COLES  (1677).  A naunter +-ings, 
advb.  ending ;  see  above.] 

ANBURY,  sb.  Yks.  Lin.  Nhp.  e.An.  Also  written 
hanbury  Nhp.1  Nrf.  Suf.1;  nanberry  n.Yks.2  w.Yks.8 
Freq.  ambury  and  anberry.  [a'nbari,  a'nibari.  | 

1.  A  spongy  swelling  on  the  bodies  of  horses  or  oxen. 
n.Yks.2    w.Yks.3  Nanbury,  a  kind  of  wart  formed  on  the  bag  of 

a  cow.  n.Lin.1  Nhp.1  Anberry,  a  small  excrescence  at  the  end  of 
a  horse's  nose.  .  .  .  We  occasionally  apply  it  to  a  wart  on  the  heel. 
e-An.1  Anberry,  a  small  swelling,  or  pustule,  to  which  horses  are 
subject  on  the  softest  parts  of  their  bodies.  Nrf.  The  hanbery, 
a  distemper  in  a  horse's  heel,  which  was  a  watry  excrescence, 
that  would  sometimes  grow  to  the  bigness  of  one's  fist,  LISLE 
Husbandry  (1757). 

2.  A  disease  affecting  turnips  and  other  allied  plants, 
popularly  supposed  to  be  due  to  the  puncture  of  an  insect. 

n.Cy.  Anbury,  GROSE  (1790)  Suppl.  Nhp.1,  e.An.i  Nrf.  That 
common  destructive  turnip  disease  ...  in  the  sandy  grounds  of 
Norfolk  .  .  .  [which]  is  there  called  anbury  [called  also  fingers-and- 
toes],  ELLIS  Mod.  Hush.  (I75o)  IV.  i.  27.  e.Nrf.  The  anbury  is  a 
large  excrescence,  which  forms  itself  below  the  apple  [i.e.  root  of 
turnip].  It  grows  to  the  size  of  both  the  hands  ;  and,  as  soon  as 
it  is  ...  brought  to  maturity,  it  becomes  putrid,  and  smells  very 
offensively,  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  (1787).  Suf.1 

[1.  Ambury  (Anbury),  a  bloody  wart  on  any  part  of  a 
horse's  body,  JOHNSON  ;  A  disease  in  horses  breaking  out 
in  spungy  swellings,  BAILEY  (1721)  ;  The  ambury  (in 
horses),  Verruca  spongiosa  sanguine  plena,  COLES  (1679)  ; 
Ambury,  Morbus  equontm,  SKINNER  ;  Moro,  a  mulberry- 
tree,  also  a  kind  of  wartle  in  some  horses,  called  an 
anberry,  FLORIO.  Prob.  a  variant  of  Angleberry.j 

ANBY,  adv.  Wil.  Dor.  Som.  Also  written  amby 
w.Som.1  [anbai-,  ambai'.]  Presently,  by  and  by  ;  anby 
night,  to-night. 

Wil.1  I  be  main  busy  now,  but  I'll  do't  anbye.  Dor.  Anby 
(W.W.S.).  Som.  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825).  w.Som.1 
When  be  gwain  ?-—  Oh  amby,  can't  go  avore.  Umbye,  used  with 
'  night  '  in  the  sense  of  'to-night.'  Nif  you  want  to  catch'n,  look  in 
to  Half-Moon  umbye  night,  'bout  of  a  nine  o'clock. 

[Perh.  for  'by  and  by.'—  At  Yatesbury,  n.Wil.,  the 
form  used  is  (or  was)  present-an-bye,  which  seems  to  com- 
bine presently  and  by  and  by  (G.E.D.).] 

ANCE,  v.    Sh.  and  Or.  I. 

1.  To  heed,  care  for.     Usually  with  negative.    See  Ant. 
Sh.I.  (Coll.  L.L.B.);  Never  anse  him.     Will  du  no  anse  me? 

[pay  attention]  (K.I.)* 

2.  To  have  regard  to,  to  concern. 
Or.I.  It  is  little  anced  to  you  (K.M.). 
ANCH,  see  Hance. 

ANCHOR,  sb.  Yks.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  Glo.  Hmp.  Also 
written  anker  w.Yks.24  [a'rjka(r),  e'rjka(r).] 

1.  The  chape  of  a  buckle,  the  part  by  which  it  is  attached 
to  the  belt,  strap,  &c. 

N.Cy.1  e.Yks.1  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  (1788).  w.Yks.1;  w.Yks.s 
Enchor.  Glo.  GROSE  (1790)  ;  Anchor,  so  called  from  its  holding 
fast  the  strap  inserted  in  it,  HOLLOWAY.  e.An.1  The  part  of  a 
buckle  .  .  .  put  into  a  slit  in  the  strap  ;  so  called  from  some  resem- 
blance in  shape  to  an  anchor.  Hmp.1  Wil.  The  anchor  is  the 
part  by  which  [a  buckle]  is  first  fastened  :  opposed  to  the  tongue 
which  holds  it  when  fixed,  BRITTON  Beauties  (1825)  ;  Wil.1 

2.  The  tongue  and  swivel  of  a  buckle,  the  part  which 
pierces  the  strap  and  keeps  it  in  place. 

w.Yks.24,  n-Lin.1  Lei.1  The  piece  of  metal  [called  also  Anchor- 
piece]  is  shaped  something  like  an  anchor.  The  hole  in  a  buckle 
through  which  the  strap  passes  is  called  the  '  mouth  '  ;  the  '  long  ' 
and  '  chape  '  represent  respectively  the  '  tongue  '  and  '  chap,'  or 
'  cheek,'  of  the  buckle.  Nhp.1  Anchor,  the  transverse  piece  of  a 
buckle  which  attaches  to  the  chape. 

3.  An  iron  tie  in  a  building. 

4.  Comp.  Anchor-piece,  see  2. 

ANCHOR,  v.  e.An.  Of  tree-roots  :  to  anchor  out,  to 
hold  fast  like  an  anchor. 


ANCHOR-FROST,  sb.  Lei.  Nhp.  (i)  A  frost  which 
causes  ice  to  form  along  the  bed  of  a  running  stream  ; 
(2)  Anchor-ice,  q.v. 

(i)  Lei.1  Nhp.1  This  frequently  occurs  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
a  mill-stream,  and  I  remember  once  hearing  a  miller  say,  'We  had 
a  sharp  anchor-frost  last  night,  for  my  pole  would  stand  upright 
in  the  water  this  morning.'  (a)  Lei.1 

[Bright  enough  to  thaw  an  anchor-frost  on  the  mill- 
wheel,  WHYTE  MELVILLE  in  Fortn.  Rev.  (Nov.  1867)  588.] 

ANCHOR-ICE,  sb.  Lei.  Ice  formed  far  below  the 
surface  of  the  water  in  a  running  stream  ;  ground  ice. 


ANCHOR-STOCK,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  A  large  long  loaf 
of  rye,  or  more  rarely  of  wheaten,  bread. 

Sc.  Anker-stock  has  been  supposed  to  be  so  called  from  '  an 
anchorite's  stock,  or  supply  for  some  length  of  time  '  ;  or,  more 
probably,  '  from  some  fancied  resemblance  to  the  stock  of  an  anchor,' 
SIBEALD  Chron.  Poetry  (1802)  (JAM.).  Edb.  Before  Christmas  in 
Edinburgh  large  tables  of  anchor-stocks  [appeared]  at  the  head  of 
the  old  Fish-market  Close.  These  anchor-stocks,  the  only  species 
of  bread  made  from  rye  offered  for  sale  in  the  city,  were  exhibited 
in  every  variety  of  size  and  price,  from  a  halfpenny  to  a  half-crown, 
Blackiv.  Mag.  (Dec.  1821)  691  ;  A  Musselburgh  ankerstoke  to 
slice  down  for  tea-drinkings  and  posset  cups,  MOIR  Mansie  Wauch 
(1828)  vii  ;  I  have  heard  my  grandmother  speak  of  the  anker- 
stock  loaves  she  used  to  buy  in  the  High  Street  of  Edinburgh 




ANCIENT,  sb.1  Som.  Naut.  [se-nfant.]  The  ensign  or 
national  colours. 

[Ancient,  the  flag  or  streamer  in  the  stern  of  a  ship.  Probably 
from  end-sheet  (for  seamen  call  the  sails  sheets),  the  most  likely 
name  for  the  flag  in  the  stern  :  they  corruptly  speak  '  Anshent ' 
(K.I.]  w.Som.1  The  Union  Jack  of  a  British  vessel.  In  the  Bristol 
Channel  this  is  the  usual  term  among  the  fisher-folk.  How  can 
anybody  tell  what  her  is,  nif  her  ont  show  her  ancient  ? 

[Ancient,  the  flag  or  streamer  of  a  ship,  and,  formerly, 
of  a  regiment,  JOHNSON;  Ancient,  or  Anshent,  a  flag  or 
streamer  set  up  in  the  stern  of  a  ship,  BAILEY  (1755).] 

ANCIENT,  adj.  and  sb,2  Sc.  Irel.  Yks.  Chs.  Not.  Lin. 
Shr.  Suf.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  encient  N.I.1 
[e-njant,  e-nfsnt.]  See  Old. 

A.  adj.    1.  Old,  advanced  in  years. 

Ir.  An  ould  ancient  man,  BARLOW  Bog-land  (18931  80.  [The 
younger  brother  is  the  ancienter  gentleman,  RAY  Prov.  (1678) 
85.]  Suf.1  A  very  ancient  man.  Dev.  'Auncientl'  she  ex- 
claimed ;  '  I'se  warrant  he's  as  old  as  Adam,'  BRAY  Tamar  and 
Tayy  (1836)  II.  4.  Cor.  '  Ancient  ould  '  and  'ould  ancient'  are 
often  used  in  conversation.  He's  an  ancient  ould  fellow  (M.  A. C.). 

2.  Cunning,  clever. 

N.I.1  A  sea  gull's  a  very  anncient  bird. 

3.  Of  children  :  staid,  demure,  precocious. 

Per.  An  ancient  bairn  (G.W.).  s.Chs.1  Hoo's  an  ancient  little 
thing.  s.Not.  The  lass  can  mek  noise  anoo  when  she  likes,  for  all 
she  looks  so  ancient  (J.P.  K.).  Shr.1  Patty  wuz  a  mighty  nice 
little  wench,  'er  went  about  things  so  stiddy  an"  ancient.  Such 
children  are  said  to  be  '  too  ancient  to  live.' 

B.  sb.  An  old  man  ;  quaint,  old-fashioned  person ;   in 
pi.  ancestors. 

w.Yks.1  Antients.  n.Lin.1  Well,  old  ancient,  what  did  Adam 
saay  when  you  last  seed  him?  w.Som.1  Well,  my  old-ancient,  how 
b'ee  ?  Her's  a  proper  old-ancient,  her  is. 

[A.  1.  This  ancient  ruffian,  sir,  whose  life  I  have  spared 
at  suit  of  his  grey  beard,  SHAKS.  K.  Lear,  n.  ii.  67.  2.  The 
duty  of  old  women  is  ...  to  be  sober,  sage,  and  ancient, 
BECON  Chr.  Relig.  (1564)  521  (N.E.D.).  B.  Those  that 
lived  in  old  times  were  called  ancients,  JOHNSON  ;  Can 
a  man  .  .  .  brag  of  the  vertues  of  his  auncients  if  his 
owne  life  be  vitious  ?  CROSSE  Vertues  (1603)  21  (N.E.D.). 
Cp.  Fr.  les  anciens,  (i)  the  nations  of  old  time,  (2)  the  old 
writers,  esp.  of  Greece  and  Rome.] 

ANCIENTNESS,  sb.    Sc.    Antiquity. 

Sc.  Ancientness,  s.  v.  Ancientry  (JAM.  Suppl.).  Edb.  Great  folk 
pretend  to  have  histories  of  the  auncientness  of  their  families,  MOIR 
Mansie  Wauch  (1828)  5. 

[Ancientness,  ancientry,  antiquitas,  vetustas,  COLES 
(1679) ;  Anciennete,  ancientness,  oldness,  COTGR.] 

ANCIENTRY,  sb.  Sc.  Lan.  Also  written  auncientry  Sc. 

1.  Antiquity. 

Cld.  They  claim  great  ancientry  o'  name  and  bluid(jAM.  Suppl.). 

2.  Precocity. 

Cld.  The  ancientry  o'  that  bairn  I  dinna  like ;  he  talks  like  a 
gran'father  (JAM.  Suppl.). 

3.  Old  things,  antiquities. 

Lan.  It's  o'  cromfull  o'  ancientry,  An'  Roman  haw-pennies, 
WAUGH  Sngs.  (1866)  Eawr  Flk.  ;  Lan.1 

[Ancientry,  the  honour  of  ancient  lineage  ;  the  dignity 
of  birth,  JOHNSON  ;  Wronging  the  ancientry  (i.  e.  the  old 
people),  SHAKS.  Wint.  T.  in.  iii.  63.  Ancient +  -ry.] 

ANCIENTY,  sb.    Cor.    Antiquity. 

w.Cor.  That  [a  cromlech]  's  a  reg'lar  piece  of  ancientey  (M.A.C.). 

[Ancienty,  ancientness,  KERSEY  ;  Ancienty,  eldership, 
COLES  (1677) ;  Ancienty,  oldenesse,  eldertyme,  olde  con- 
tinuance, BARET  ;  A  gret  stane  . .  .  That  throu  the  gret 
anciente  Was  lowsyt,  BARBOUR  Bruce,  vi.  252.  AFr. 

ANCITER,  see  Aunceter. 

ANCLE-BAND,  sb.  Yks.  [a-rjkl-band.]  A  strap  for 
low  shoes ;  a  shoe  with  a  strap  round  the  ancle. 

n.Yks.  (J.T.);  n.Yks.1  ;  n.Yks.2  Ankleband,  a  strap  attached  by 
its  middle  to  the  back  of  the  shoe  with  the  ends  meeting  in  front 
of  the  instep  and  buttoning  upon  it.  ne.Yks.1  m.Yks.  Ah  want 
a  pair  o'  ancle-bands.  Ah've  brokken  strap  o'  mv  ancle-band 


ANCLE-BELT,  sb.  Yks.  Lan.  [e'qkl-belt.]  A  shoe 
for  children,  nearly  like  a  slipper  with  a  strap  round 
the  ancle. 

w.Yks.  Ankle-belt  in  this  sense  has  a  very  wide  use  (B.K.). 
Lan.  Ancle-belt  is  a  familiar  word  in  North  Lonsdale  (J.R.). 

ANCLE- JACK,  sb.  Cum.  Wm.  Lan.  Nhp.  War.  Oxf. 
Hrt.  Dor.  Colon.  See  below. 

1.  A  heavy  boot  coming  above  the  ancle,  sometimes  used 
in  Lan.  of  laced  clogs. 

Ctun.(J.P.)  Wm.  Obsol.  (H.D.R.'i  Lan.  His  feet  were  sheathed 
in  a  pair  of  clinkered  ancle-jacks,  WAUGH  Besom  Ben  (1865)  i ; 
Lan.1,  neXan.1,  m.Lan.1  Nhp.1  Anclee-jacks  or  ankle-Johns. 
John,  or  Johnny,  is  a  common  generic  term  for  rustics  by  whom 
these  articles  are  worn.  War.3  Oxf.1  Ankley-jacks,  shoes,  strong, 
but  not  water-tight,  MS.  add.  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  Dor.  He  wore 
breeches  and  the  laced-up  shoes  called  ankle-jacks,  HARDY  Madding 
Crowd  (1874)  viii.  Colloq.  He  changed  his  shoes  and  put  on  an 
unparalleled  pair  of  ankle-jacks,  DICKENS  Dombey  (1848)  xv. 
[Aus.,  N.Z.  In  a  few  months'  time  you  come  across  him  on  the 
gum  field  in  ankle-jacks  and  ragged  shirt,  picking  up  a  scanty  living, 
HAY  Brighter  Britain  (1882)  II.  24.] 

ANCLE-STRAP,  sb.    Van  dial.    See  below. 

w.Yks.  Ankle- strap,  a  kind  of  children's  shoes,  nearly  like  a 
slipper,  with  a  strap  to  go  around  the  ankle  to  keep  them  on  the 
feet(B.K.);  In  Keighley  the  child's  shoes  fastened  with  a  semi- 
detached strap,  buttoning  in  front,  are  called  ancle-straps  (J.R.). 
Lan.  (A.C.)  ['  Ancle-strap '  I  have  met  with  as  far  south  as  Bristol, 
and  I  fancy  it  is  common  in  the  Midlands  (R.S.).] 

ANCLET,  sb.  Nhb.  Wm.  Yks.  [a-rjklit,  e-rjklit]  A 
gaiter,  a  short  stocking. 

n.Cy.  Anclet,  a  gaiter  (HALL.)  ;  N.Cy.1  Anclet,  Ancleth,  a  gaiter. 
Nhb.1  Wm.1  Obs.  w.Yks.3  A  short  stocking  or  sock. 

ANCLIFF,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Lan.  Chs.  Nhp.  War.  Wor. 
Shr.  Pern.  Glo.  Oxf.  Sur.  Sus.  Dor.;  not  in  gloss.  ofe.An. 
and  sw.  counties.  Also  in  the  forms  anklet  N.I.1  N.Cy.1 
Nhb.1 ;  ankley  s.War.1  se.Wor.1  Glo.1  Oxf.1  w.Sus. ;  an- 
cleth  Sc.  N.Cy.1;  anclief  N.Cy.1 ;  anclif  e.Lan.1  Chs.1; 
anclee,  Nhp.1  War.2;  ancley  Sur.1  Sus.1  [a'rjklif, a'rjklat, 
a'rjklit,  a'rjklsb,  a'ljklii.] 

1.  The  ancle. 

Sc.  Hancleth,  SIBBALD  CArox.  Poetry  (iSoa)  QAM.).  N.I.1  n.Cy. 
GROSE  (1790) ;  N.Cy.1  Nhb.  Te  see  them  hirplin  'cross  the  floor 
Wi  anklets  shawd,  WILSON  Pitman's  Pay  (1843)  a4  i  Nhb.1  Lan. 
E  aktilly  pood  [pulled]  o  seek  gradely  oer  his  yed  as  reycht  welley 
deawn  to  his  ancliffes,  ORMEROD  Felleyfro  Rachde  (1864)  v  ;  Lan.1 
Yore  Jack's  knockt  his  anclef  out  wi'  jumpin.  eXan.1,  Chs.1 
Chs.3  Th'  neatest  ancliff  as  ever  oi  seed.  Nhp.1  War.2  Ancler. 
se.Wor.1  Shr.1  The  maister's  bin  laid  up  above  a  wik  66th  a  kench 
in  'is  ancler,  an  they  sen  as  it'll  be  a  wik  or  nine  days  lunger  afore 
'e'll  be  about  agen.  s.Pem.  Ankler,  LAWS  Little  Eng.  (1888)  419. 
Glo.1,  Oxf.1,  Sur.1  Sus.  Turnen  he's  ancliff,  JACKSON  Southward 
Ho  (1894)  I.  433  ;  Sus1,  Dor.1 

2.  Comp.  Ancliff-bone. 

Sns.1  e.  I  have  put  out  my  ancliff-bone  [sprained  my  ancle]. 

[The  forms  ankley,  anclee,  go  back  to  OE.  ancleow  ;  cp. 
OHG.  anchlao,  MDu.  anclau,  Du.  enklawe  and  aenklauwe 
(KILIAN).  This  type  is  prob.  due  to  form-association 
with  the  word  '  claw ' ;  see  Clee.  With  the  forms  anclif, 
anclief,  cp.  MDu.  anclief  (VERDAM),  OFris.  onklef  (RicHT- 
HOFEN),  the  phonology  of  which  has  not  been  explained. 
The  forms  ancleth,  anklet,  are  possibly  developed  fr.  the 

ANCOME,  sb.  n.Cy.  [a'nkum.]  An  ulcerous 
swelling.  See  Income. 

N.Cy.1  Ancome,  any  swelling  or  other  infirmity  not  traceable  to 
any  cause,  or  which  has  formed  unexpectedly.  Cum.2 

[Ancome,  a  kind  of  boil,  sore,  or  foul  swelling  in  the 
fleshy  parts,  KERSEY  ;  An  ancome  (felon),  furunculus, 
COLES  (1679) ;  Vijt,  an  ancombe,  or  a  sore  upon  one's 
finger,  HEXHAM  ;  An  ancome,  adventitius  morbus,  BARET. 
In  ME.  oncome  is  used  of  the  plagues  of  Egypt :  pe  to]>er 
oncome  atte  him  felle  Was  froskis,  Cursor  M.  5927.  Cp. 
ON.  dkoma,  arrival,  visitation,  eruption  on  the  skin.] 

ANCONY,  sb.  Stf.  Sus.  (obs.)  and  Tech.  A  term  for 
a  '  bloom,'  or  roughly  wrought  piece  of  iron  of  a  parti- 
cular shape ;  also  comp.  Ancony-end. 

Sus.  Ancony  is  a  bar  about  3  feet  long  :  at  both  ends  a  square 
piece  [is]  left  rough  to  be  wrought  at  the  Chafery,  RAY  ^1691). 




Stf.  A  Bloom  [has]  two  square  knobs  at  the  end,  one  much  less 
than  the  other,  the  smaller  being  called  the  ancony-end,  (K.) ;  Stf.1 
[At  the  iron-works,  in  the  forge  call'd  the  Finery,  they  work  the 
metal  by  the  hammer  till  they  bring  it  into  Blooms  and  Anconies. 
A  Bloom  is  a  four  square  mass  of  about  two  foot  long  wch  they 
afterwards  by  heating  and  working  bring  to  an  Ancony,  the  figure 
whereof  is  in  the  middle  a  barr  about  three  foot  long  of  that  shape 
w^  they  intend  the  whole  bar  shall  be  after  made,  leaving  at  each 
end  a  square  rough  piece  (K.).] 

AND,  sb.  ?  Obs.  Sc.  Yks.  Also  Nrf.  Also  written 
eind  Sc. ;  eynd  e.An.1  Nrf.  ;  yane  Yks. 

1.  The  breath ;  to  take  one's  einds,  to  take  a  breathing 
space,  pause  in  any  employment. 

Sc.  His  stinking  end,  corrupt  as  men  well  knows,  WATSON  Coll. 
Poems  (1706)  III.  24  (JAM.)  ;  Aynd,  breath,  GROSE  (1790)  MS,  add. 
(C.)  Abd.  And  a'  were  blyth  to  tak'  their  einds  And  club  a  pint 
o'  Lillie's  Best  ale  that  day,  SKINNER  Poems  (1809)  12,  ed.  1859. 
Per.  Eind.  This  word  is  not  common  (G.W.).  n.Cy.  I  am  out  of 
eand  (K.) ;  N.Cy.2  Eand.  Yks.  Yane  (K.).  n.  &  e.Yks.  A  base 
stincking  yane,  MERITON  Praise  Ale  (1684)  564. 

2.  Sea-mist, '  water-smoke.' 

e.An.1  Nrf.  The  eynd,  or  water-smoke,  as  it  is  called,  occurs 
mostly  between  spring  and  autumn.  All  at  once  a  damp  cold  mist 
sets  in  from  the  sea  and  spreads  at  times  many  miles  inland. 
Sometimes  it  remains  the  whole  day,  at  others  not  more  than  an 
hour  or  two,  then  gradually  vanishes.  It  has  a  faint  smoky  appear- 
ance, as  if  entirely  distinct  from  ordinary  fog,  WHITE  c.Eng. 
(1865)  I.  176 ;  Though  a  resident  for  nearly  half  a  century  in 
Norfolk,  I  never  heard  the  well-known  trying  fog  called  eynd,  or 
by  any  name  like  it,  N.  &  Q.  (1866)  3rd  S.  ix.  361. 

[He  na  mocht  His  aynd  bot  with  gret  panys  draw, 
BARBOUR  Bruce,  iv.  199 ;  Myn  and  is  short,  I  want  wynde, 
Towneley  Myst.  154 ;  An  ande,  anelitus,  Cath.  Angl. ;  pis 
under  wynd  him  gis  his  aand,  Cursor  M.  541  (v.r.  ande, 
ond,  onde).  ON.  andi,  breath.] 

AND,  v.  Sc.  (JAM.)  Obs.  Written  eind,  eynd.  To 
breathe,  whisper,  devise,  imagine. 

[Spiral,  ergo  vivit,  as  I  wald  say,  he  aindes,  ergo  he  lives, 
Ress.  betw.  Knox  and  Crosraguel  (JAM.)  ;  ON.  anda,  to 

AND,  adv.  Yks.  [an.]  In  phr.  with  comparatives 
and . . .  and=the  . . .  the. 

Yks.  An'  more  he  saw,  an'  worse  he  liked  it,  TAYLOR  Miss  Miles 
(1890)  xv. 

AND,  conj.  Sc.  Irel.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Lei.  War.  Won  GIo. 
Oxf.  [and,  an.] 

1.  Connecting  two  adj.  or  an  adj.  and  a  ///.  it  gives  to 
the  former  an  advb.  force. 

e.Yks.1  Fine  and  [i.e.  exceedingly]  pleased.  Awful  and  tired, 
vexed,  unfortunate,  &c.,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  s.Chs.1  Fine  an'  vexed. 
Stf.2  I'm  afeart  ar  Mary  Ann's  got  lost,  'ers  foine  an  late  ony  road  up. 
That  apple-pai  wur  raer  an  good.  Mi  feidharz  [father's]  foin  an 
drunk  taneit.  Wor.  This  table  is  beautiful  and  smooth  (J.W.P.). 

2.  To  introduce  a  nominative  absolute,  sometimes  with 
ellipsis  of  v. 

Sc.  Could  I  go  against  my  father's  orders,  and  him  in  prison,  in 
the  danger  of  his  life?  STEVENSON  Catriona  (1893)  x.  e.Lth.  It 
wadna  be  seemly,  an'  me  a  deacon,  HUNTER  J.  Inarick  (1895)  38. 
Ir.  See  all  the  people  and  they  laughing  !  How  could  I  say  it  an' 
me  an  me  oath  ?  [said  by  a  witness  before  the  Times  Allegations 
Commission]  (G.M.H.).  Kid.  I  walked  in  the  garden,  and  hid  [it] 
in  bloom  [it  being  in  bloom],  Oral  ballad  (G MM.}. 

3.  (i)  Between  two  ordinal  numbers  (the  first  of  which 
would  be  a  cardinal  in  lit.  E.) ;    (2)  in  phr.  expressing 
strong  affirmation ;  (3)  connecting  every  member  of  a 
clause,  and  is  redundant. 

(i)  Sc.  When  Paris  was  in  his  twentieth  and  fourth  year, 
three  goddesses  are  said  to  have  waited  of  him,  Scotic.  (1787)  115; 
The  twentieth  and  first  verse  of  the  hundredth  fortieth  and  fifth  (2)Lei.J At  public  meetingsparticularly  it  isafavourite 
form  of  expressing  assent—'  And  way  wull,'  '  And  it  is.'  War.2 ; 
War.3  This  is  common  enough  in  Birmingham  but  I  do  not 
remember  it  in  rural  Warwickshire.  (3)  Sc.  And  in  and  at  her 

signed  an'  sealed  and  ever  so,  ROSEMARY  Chilterns  (1895)  6° 

4.  And  is  sometimes  omitted  after  vbs.  of  motion. 

Bio.  1 11  go  look,  GISSING  Both  of  this  Parish  (,1889)  I.  3. 

AND  ALL,  adv.  and  conj.,  prop.  phr.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb. 
Cum.  Win.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Not.  Lin.  Rut.  Lei. 
War.  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf.  Som.  Dev.  Written  an',  [an  a, 
an  o,  an  ol,  an  93!.] 

1.  adv.    "And  everything  (else),  et  cetera.    Hence :  also, 
besides,  in  addition. 

Sc.  Woo'd  and  married  an'  a',  BAILLIE  Sng.  Dmf.  The  red,  red 
rose  is  dawning  and  a',  Rem.  Niths.  Sng.  no  (JAM.).  Bwk.  He 
ran  to  the  smith,  he  ran  to  the  sutor,  He  ran  to  the  cooper  an'  a', 
HENDERSON  Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  133.  Nhb.1  An  aa,  An  aal.  The 
folks  was  gaun  in,  so  aw  bools  in  an'  a',  ROBSON  Sngs.  of  Tyne 
(1849).  Cum.1  We'd  breed,  an'  butter  an'  cheese  an'  o',  an  o' 
maks  o'  drink.  Wm.  When  she  saw  me  she  wept ;  I  wept  ano', 
HUTTON  Bran  New  Work  (1785)  1.  378  ;  Wm.1  He's  gitten  et  ano. 
n.Yks.  An'  there's  sum  canny  bit  lasses  annole,  TWEDDELL  Clevel. 
Rhymes  (1875)  n  ;  Tack  them  reeaks  [rakes]  wi  tha,  an'  thoo'd 
better  tack't  forks  an'  all  (W.H.).  e.Yks.  He  had  ti  clame  wall  ower 
wi  tar,  an  he  clamed  his-sen  anole,  an  neeah  mistak,  NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sf>.  (1889)  94  ;  e.Yks.1  Bill  and  Tom  went  an  all.  m.Yks.1 
Ah's  going  an'  a'll.  w.Yks.  Whoy,  we'n  all  been  up  an  darn 
anole !  BYWATER  Sheffield  Dial.  (1839)  27  ;  w.Yks.1  There's  Tommy 
come  an  au ;  w.Yks.2  Recovering  he  found  himself  in  a  warm 
bed,  And  in  a  warm  fever  an'  all.  Lan.  Hoc  wanted  to  kiss 
theean'  o,  WAUGH  Sngs.  (1866)  8,  cd.  1871.  ne.Lan.  I  make  nowt 
o'  poor  folk  apein  th'  quality,  and  when  they're  deead  and  all, 
MATHER  Idylls  (1895)  19;  ne.Lan.1  An-o.  Chs.1  Mun  ol  come  an 
aw  ?  Sometimes  reduplicated,  '  An  all  an  all.'  s.Chs.1  The  Lord 
do  so  to  me,  an  more  an  aw,  Ruth  (1887)  i.  17.  s.Stf.  Yo'd  better 
tak  me  an'  all  wi  yer  (T.P.).  Stf.2  If  the't  gooin  to  th'  concert,  oi 
shud  loike  ar  Turn  fur  goo  an  aa.  Der.1  An6  [old  unoa',  mod.  unau']. 
nwJDer.1  An-aw.  Not.1 ;  Not.2  An'  he  did  it  anall.  Lin.  She  beald 
'  Ya  mun  saave  little  Dick,  an*  be  sharp  about  it  an'  all,'  TENNYSON 
Ovid  Rod  (1889).  n.Lin.  Fer  he'd  sawn  wheat  agaan  that  year  an' 
all,  PEACOCK  Tales  and  Rhymes  (1886)  70  ;  n.Lin1  He  wants  sendin' 
to  Ketton  [Kirton-  in-Lindsey  prison],  an'  a-cat-o'-nine-taails an'-all. 
Rut.1  He's  not  very  well,  and  the  weather's  rather  inferial  and  all. 
Let.1  Let  the  b'y  coom  an'  all.  War.2  Bring  your  sister  and  all; 
War.3  Have  you  got  your  pipe  and  all  and  all.  se.Wor.1  Ower  Tom 
a  got  a  good  place ;  'e  gets  five  shillin'  a  wick,  un  'is  fittle  an 
all.  Glo.  Joice'll  be  there  an'  all,  GISSING  Vitt.  Hampden  (1890) 
iii.  w.Som.1 1  'sure  you,  sir,  I've  a  beat-n  and  a-told  to  un,  and  a- 
tookt  away  'is  supper  an  all,  and  zo  have  his  father  too,  but  tidn 
no  good,  we  can't  do  nort  way  un  [a  truant's  mother's  answer 
to  chairman  of  School  Board].  Dev.  It  had  to  be  all  clean  and 
polished  then,  kettle  and  all,  O'NEILL  Idylls  (1892)  49.  Colloq. 
Down  comes  the  baby  and  cradle  and  all,  Nursery  Rhyme  •  You  talk 
o'  better  food  for  us,  an'  schools,  an'  fires,  an"  all,  KIPLING  Brk. 
Ballads  (1892)  Tommy. 

2.  Expletive  or  emphatic. 

Ir.  An  you  full  as  a  tick,  an"  the  sun  cool,  an"  all  an"  all,  KIPLING 
Plain  Tales  (1891)  Private  Ortheris;  And  I  thramped  afther  thim, 
. .  .  carryin'  the  baskets  an'  all,  BARLOW  Bog-land  (1893)  45.  sJr. 
Grand  company  coming  to  the  house  and  all,  and  no  regular  serving- 
man  to  wait,  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  285.  Cum.  We  must  be  off,  or 
they'll  likely  be  finingme  and  aw,  fornotbeingatt'meeting,//«/z«//y« 
in  Coriifi.  Mag.  (Oct.  1890)  380.  Lei.1  Way'd  such  a  coomin'  o'  ege 
an'  all  an'  all  [i.e.  such  rejoicings  at  the  coming  of  age  of  the  young 
squire].  Rut.1  Who  should  come  by  just  then  but  the  Honour- 
able and  all  [though  the  Hon.  A.  B.  who  came  up  so  inopportunely 
was  unaccompanied].  s.Oxf.  She  thinks  the  world  an'  all  o'  that 
boy,  ROSEMARY  Chilterns  (1895)  38. 

3.  Truly,  indeed. 

Cum.  It  s  that  dog  of  Ritson's. ...  I  thowt  he'd  [the  dog]  give  it . 
back  to  Watson's  yan  this  time,  and,  by  gocks !  he  hes  an'  aw ;  seast 
tha  Watson's  dog  goas  upo'  three?  Helvellyn  in  Comh.  Mag.  (Oct. 
1890)  392.  ne.Yks.1  Did  you  enjoy  yourself? — Ah  did  an"  all. 
w.Yks.  He's  a  reet  un  an'  all  (G.B.  W.).  s-Chs^The  Tories  binna 
gotten  in,  bin  they  ?— They  bin,  an'  aw.  Stf.2  Mester  inna  jed,  is  i'  ?— 
He  is,  an  aa. 

4.  conj.   Although. 

n.Yks.  (I.W.)  w.Yks.  An' allAhsayitmisen,  ther'  isn't abetterlad 
livin'  ner  ahr  Johnny  (JE.B.)  ;  The  use  in  the  sense  of  'although' 
is  unusual  (G.B.W.). 

[1.  And  you  and  all,  &  te  quoque  etiam ;  ...  He  had 
lost  his  faith  and  all,  Perdidisset fidem  quoque,  ROBERTSON 

ANDER,  sb.     Sh.I. 

ShJ.  A  porch  before  a  door  (W.A.G.).     S.  &  Ork.1 

[ON.  ond  (gen.  andar),  a  porch,  lit.  the  place  over 
against  the  door  (and-dyn),  (VicFussou).] 


[55  1 


ANDERN,  ANDERS,  see  Undern. 

ANDERS,  sb.    ?  Obs.    e.Yks. 

e.Yks.  Drift  ice  in  extended  masses  brought  up  by  the  tide  and 
stranded  along  the  beach.  The  word  is  said  to  be  in  common  use 
by  fishermen  and  others  at  Spurn,  Lin.  N.  &  Q.  (Apr.  1891)  180. 
[Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

ANDIER-DOGS.sZ-.//.    I.W.    Andirons. 

I.W.'  Anjur-dogs,  kitchen  utensils  for  the  spit  to  run  on. 

[For  etym.  see  Andirons,  and  cp.  An-dogs.] 

ANDIRONS,  sb.  pi.  Yks.  Lan.  Also  written  end-irons 
w.Yks.5  [e'ndaianz.] 

A  pair  of  movable  iron  plates  to  contract  the  fire- 

n.Yks.  Endirons  (I.W.).  e.Yks.  Rur.  Econ.  (1641)  175.  w.Yks.5 
Lan.1  Put  them  endarns  in,  an  id'l  nod  [it  will  not]  brun  so  monny 

[In  the  dial,  the  word  is  understood  and  pron.  as  if  it 
were  end-irons,  the  irons  at  the  ends  of  the  fireplace. 
The  lit.  E.  andirons  had  already  been  altered  in  form  from 
association  with  the  word  iron.  Andiron,  from  a  chimney, 
sustentaculutn  ferreum,  BARET.  The  older  form  of  the 
word  was  andier :  I  lacke  a  fyre  pan  and  andyars  to  bere 
up  the  fuel,  HORMAN.  AFr.  andier  (Moisv),  OFr.  andier 
(mod.  landier).} 

ANDLE,  sb.     Der.    [a'ndl.]    An  anvil,  stithy. 

Der.2,  nw.Der.1     [GROSE  Pegge  Suppl.  (1814).] 

[Repr.  ME.  forms  of  '  anvil'  (OE.  onfilti),  with  change 
of  prefix  from  an-  to  and-  :  They  smyte  on  the  stythye 
or  andvell,  CAXTON  G.  Leg.  358 ;  Golde  .  .  .  bitwene  j>e 
andfelde  and  )>e  hamoure  strecceb  in  to  golde  foyle,  TREVISA 
Earth.  (N.E.D.)  Cp.  SHERWOOD  :  An  andvil,  voyez,  an  anvil.] 

AN-DOGS,  sb.  pi.  Shr.  Glo.  Som.  Dev.  [ae-ndogz.] 
Andirons,  the  bars  which  support  the  ends  of  logs  on  a 
wood  fire,  or  in  which  a  spit  turns. 

Shr.1  Andogs,  0*5.  Glo.  An-dogs,  so  called  from  the  dogs'  heads 
with  which  they  were  anciently  ornamented,  GROSE  (1790)  MS. 
add.  (H.)  Som.(F.H.)  w.Som.1  [Andogs]  are  still  very  commonly 
used  in  farm-houses,  and  others  where  wood  is  burnt.  They  are 
well  described  in  the  old-fashioned  riddle,  '  Head  like  an  apple, 
Neck  like  a  swan,  Back  like  a  long-dog,  And  dree  legs  to  stan.' 
In  large  old-fashioned  chimney-places  it  was  usual  to  have  two 
pairs  of  irons.  The  dogs,  which  were  the  most  used,  were  at  the 
middle  of  the  hearth,  and  bore  the  fire  always.  The  andirons 
stood  on  each  side,  and  were  only  needed  when  an  extra  large 
fire  was  wanted.  The  latter,  much  larger  and  heavier,  usually  had 
some  ornamental  finish,  as  a  brass  head,  a  scroll,  or  a  knob,  and  in 
kitchens  the  upright  part  of  the  iron  was  furnished  with  a  row  of 
hooks,  one  over  the  other,  on  the  side  away  from  the  fire.  On 
these  hooks  rested  the  great  spit  on  which  the  meat  or  poultry  was 
roasted.  Both 'andirons 'and 'dogs' have  now  become '  hand-dogs  ' 
(s.v.  Hand-dogs).  Dev.  'Andugs,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  46. 
n.Dev.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 

[Another  common  name  for  '  andirons  '  was '  fire-dogs ' 
or  '  dogs.'  An-dogis  prob.  a  contamination  of  these  two 
words.  Cp.  Fr.  chenet  (der.  of  Men,  dog),  an  andiron.  See 

ANDOO,  v.  Sh.I.  Also  written  andow.  To  keep  a 
boat  stationary  by  gentle  motion  of  the  oars. 

Sh.I.  (Coll.  L.L.B.);  (W.A.G.)  S.&  Ork.1  Andoo,  to  keepaboat 
in  position  by  rowing  gently  against  wind  or  tide. 

[ON.  and-of,  a  paddling  with  the  oars,  so  as  to  bring 
the  boat  to  lie  against  wind  and  stream.] 

ANDORN,  see  Undern. 

ANDRA,  see  Undern. 

ANDRAMARTIN,  sb.    Irel.    A  silly  trick ;  nonsense. 

Lns.  In  use  all  over  this  district,  Dublin  included  (P.J.M.). 
s.Wxf.  Oh,  musha,  Mick,  don't  be  goin'  on  with  your  andra- 
martins  !  McCALL  Fenian  Nights  in  Shamrock  Mag.  (1894)  428  ; 
Don't  think  your  andramartins  can  be  carried  out  unknowns!  to 
every  one,  ib.  453. 

ANDREA  FERRARA,  sb.  Obs.  Sc.  A  Highland 

Sc.  Basket  hilts,  Andra  Ferraras,  leather  targets,  SCOTT  Rob  Roy 
(1817)  xxiii ;  There  was  risk  of  Andro  Ferrara  coming  in  thirdsman, 
ib.  Midlothian  (1818)  xxiv.  Edb.  With  a  weel-sharpened,  old,  High- 
land, forty-second  Andrew  Ferrary,  MOIR  Mansie  Wauch  (1828)  36. 

[The  blades  are  commonly  marked  Andrea  on  one 
side  and  Farara  or  Ferara  on  the  other.  The  swords 

known  by  this  name  among  the  Scotch  Highlanders 
were  basket-hilted  broadswords.  It  is  asserted  by 
Italian  writers  that  these  were  made  at  Belluno  in 
Venetia  by  Andrea  Ferara  and  his  two  brothers  (CD.).] 

ANDREN,  ANDREW,  see  Undern. 

ANDREW,  sb.    Yks.  Suf.  Ess. 

1.  St.  Andrew's   Day,  Nov.  30 ;  also  allrib.     Obs.    See 
Saint  Andrew. 

w.Yks.  In  candles  for  ye  Ringers  ringing  at  ye  Income  of  Andrews 
ffare,  i*,  Ace.  Bradford  Prsh.  Chivardens  (1683).  Ess.  From  April 
beginning,  till  Andrew  be  past,  So  long  with  good  huswife,  hir 
dairie  doth  last,  TUSSER  Husbandrie  (1580)  106,  st.  19. 

2.  A  clown,  mountebank. 

Suf.  Andrer  (F. H.).  Ess.  Then  the  Andraas  play'd  sich  tricks, 
CLARK  /.  Noakes  (1839)  23  ;  Ess.1  Andraa. 

[2.  See  Merry-Andrew.] 

ANDREW  MASS,  sb.  Sc.  Yks.  Lin.  The  festival  of 
St.  Andrew. 

Per.  The  name  of  Andirmess  market  is  still  given  to  a  fair  held 
at  this  season  in  Perth  (JAM.)  ;  Andirmas  [Anermas]  market  was 
not  held  last  year  [1895]  on  St.  Andrew's  Day.  All  the  fairs 
were  upset  by  the  public  auction  of  cattle  at  populous  centres 
(G.W.).  e.Yks.  The  best  time  for  frost  and  snowe  is  about  a  week 
afore  St.  Andrewmasse,  BEST  Rur.  Econ.  (1641)  76.  w.Yks.1 
Andersmas.  n.Lin.1  Andremas,  obs. 

[For  the  servese  bouke  at  Sant  Andrames  vij8,  Kirton- 
in-Lindsey  Ch.  Ace.  1581  (ap.  n.Lin.1).  Andrew  +  mass.] 

ANDRUM,  see  Undern. 

ANDSELL,  see  Hansel. 

ANDURION,  sb.  Lan.  (Ormskirk).  Eupatoriutn  canna- 
binum,  hemp  agrimony. 

ANE,  see  Awn. 

ANEAN,  prep.     Lin.    [ania'n.]     Beneath. 

Lin.  My  wife  a  life  she  leadeth  me  Like  a  toad  anean  a  roll, 
E.  PEACOCK  John  Markenfield  (1874)  !'•  84-  n.Lin.  Anean  th'  esh, 
M.  PEACOCK  Tales  and  Rhymes  (1886)  74 ;  nXin.1  You'll  find  th' 
almanac  anean  Bible  up  o'th  parlour  taable. 

[A-,  on  +  nean,  ME.  necfen,  OE.  neooan,  below.] 

ANEAR,  adv.  and  prep.  Irel.  Nhb.  Stf.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp. 
War.  Wor.  Glo.  Som.  Cor.  [ania'(r).] 

1.  adv.    Close  by,  near. 

Ir.  But  anear  or  afar  on  the  win'  comes  a  flicker  of  the  crathur's 
cry,  BARLOW  Bog-land  (1893)  181.  Stf.2  Th'  doctor  niwer  come 
anear  aw  that  day.  Lei.1  Anear,  not  as  common  as  '  anigh.'  War.2 
Yo'  ain't  anear  when  yer  wanted.  He  never  came  anear  all  day  ; 
War.3,  Glo.1 

2.  Nearly. 

nXin.1     s.Wor.  'E  'an't  anear  done  it  (H.K.). 

Hence  Anearly,  adv.  nearly. 


3.  To  the  point,  esp.  in  phr.  What's  anear? 

Cor.2  What's  anear,  MS.  add.  ;  Cor.3  What's  anear  ?  [what  has 
that  to  do  with  the  question  ?]  That's  naught  anear. 

4.  prep.     Near,  close  to. 

Nhb.1  Dinna  gan  anear  the  waiter.  The  kettle's  boilin'  ;  dinna 
gan  anear'd.  s.Stf.  Do'  let  him  come  anear  me,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy. 
Ann.  (1895).  Lei.1  Nhp.1  Don't  come  anear  me.  War.2  Don't 
go  anear  him.  s.Wor.  I  dus'n't  come  anear  'im  (H.K.).  Som. 
JENNINGS  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1869).  Cor.  She  is  so  cross  I'm  afeard 
to  go  anear  her  (M.A.C.). 

[1.  Now  seems  it  far,  and  now  a-near,  SCOTT  Last 
Minst.  v.  xxxi.  2.  The  lady  shrieks,  and  well  anear  Does 
fall  in  travail  with  her  fear,  SHAKS.  Per.  in.  Introd.  51. 
A-  (pref.w)  +  near.] 

ANEARST,  prep.  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf.  I.W.  Som.  Dev. 
[ania-st.]  Near,  close  to. 

Wor.  Ow  con  'ee  live  anearst  thot  'ooman  ?  OUTIS  Vig.  Man. 
mWor.Jm.  Glo.2  Annearst  Oxf.1  I.W.1  Don't  goo  aneerst 'em  ; 
I.W.2  Don't  goo  annearst  the  mare,  she  med  fling  at  ye.  Som. 
SWEETMAN  Wincanton  Gl.  (1885).  n.Dev.  I  will  not  go  anearst  him, 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 

[A-  (pref.10)  +  nearest.] 

ANEAST,  prep.  Sc.  Wor.  Glo.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also 
written  anest,  aneest,  aneist  Cor.1  [ania-st,  ania's.] 
Near,  near  to. 

Ayr.,  Rxb.  The  auld  wife  aniest  the  fire  She  died  for  lack  of 
snishing,  Herd's  Collection  (1778)  II.  16;  Off  I  sets  for  the  gray 
stone  anist  the  town-cleugh,.B/acAa<.  Mag.  (Nov.  1820)  201  (JAM.). 




Wor.  I  could  not  get  aneist  him  (W.A.S.).  Glo. 'Er  never  bin 
aneist  I  sinz,  BUCKMAN  Darkens  Sojourn  (1890)  120.  Som.  Aneast 
en,  near  him,  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825)  ;  An'  she  right 
down  aneast  the  ricks,  RAYMOND  Love  and  Quiet  Life  (1894)  209. 
w.Som.1  Twaud-n  ee%  ee  nuvu'r  waud-n  unee'us-n  [it  was  not  he, 
he  never  was  near  him].  Used  only  with  vbs.  implying  motion. 
It  would  never  be  said  '  The  house  is  aneast  the  road  ' :  '  handy '  or 
'  home  beside  o' '  would  in  that  case  be  used.  In  the  example 
above,  '  never  was  near  '  implies  '  never  went  near.'  Dev.  Best 
hire  ma?  Come  aneest  me,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  80  ;  I  won't  go 
aneest  en,  MOORE  Hist.  Dev.  (1829)  I.  353.  n.Dev.  They'm  close 
aneest  the  yeat,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  St.  47.  Cor.  I'd  not  go 
anes  en  to  gat  the  King's  crown,  J.  TRENOODLE  Spec.  Dial.  (1846) 
43;  Cor.1 1  caan't  bear  him  to  come  aneist  me;  Aneest,  some- 
times Anest,  Anist. 

[A-  (pref.10)  +  nearst  (nearest),  superl.  of  near.} 

ANEATH,  prep.  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Lan.  Der.  Brks.  [anr}>, 
ania-jj.]  Beneath. 

Sc.  Aneath  the  auld  portcullis,  SCOTT  Redg.  (1824)  xi  ;  I  was 
a  wean  aneath  her  art,  ALLAN  Lilts  (1874)  24  ;  I  sat  down  aneath 
his  shadow,  ROBSON  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  ii.  3.  Sh.I.  Anaeth  da  fit  o 
iron-shod  Despair,  BURGESS  Rasmie  (1891)  118.  Abd.  Then  sat 
she  down  aneth  a  birken  shade,  That  spread  aboon  her,  Ross 
Helenore  (1768)  67,  ed.  1812.  Frf.  Mistress  Ogilvy  aye  lookit  on 
Chirsty  as  dirt  aneath  her  feet,  BARRIE  Thrums  (1890)  16.  Per. 
It  wud  be  a  heartsome  sicht  taesee  the  Glen  a'  aneath  ae  roof  aince 
a  week,  IAN  MACLAREN  Auld  Lang  Syne  (1895)  33.  Gall.  It  was 
a  new  sermon  o'  his  granfaither's,  daecent  man,  him  that  lies  aneath 
the  big  thruch  stane  in  the  wast  corner  o'  the  kirkyaird,  CROCKETT 
Stickit  Min.  (1893)  102.  Bwk.  Aneath  the  soughin  hawthorns, 
HENDERSON  Pop.  Rhymes  (1856)  83.  Nhb.1  Where's  the  maister? 
— He's  aneath  the  steeth.  Cum.  But  I  cower  aneath  their  look, 
GILPIN  Ballads,  3rd  S.  (1874)  203.  neXan.1  Der.  Drive  him 
aneath  th'  tawest  whoke  tree,  CUSHING  Voe  (1888)  I.  ix.  Brks.1 

[A-,  on  +  neath  (in  beneath)^ 

ANEEND,  see  On  end. 

ANEK,  see  Neck. 

ANEMT,  see  Unempt. 

ANENT,  prep.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan. 
Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Rdn.  Glo.  Brks. 
Ken.  Hmp.  Wil.  Also  written  anant  w.Wor.1  se.Wor.1  • 
anont  Glo.1  Wil.1 ;  anunt  Hrf.12,  Glo.1  Wil.1  The  form 
anenst,  too,  is  used  in  Sc.  and  all  the  n.  counties  of  Eng 
to  Der.,  also  War.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Glo.  Brks.  Ken.  Also 


1.  Opposite,  in  front  of;  in  comparison  with. 
Sc.  Set  them  up  on  this  bit  peat  Anent  the  cutchack,  BEATTIES 
Panngs  (1801)  3;  The  Farmer  sits  anent  the  light  An'  reads  a 
piece  o'  Wallace  wight,  it.  26  ;  And  syne  the  mare  through  the 
wall  anent  her  set  up  sic  a  scraichin,  Roy  Horseman  (1895)  336  ; 
Is  naething  anent  them  ava—  ah  na,  ALLAN  Lilts  (1874)  278.  Gall. 
The  bonny  corn  that  had  grown  so  golden  on  the  braes  anent  the 
isle,  CROCKETT  Raiders  (1894)  vii.  N.Cy.1  Nhb.  Till  nenst  aa'd 
Lizzy  Moody's,  Monthly  Chron.  n.Cy.  Lore  (1887)  377;  Nhb.1, 
Dur.1  Cum.  'Anenst'  is  more  common  than  'anent'  (M.P.). 
Wm.  &  Cum.1  Anenst  it,  about  a  styan  throw  aff,  128.  Wm. 
Ameeast  anenst  Parliament  Hooses  theear  was  a  girt  whappan 
kirk,  CLARKE  Spec.  Dial.  (1868)  Jonny  Shippard.  s.Wm.  Annent 
aur  Hause  Dur,  HUTTON  Dia.  Storth  and  Arnside  (1760)  L  34.  Yks. 
But  when  he  comes  anent  her  Shoo  gies  him  sich  a  smile,  Garl. 
(1873)  la.  n.Yks.1  Set  your  name  in  this  spot,  anenst  his  [over 
against  his];  n.Yks.3,  m.Yks.'  w.Yks.GROSE  (i19o)MS.  add.(C.)\; 
If  thear  happans  ta  be  a  vacant  seat  anent  yo,  doant  put  yer  mucky 
teet  up  on  ta  it,  TOM  TREDDLEHOYLE  Bairnsla  Ann.  (1861)  7  ; 
An  umberella  cummin  wi  t'point  fair  anent  yo-is  a  thing  ta  mind, 
10.  (1873)  53  ;  Maks  ya  feel  as  small  as  thieves  Anent  a  magistrate 
PRESTO*  ,Natterin  Nan  (1872)  st.  5;  Does  ta  think  tha  could  domeabit 

llcTs  a&^fi7',H,ARTLoEY  ClockAlm-  ('873);  Anenst'church, 

bCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  ;   w.Yks.1  1  prisently  spies  him  i" 

ouer  hay  claas,  onf  heeadland,  anent  waw,  ii.  295.    Lan.  Reetanent 

w  eanenst  Ollinorth,5«m  Sondknocker, 

3-  Lan.1  We  stopt  anenst  th'yate.  Chs.1"  s.Stf.  He  had  it  al 
there  anunst  him  bodily,  MURRAY  Rainbow  Gold  (1886)  80  •  A  house 
right  anunst  the  Bull's  Head,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  '(Xf  Stf.1 
Der.  GROSE  (1790)  ;  Der.*,  nw.Der.i  n-Lin.1  I  was  anent  to  him. 

War.  (J.R.W.),  s.War.1  Wor.  GROSE  (1790);  I  lightened  ov 
'im  anonst  'is  'ovel,  OUTIS  Vig.  Man.  in  Wor.  Jrn.  w.Wor.1  Thaay 
lives  right  anenst  we.  se.Wor.1  Put  them  there  faggits  down 
anant  the  door.  s.Wor.1  Shr.  Suddenly  the  horses  stopped  short, 
right  anunst  the  witch's  house,  BURNE  Flk-Lore  (1883)  152  ;  Shr.1 
If  yo'n  follow  the  rack  alung  that  green  leazow,  yo'n  see  a  stile  right 
anunst  yo'.  Hrf.  Hur  swore  as  hursid  him . . .  down  in  th'  ditch  ov 
the  road  anunt  his  oawn  door,  Why  John  (Coll.  L.L.B.);  Maister, 
be  I  ur  gwoy-in  ter  orrer  th'  pens  anunt  th'  voller  vild  ?  (Coll. 
L.  L.B.);  Hrf.2  I  took  a  front  seat, [in  church]  right  up  anunst  the 
turkey  [i.e.  the  brass  eagle  lectern].  Glo.  Enunty,  over  against, 
over  anent,  directly  opposite,  GROSE  (1790)  MS,  add.  (M.) ;  '  How 
far  off?'  I  asked.  'Why,  here,  just  close  anent  'ee,  BUCKMAN 
Darke's  Sojourn  (1890)  xviii ;  Glo.1 2,  Ken.1 2,  Hmp.1,  Wil.1 

2.  Against,  near,  in  proximity  to. 

Sc.  Fodder  thy  lammies  anent  the  shepherd's  shielins  [tents], 
ROBSON  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  i.  8.  Ir.  Butshureyou  can  stop  anent  the 
town  at  the  blacksmith's  an'  have  it  set  right,  McNuLTY  Misther 
O'Ryan  (1894)  iv.  n.Yks.  Yan  o'  t'lads  gat  hissel'  croppen  oop 
closeanenstlathe-deear,ATKiNsoN^/oor/.  Parish (1891)  55;  n.Yks.1; 
n.Yks.2  I  sat  close  anenst  'em.  ne.Yks.1,  e.Yks.1  m.Yks.1 
Anenst,  against.  w.Yks.  I  sat  me  down  anent  him,  BRONTE  Agnes 
Grey  (1847)  xi  ;  A  passenger  at  sat  anent  ma,  TOM  TREDDLEHOYLE 
Manch.  Exhibition  (1857) ;  Awst  throw  me  daan  anent  her  feet, 
HARTLEY  Puddiri  (1876)  63 ;  Aw  dooant  envy  th'  Queen  on  her 
throoan  when  awm  sittin  anent  thee,  ib.  Seets  (1895)  ii ;  w.Yks.5 
That  tree  anent  t'church.  He's  cloise  anent  him.  neXan.1  War. 
He  run  right  anunt  the  wall  (J.B.)  ;  War.8  Stand  anent  the  hedge. 
In  common  use  near  Stratford-on-A von.  w.Wor.  Helives,sur,anant 
the  church,  S.  BEAUCHAMP  Grantley  Grange  (1874)  I.  31  ;  w.Wor.1 
Put  down  them  faggits  anant  the  door.  s.Wor.  Ananst,  Anunst, 
against  (H.K.).  Hrf.12.  Glo.  Where  did  you  leave  cider  and  tot  ? — 
Anont  thick  ash  tree  (J.D.R.)  ;  Glo.1 

8.  Side  by  side  with,  in  a  line  with. 

Sc.  Trail'd  by  horses  at  a  slow  jog  trot  Scarce  fit  to  haud  anent 
an  auld  wife  on  her  foot,  ANDERSON/3(W>«5(i8i3)  71  (JAM.).  w.Yks.3 
A  cricket-ball  in  a  line  with  the  wicket  is  anent  it ;  w.Yks.5  Soldiers 
abreast  are  '  anenst '  each  other,  or  't'oan  anenst  t'other,'  as  it  would 
beexpressed.  Rdn.  Anent, alongside  of,  MORGAN  Wrfs.(i88i).  Glo.1 

4.  About,  concerning,  with  regard  to. 

Sc.  Summonsed  all  the  neighbouring  princes  to  a  conference, 
anent  the  injury  done  by  Paris,  Scotic.  (1787)  116;  GROSE  (1790) 
MS.  add.  (C.) ;  To  see  what  can  be  done  anent  your  affairs, 
SCOTT  Rob  Roy  (1817)  xxii  ;  To  raise  scandal  anent  them,  ib.  Mid- 
lothian (1818)  ii ;  Touching  that  round  monticle  .  .  .  anent  whilk  I 
have  heard,  ib.  Leg.  Mont.  (1830)  ii.  Gall.  The  black  dog  was 
sitting  heavy  on  him  at  the  thought  of  the  fine  anent  harbourers  of 
rebels,  CROCKETT  Moss  Hags  (1895)  84.  N.Cy.12  Yks.  Anenst 
(K.).  n.Yks.2  What  say  you  anent  it.  w.Yks.  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidder- 
dale  (c.  1882)  229.  Chs.1 ;  Chs.3  I  know  nought  anent  him. 

5.  Towards,  by  way  of  contribution  to. 

N.Cy.1  The  cash  was  paid  nenst  her  year's  rent.  n.Yks.  I'll  give 
you  something  anenst  that  [to  help  you  to  buy  it]  (I.W.) ;  n.Yks.2 
I  gav  a  pund  anent  it  [the  subscription]. 

6.  In  competition  with. 

Sc.  Could  modern  heads,  wi'  philosophic  wit,  Wi'  argument 
anent  an  auld  wife  sit,  ANDERSON  Poems(iSi3)  73  (JAM.).  w.Yks. If 
tha  drinks,  I'll  drink  anent  tha  (S.K.C.) ;  w.Yks.3  A  lass  dresses 
anent  a  lady  in  trying  to  rival  her. 

7.  In  turn  with. 

e.Lan.1  If  Jack  works  at  a  machine  in  the  forenoon  and  Jim 
works  at  the  same  machine  in  the  afternoon,  Jack  and  Jim  are 
said  to  work  anenst  each  other.  s.Stf.  The  mon  what  works 
anunst  me  [i.  e.  the  man  who  does  at  night  the  same  work  which 
the  speaker  does  in  the  day-time,  or  vice  versa],  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy. 
Ann.  (1895). 

8.  With. 

w.Yks.  We'll  tak'a  sack  anent  us,  GRAINGE  Nidderdale  (1863)  225. 

9.  By  such  a  time. 

Lan.  THORNBER  Hist.  Ace.  Blackpool  (1837)  106. 

10.  Nearly,  thereabouts ;   also  used  as  adv.  as  in  phr. 
anenst  about  the  matter. 

Glo.  They  use  '  anent '  in  place  of  '  or  more,'  meaning  '  nearly, 
close  upon,'  ELLIS  Pronunc.  (1889)  V.  65.  Brks.  When  they 
would  say  'nearly'  or  'thereabouts,'  they  say  'anenst  about  the 
matter,'  NICHOLS  Bibl.  Tofog.  Brit.  (1783)  IV.  56,  ed.  1790.  Hmp. 
Nens  as  he  was.  Pretty  nens  one  [pretty  much  the  same],  JV.  &  Q. 
(1854)  ist  S.  x.  120;  Hmp.1  [Anenst  the  matter  (K.).] 

[1.  A  brothir  with  brothir  stryveth  in  dome,  and  that 
anentis  unfeithful  men,  WYCLIF  (1382)  i  Cor.  vi.  6. 




2.  Anent,  juxta,  COLES  (1679);  Gawlistoun  That  is  rycht 
evyn  anent  Lowdoun,  BARBOUR  Bruce,  vm.  124.  3.  Him 
on  efn  lige¥>  ealdorgewinna,  Beowulf,  2903.  4.  Anent 
(concerning),  De,  COLES  (1679)  ;  Anentis  men  this  thing 
is  impossible  ;  but  anentis  God  alle  thingis  ben  possible, 
WYCLIF  (1388)  Matt.  xix.  26.  OE.  on  efen  (efn,  etnn), 
on  even  (ground)  with,  whence,  side  by  side  with,  oppo- 
site, in  view  of.] 

ANERLY,  adv.  and  adj.  Sc.  Yks.  Also  written  yan- 
nerly  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  m.Yks.1  [a'narli,  ya'narli.] 

1.  adv.    Alone,  lonely,  solitary. 

Sc.  Anerly,  Anyrly  (JAM.).  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  He  left  her  all 
yannerly  at  home.  Whya !  yoor  maistther's  geean  doon  ti 
Whidby  ;  you'll  be  quite  yannerly. 

2.  Comp.  All-anerly,  quite  alone. 

Sc.  The  next  time  that  ye  bring  ony  body  here,  let  them  be 
gentles  allenarly,  SCOTT  Bride  of  Lam.  (1830)  xxvi. 

3.  adj.    Fond  of  retirement,  shy. 

Sc.  (JAM.).  n.Yks.2  Annerly  ways,  unsocial  habits.  m.Yks.1 
Yannerly,  unyielding,  rudely  retiring,  or  unsocial  in  manners. 

4.  Selfish,  absorbed  in  one's  own  interests. 
n.Yks.2  A  yannerly  soort  of  a  body.     m.Yks.1 

[1.  Thai  said  that  he  ...  duelt  .  . .  With  a  clerk  with 
him  anerly,  BARBOUR  Bruce,  n.  58 ;  Thai  .  .  .  That  saw 
him  stand_thair  anerly,  ib.  vi.  132.  Anerly,  der.  of  Sc.  am, 
one,  OE.  an(e);  the  -eris  prob. due  to  compar. formations ; 
cp.  formerly,  latterly.] 

ANERY,  Sc.  A  term  occurring  in  a  rhyme  of  children, 
used  for  deciding  the  right  of  beginning  a  game.  Several 
versions  are  still  current. 

Per.  A  version  of  this  rhyme  '  Anery,  twarie,'  is  quite  familiar 
(G.W.).  Lth.  Anery,  twaery,  tickery,  seven,  Aliby,  crackiby, 
ten  or  eleven  ;  Pin-pan,  muskidan,  Tweedlum,  twodlum,  twenty- 
one,  Blackw.  Mag.  (Aug.  1821)  36. 

ANES,  see  Even. 

ANEW,  prep,  and  adv.  Obs.'i  Sc.  QAM.)  Below, 

Abd.  [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

ANEWST,  prep,  and  adv.  Hrf.  Glo.  Oxf.  Brks.  Ken. 
Sus.  Hmp.  I.W.  Dor.  Wil.  Som.  Also  by  aphaeresis  newst 
Glo.  Wil? ;  neust  Brks.  I.W.1  Wil.1 ;  neoust,  noust  Wil.1 
Also  written  anoust  Glo.  Wil.1 ;  annaust  Glo. ;  enewst 
Glo.1;  aneoust  Hrf.1  Glo.  Brks.1  Wil.1  Som.;  aneust 
Glo.1  Brks.  Hmp.1  I.W.1  Wil.1;  newse  (K.).  [anhrs, 
aniu'st.  |  See  below. 

1.  prep.    Of  place  :  near,  hard  by,  over  against. 

Hrf.1  Aneaoust.  Brks.1  I  zin  'in  aneoust  the  chake  pit  [saw  him 
near  the  chalk  pit].  Ken.1,  Sus.2,  Sus.  &  w.Cy.  RAY  (1691). 
Som.  Dwon't  ye  come  anuost  yer  zister  ta  vessy  wi'  er,  JENNINGS 
Dial.  w.Eng.  (1869)  143. 

2.  Nearly,  approximating  to,  almost. 

Glo.  Anaust  a  handful  or  spoonful,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.) 

3.  adv.    Of  manner  or  degree :  nearly,  approximately, 

Hrf.1  Neaous.  Glo.1  Near  anoust.  Oxf.  Neaust,  Newse,  Aneus. 
There  or  there  aneus  (K.).  Brks.  GROSE  (1790) ;  Brks.1,  Ken.2 
Sus.  RAY  (1691) ;  Sus.12  Hmp.  Anybody  med  newst  so  well  be 
made  love  to  by  a  owl,  MAXWELL  GRAY  Heart  of  Storm  (1891)  I. 
192  ;  Hmp.1  I.W.  Tell  me  aneuse  the  time  of  the  day,  MONCRIEFF 
Dream  in  Gent.  Mag.  (1863)  1.  32  ;  I.W.1  Neuce  the  seyam  ;  I.W.2 
She  do  goo  on  ...  jest  as  if  she  was  missus.  D'ye  think  the  wold 
man's  married  to  her  1 — I  dunno,  but  I  louz  "tes  anewse  the  saame. 
Dor.1  Anewst  the  seame.  Wil.1  What  is  it  a  clock  ? — A  newst  one. 
Which  of  the  two  is  oldest  ? — They  are  newst  of  an  age.  Which 
of  those  things  are  best  ? — They  are  anewst  alike.  Som.  SWEETMAN 
Wincanton  Gl.  (1885). 

4.  Resembling,  like. 

Glo.  'Ee's  a  bit  aneist  'is  feyther  (S.S.B.)  ;  Glo.2 
6.  In  phr.  anewst  of  anewstness,  '  much  of  a  muchness,' 
nearly  alike ;  anewst  the  matter,  nearly  right ;  near  anewst. 
Glo.  GROSE  (1790)  Suppl.  MS.  add.  (P.) ;  Glo.1     Brks. '  Neust  of 
a  neustness,"  an  expression  very  current,  RAY  Prov.  (1678)  225. 
ed.   1860.     Wil.  BRITTON  Beauties  (1825);   Wil.1  Which   of  these 
things  are  best  ? — They  are  a  newst  of  a  newstness.     Oxf.  Neaust 
the  matter  (K.) ;  (M.W.)     I.W.1  Neuce  the  matter ;  I.W.2  Anewse 
the  matter.     Glo.  Near  a  neawst,  near  ye  matter,  RAY  (1691)  MS. 
add.  (J.C.)  108. 
[1.  Arente,  aneust,  very  neere  unto,   FLORID  (1611) ; 

VOL.  I. 

Waes  'Saer  on  neaweste  hus,  BEDA,  v.  14.  2.  Anewst 
almost,  COLES  (1677).  Anewst=A-,  on  +  newsl;  OE.  neah- 
zvist,  nearness,  neighbourhood  ;  cp.  ON.  na-vist,  presence, 
OHG.  nah-wist.} 

ANG,  sb.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  [an,  erj.]  The 
beard  of  barley  or  wheat. 

n.Cy.  GROSE  (1790)  ;  HOLLOWAY  ;  N.Cy.1,  Nhb.1  Cum.  MORTON 
Cyclo.  Agric.  (1863);  Cum.2  Wm.  FERGUSON  Northmen  (1856) 
169  ;  Wm.1  T'barley  angs  sticks  tew  mah.  w.Yks.  HUTTON  Tour 
to  Caves  (1781).  Lan.1,  ne.Lan.1 

[This  form  is  prob.  ofScand.  origin,  ant*  representing  an 
older  agn,  by  metath.  of  g  ;  cp.  Sw.  ag?z,"ON.  ogn,  an  awn.] 

ANG,  see  Ampery. 

ANGALUCK,  sb.    Sh.I.    An  accident,  a  disaster. 

Sh.I.  Angaluck  (JAM.  Suppl.).     S.&Ork.1 

[Cp.  Du.  ongeluk,  misfortune.] 

ANGEL,  in  comp.  and  comb,  (i)  Angel-fish,  a  fish  of  the 
shark  family  ;  (2)  -maine,  see  Angel-fish  ;  (3)  Angels' 
eyes,  the  plant  germander  speedwell  ;  (4)  -shark,  see 
Angel-fish  ;  (5)  Angel's  pincushion,  a  plant,  the  Devil's 
Bit,  Scabiosa  succisa  ;  (6)  -swaine,  see  Angel-fish. 

(i)  Cor.2ByArtedicalledtheMermaid-fish,M5.rtrfrf.  [Angel-fish, 
-maine,  -shark,  -swaine,  Squatina  angelus  (SATCHELL).]  (2)  Cor.1  2 
Angelmaine,  the  Monk  fish,  Sqtiatina  angelus.  (3)  Dev.  The  sweet 
germander  speedwell,  .  .  .  here,  most  poetically,  named  by  the 
peasantry  Angels'  eyes,  GOSSE  Dartmoor  in  Intell.  Obs.  (1863)  318 
(N.E.D.);  Around  her  hat  a  wreath  was  twined  Of  blossoms 
blue  as  southern  skies  ;  I  asked  their  name,  and  she  replied,  We 
call  them  Angels'  Eyes,  Garden  (June  29,  1872);  Angels'  eyes, 
Veronica  chamoedrys.  (5)  Dor.  Angel's  pincushion,  the  Devil's  Bit 
scabious  (G.E.D.). 

[An  angel-fish  (scale),  Squatina,  COLES  (1679).] 

ANGER,  sb.    Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.    [a'na(r).] 

1.  Inflammation. 

Cum.  &  Wm.  That  finger  'ill  gedder,  ye'll  see.  Ther's  a  deal  o' 
ang-er  and  heat  aboot  it  (M.P.).  n.Yks.2  My  leg's  full  o'  anger. 
wYks.  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  16,  1891).  n.Lan.  (W.H.H.) 

2.  Rashness. 

n.Yks.2  They  should  hae  had  mair  wit  i'  their  anger. 

[1.  Rawness  and  anger  (in  that  dialect,  wherein  we  call 
a  sore  angry),  HAMMOND  (1659)  On  Ps.  Iviii.  9  (N.E.D.)  ; 
I  made  the  experiment,  setting  the  moxa  where  the  first 
violence  of  my  pain  began,  and  where  the  greatest  anger 
and  soreness  stifl  continued,  notwithstanding  the  swelling 
of  my  foot,  TEMPLE  Misc.  (JOHNSON).] 

ANGER,  v.    Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Dev. 

1.  To  vex,  irritate,  make  angry. 

Sc.  I  couldna  but  laugh,  though  it  sore  angered  my  mother  to 
see  me  do't,  WHITEHEAD  Daft  Davie  (1876)  139.  Wxf.1  Angerth, 
angered,  angry.  Nhb.  Me  muthor's  bairns  gat  angort  at  us,  ROBSON 
Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  i.  6  ;  Nhb.1  n.Yks.  Mah  mother's  bairns  were 
angered  at  mah,  ROBINSON  Whitby  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  i.  6.  w.Yks.2 
Dev.  Tain't  safe  to  anger  she,  O'NEILL  Idyls  (1892)  23. 

2.  To  inflame,  irritate  (of  a  wound). 

n.Yks.1  Hoo's  Willy's  leg  t'morn  ?  —  Whyah,  it's  nae  better.  It's 
desput  sair  and  angerd  ;  n.Yks.2  Lan.1  Yon  lad's  foot  gets  no 
betther;  he's  bin  walkin'  this  mornin',  an  his  stockin'  mun  'a 
angert  it.  m.Lan.1  When  yo're  towd  nod  to  anger  a  soore  place. 

[1.  'Twould  have  anger'd  any  heart  alive  To  hear  the 
men  deny't,  SHAKS.  Macbeth,  HI.  vi.  15;  Beware  howe 
you  anger  hym,  garder  vous  de  le  corroucer,  PALSGR. 
2.  Itch  most  hurts  when  anger'd  to  a  sore,  POPE  Donne 
Sat.  iv.  119.  ON.  angra,  to  grieve,  vex.] 

ANGER-BERRY,  see  Angle-berry. 

ANGERIE.s*.  Sh.I.  (JAM.  Suppl.}    A  crowd,  multitude. 

ANGERLY,  adj.    n.Yks.     [a-rjali.]    Fierce,  raging. 


[The  word  is  very  rare  in  E.  as  an  adj.  Byron  so  uses 
it  :  (He)  was  angerly,  but  tried  to  conceal  it,  MOORE  Life 
(N.E.D.).  Anger,  sb.  +-fy.  Cp.  ON.  angrligr,  sad.] 

ANGISH,  sb.  and  adj.    Irel. 
1.  Poverty. 

Wxf.1  Lim.  I  have  heard  this  word  used  in  the  sense  of  poverty, 
wretchedness,  misery  ,  by  the  very  common  people.  Seldom  used  at 


2.  adj.    Poverty-stricken. 
Ir.  The  poor  man  is  angish  enough  (J.F.M.F.). 




Hence  Angishore,  a  poverty-stricken  creature. 

sJr.  'Angishore"  was  and  is  in  very  common  use  ;  a  miserable 
creature  in  poverty  and  wretchedness,  almost  exactly  equivalent 
to  what  we  mean  by  our  epithet,  '  a  poor  devil '  (P. W.J.).    s.Wxf. 
Give  the  poor  angashore  a  chance,  Humour  oflrel.  (1894)  391. 
3.  Sickly,  unhealthy. 

Ir.  A  delicate,  pale,  miserable-looking  child  would  be  called  'an 
angish  creather'  'J.F.M.FA  Wxf.  Angish,  very  poorly  (J.S.). 

[This  word  is  due  to  a  Gael,  use  and  pronunc.  of  lit. 
E.  anguish  in  the  s.  of  Irel. — aingis.] 

ANGLE,  sb.1    Yks.  Der.    [a'nl.] 

1.  A  small  hook. 

m.Yks.1  A  small  hook,  as  a  fishing-hook. 

2.  Comp.  Angle-rod  (obs.),  a  fishing-rod. 


[1.  Go  to  the  see  and  cast  in  thyne  angle,  TINDALE 
Matt.  xvii.  27 ;  Gang  to  ¥sere  sae  and  wurp  Sinne  angel 
fit,  OE.  vers,  (ib.)  OE.  angul,  cp.  ON.  6'ngull,  a  fishing- 
hook.  2.  He  makes  a  May- fly  to  a  miracle;  and  furnishes 
the  whole  country  with  angle-rods,  ADDISON  Sped.  No. 
108 ;  An  angle-rod,  Pertica  Piscatoria,  COLES  (1679); 
Before  you  undertake  your  tryal  of  skil  by  the  angle- 
rod,  WALTON  Angler  (1653)  170.] 

ANGLE,  sb*  Som.  Dev.  [ae'rjl.]  A  worm  used  in 
fishing,  an  earthworm. 

w.Som.1  U  buunch  u  ang-lz  wai  wiis'turd  driie  um-z  dhu  bas  bauyt 
vur  ee  ulz  [a  bunch  of  worms  with  worsted  through  them  is  the 
best  bait  for  eels].  You  be  bound  vor  togie  em  [larks  and  thrushes] 
a  angle  now  and  then.  Dev.  '  Fishing  with  an  angle"  is  by  more 
people  understood  to  be  fishing  with  a  worm  than  what  it  really 
is  — fishing  with  a  hook,  Reports  Provinc.  (1889).  s.Dev.  (F.W.C.) 

[Prob.  for  Angle-twitch,  q.v.] 

ANGLE,  sb.3  e.Yks.  n.Lin.  A  name  given  to  the  holes 
or  runs  of  vermin,  such  as  badgers,  field-mice,  &c. 

e.Yks.  MARSHALL  Rnr.  Econ.  (1796).  n-Lin.1  Angles,  artificial 
burrows  used  for  capturing  rabbits  in  warrens. 

ANGLE,  v .  Som.  [as'rjl.]  To  loiter  or  '  hang '  about  a 
place  with  some  design  ;  to  intrigue.  Also  used  as  sb. 

w.Som.1  Wau-d-ur  kau'm  ang-leen  baewt  yuur  vaur  ?  [what  does 
he  come  loitering  about  here  for?]— Aay  au'vees  kunsiid  urd  eens 
ee  wuz  ang-leen  aa-dr  Mils  Jee-un  [1  always  thought  he  was 
angling  after  Miss  Jane].  Aay  kaa'n  ubae-ur-n,  liz  au-vees  pun  dhu 
ang-1  [I  cannot  endure  him,  he  is  always  upon  the  angle,  i.  e. 

[She  knew  her  distance,  and  did  angle  for  me,  Madding 
my  eagerness,  SHAKS.  Alts  Well,  v.  iii.  212.  Fig.  use  of 
angle,  vb.,  to  fish  with  a  hook,  to  use  an  angle  (see 
Angle,  sb.1).] 

ANGLE-BERRY,  sb.1  Sc.  n.Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan. 
Glo.  Also  written  annle-,  see  below,  [a'rjl-bari.]  The 
same  as  Anbury,  1. 

Sc.  A  fleshy  excrescence  resembling  a  very  large  hautboy  straw- 
berry,  growing  on  the  feet  of  sheep,  cattle,  &c.  (JAM.).  N.I.1  Angle- 
berries,  large  hanging  warts  on  a  horse,  sometimes  about  its  mouth. 
Nhb.1  Anger-berry,  or  Angle-berry,  a  warty  excrescence  growing 
on  the  umbilicus,  or  scrotum,  or  teats  of  an  animal.  These  are 
highly  vascular  and  easily  hurt.  Cum.2  Yks.  Before  the  angle- 
berries  or  warts  grow  strong,  you  may  pull  them  up,  KNOWLSON 
Cattle  Doctor  (1834)  98.  w.Yks.1  Nannle.berries.  ne.Lan.1  Angle- 
berry,  a  sore  under  the  hoof  of  an  animal.  eXan.1  Handle-berry. 
Glo.i  [Angle-berry,  a  sore  or  imposthumation  under  the  claw  of  a 
beast  (K.).] 

[Prob.  for  an  earlier  "ang-berry  •  OE.  ang-,  pain,  anguish 
(as  in  ang-seta,  carbuncle)  +  berry.  For  berry  used  in  this 
sense,  cp.  strawberry  as  applied  to  a  birth-mark,  and  the 
use  of  It.  moro  for  a  mulberry-tree  and  a  wart  on  horses 
(FLORIO).  See  Anbury.] 

ANGLE-BERRY,  sb."    n.Cy.    Lathyrus  pmtensis. 

n.Cy.  Angle-berry,  the  common  wild  vetchling,  from  the  angles 
of  its  pods,  Poetry  Prov.  in  Comh.  Mag.  (1865)  XII.  34  ;  N.Cy.1 
Nhb.i  Among  old  people  angle-berry  is  the  name  of  a  vetch  •  prob- 
ably because  it  angles  or  catches  hold  and  clings  to  plants  or 
shrubs  stronger  and  taller  than  itself. 

[Angle  (Fr.  angle)  +  berry.] 

ANGLE-BOW,  sb.  Glo.  Som.  Dev.  A  running  knot, 
a  snare  with  a  spring  noose,  a  gin  for  birds  or  fish 

Glo.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  w-Som.1  Angle-bow,  a  running 
noose,  a  shp-knot,  especially  a  wire  on  a  long  stick  for  c™tch  nf 

fish  ;  also  a  springle  for  catching  birds.     The  poacher's  wire  is 
always  an  angle-bow.    Dev.  Applied  to  any  running  noose  (F.W.C.). 

[Angle  (Fr.  art%le)  +  bow  (a  single-looped  knot).] 

ANGLE-BOWING,  vbl.  sb.     Som.  Dev. 

1.  Poaching  for  fish  by  means  of  an  angle-bow. 
Dev.  (F.W.C.) 

2.  A  method  of  fencing  the  enclosures  where  sheep  are 
kept,  by  placing  bent  sticks  into  the  ground  ;  also  the  act 
of  fencing  in  this  manner. 

w.Som.1  n.Dev.  Chell  tell  vautlfer  o't  zo  zoon  es  ha  comath  hum 
vrom  angle-bowing,  don't  quesson't,  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  aia ; 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  Dev.1 

[1.  Vbl.  sb.  of  angle-bow,  q.v.,  used  as  a  vb.  2.  Vbl. 
sb.  of  angle-bow,  vb.',  deriv.  01  Angle  (Fr.  angle)  +  bow  (the 
weapon  for  shooting  arrows).] 

ANGLE-DOG,  sb.     Dev.    The  earthworm. 

Dev.  At  Culmstock  a  farmer,  speaking  of  loose  straw  on  pasture, 
said,  '  You'd  be  surprise  how  zoon  th'  angle-dogs'll  draw  it  down,' 
Reports  Provinc.  (1889). 

ANGLE-EARED,  adj.     Dev.     Mischievous. 

s.Dev.  Angle-yeared  (used  of  children);  orig.  '  with  outstanding 
(pointed)  ears,'  such  as  Puck  is  represented  with.  Angle-yeared  ? 
— that's  when  boys  be  artful.  You  angle-eared  young  toad  ! 

[Angle  (Fr.  angle)  +  eared.} 

ANGLE-TWITCH,  sb.  Gmg.  Pern.  Dev.  Cor.  Also 
written  angle-titch  nw.  Dev.1;  angle-ditch  Cor.2 ;  -touch 
Wei.  [ae-rjl-twitf.] 

1.  The  earthworm. 

Gmg.,  Pern.  COLLINS  Cower  Dial.  Trans.  Phil.  Soc.  (1850)  IV.  222. 
Dev.  Reports  Provinc.  (1895.)  n.Dev.  Jim,  go  and  zarch  vor  angle- 
twitches,  ROCK  Jim  an  Nell  (1867)  35.  Dev.1  You  drumble-drone- 
dunder-headed-slinpole,  ...  I'd  twack  thee  till  I  made  thee  twine 
like  an  angletwitch  ;  Dev.3,  nw.Dev.1  Cor.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add. 
(C  ) ;  The  king's  highway  ought  not  to  be  twisting  and  turning 
like  an  angle-twitch,  HUNT  Pop.  Rom.  iv.Eng.  (1865)  33 ;  Far  as 
I  cu'd  see  you've  done  naught  but  fidget  like  an  angletwitch,  '  Q.' 
Three  Ships  (1890)  vii ;  Turnin'  an"  twestin'  like  a'  angle-twitch, 
PEARCE  Esther  Pcntreath  (1891)  bk.  i.  iv  ;  But  aw  twingled  like  an 
angle-dutch,  THOMAS  Randigal  Rhymes  (1895)  24  ;  Cor.1  Wrig- 
gling like  an  angle-twitch  ;  Cor.2 

2.  A  slow-worm. 

3.  In  phr.  to  have  an  angle-twitch  in  the  bonnet,  to  be  not 
quite  sane. 

Dev.  Eh,  daddy  says  t'ers  an  angle-twitch  till  her  rewdon, 
MADOX-BROWN  Dwale  Bluth  (1876)  bk.  iv.  ii. 

[See  NARES  (s.v.  Angel-touche)  •  His  baites  are  Tag- 
wormes,  which  the  Cornish-English  term  'Angle-touches,' 
CAREW  Cornwall  (1602)  26.  ME.  Greyte  wormes  bat 
are  called  angel  twycches,  MS.  in  Prompt.  279.  OE. 

ANG-NAIL  or  ANGER-NAIL,  see  Agnail. 
ANGOLA,  sb.    w.Yks.    Cotton  and  fine  wool  mixed 
in  the  fibre,  spun  in  the  same  way  as  wool,  the  feel  of 
wool  thus   being  obtained,  while  the  cotton  prevents 
shrinkage  by  washing  or  perspiration  (J.F.). 

Hence  Angolas.  A  term  used  in  the  rag  trade  for 
underclothing  made  from  cotton  and  wool,  but  chiefly 
cotton  (M.F.). 

ANGRY,  adj.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Stf.  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Wor.  Oxf.  Hnt.  Cmb.  e.An. 
Sus.  Hmp.  Som.  [a'nri,  a-rjgri,  ae-nri.]  Inflamed,  red. 
Used  with  reference  to  a  wound  or  sore. 

Nhb.1  Me  fingr's  beeldin'  aa's  flaid — it  leuks  se  angry.  Dnr.1, 
Cum.12,  Wm.1,  n-Yks.1,  ne.Yks.1  w.Yks.  (J.T.) ;  w.Yks.s,  Lan.1, 
m.Lan.1  Chs.1  That  thumb  o'  hisn's  looks  main  angry.  s.Chs.1 
Stf.2  That  bad  pises  on  thoi  'and  links  very  angry.  nw.Der. '  Lin. 
STREATFIELD  Lin.  and  Danes  (1884)  315.  n-Lin.1,  Lei.1  Nhp.1  It's 
a  bad  wound;  it  looks  so  very  angry.  War.2  Rub  a  little  ointment 
on  that  sore,  it  has  an  angry  look  ;  War.3  ne.Wor.  A  wound  or 
sore  place  '  looks  very  angry'  (J.W.P.).  Oxf.1  MS.  add.  Hnt. 
(T.  P.F.)  Cmb.1  That  there  cut  on  your  finger's  rare  and  angry — 
you'd  better  put  a  hutkin  on.  e.An.1  My  kibe  is  very  angry  to-night 
Nrf.,  Snf.,  Sns.,  Hmp.  A  person,  when  angry,  generally  looks  red  ; 
so  does  the  inflamed  part  of  the  body,  HOLLOWAY.  w.Som.1  He 
was  getting  on  very  well  till  s'mornin,  but  now  the  leg  looks 




[This  serum  .  .  .  grows  red  and  angry,  WISEMAN  Surgery 
(JOHNSON)  ;  I  have  rubb'd  this  young  quat  almost  to  the 
sense,  And  he  grows  angry,  SHAKS.  Oth.  v.  i.  12  ;  Pedigndni, 
angrie  kibes,  chilblanes,  FLORIO  (1611).] 

ANGUISH,  sb.    Sur.  Hmp.  Cor.    [ae'rjwij.] 

1.  Inflammation. 

Sur.  It's  nice  and  cooling  is  that  Elder  ointment  I  made  ;  it  keeps 
off  the  anguish,  N.  &  Q.  (1880)  6th  S.  i.  238.  Hmp.1  Of  horses 
it  is  said,  '  If  we  foment  it,  it'll  take  the  anguish  out  of  it.'  Cor.3 
There  is  a  deal  of  anguish  in  my  finger.  That  is  the  anguish 
coming  out  [said  of  water  running  from  an  inflamed  eye]. 

2.  Pain  felt  at  a  distance  from  the  actual  wound  or  seat 
of  disease,  commonly  known  as  '  sympathy.' 

Cor.3  My  hand  is  swelled  and  I've  got  a  swelling  too  in  my  arm- 
pit, but  that  is  from  the  anguish  of  it.  The  pain  that  arises  in  one 
tooth  from  sympathy  with  another  corresponding  one  in  decay  is 
called  anguish. 

[OFr.angoisse,  anguish,  agony  of  mind  or  body  (CoxcR.).] 

ANGUISHED,  ppl.  adj.     Lin.    Pained,  troubled. 

n.Lin.1  1  was  straangely  anguished  in  my  joints  all  thrif  Thomas 
th'  wizzard. 

[My  soule  was  angwishid  in  me,  WYCLIF  (1382)  Jon. 
ii.  8.  Anguished,  pp.  of  anguish,  vb.  I  anguysshe,  Je 
angoysse  ;  This  wounde  anguyssheth  me,  ceste  playe  me 
aiigoysse,  PALSGR.] 

ANGUISHOUS,  adj.  Lan.  Chs.  [a'rjwifas.]  (i)  Pain- 
ful, causing  pain.  (2)  Sorrowful,  oppressed  with  pain. 

(.0  Chs.1  2)  Lan.1  He  lookt  quite  anguishous,  an  aw  felt  sorry 
for  him. 

[(i)  Ful  anguisshous  than  is,  god  wool,  quod  she, 
Condicioun  of  veyn  prosperitee,  CHAUCER  Tr.  &°  Cr.  HI. 
816.  (2)  For  I  was  al  aloon,  y-wis,  Ful  wo  and  anguissous 
of  this,  CHAUCER  R.  Rose,  520.  OFr.  angttissus,  Fr.  angois- 
seux  (PALSGR.  305).] 

ANIE,  sb.    Sc.     A  small  one. 

Abd.  Gie's  a  bonny  anie.  It's  but  a  wee  little  anie  (G.W.). 
Knr.  Anie,  a  little  one  QAM.).  Edb.  A  mother  speaking  of  the 
youngest  of  her  children  says  '  The  wee  ane  '  or  '  The  wee  anie.' 
What  bowl  [of  porridge]  willye  tak.  Jamie?  —  The  wee  anie  (J.  W.  M.). 

[Dim.  of  ane,  n.  dial,  form  of  lit.  E.  one.    Ane  +  -y.] 

ANIGH,  adv.  and  prep.  Stf.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Wor.  Shr. 
Glo.  Oxf.  Brks.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W.  Som.  Aus.  [anr, 
onai'  ;  Lei.  anoi'.] 

1.  adv.    Near. 

Lei.1  Oi'll  gie  ye  a  clout  if  yo  coom  anoigh.  War.23  Shr.1 
The  doctor  never  come  anigh.  Glo.1,  Sus.1 

2.  prep.    Near  to,  near  ;  gen.  with  vb.  of  motion. 

s.Stf.  Do'  let  him  come  anigh  me,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (iSgsX 
Stf.2  Ei  nivgr  kum  anoi  mi  for  3  wik.  Nhp.1  He  lives  anigh 
me.  s.War.1  Don't  ye  go  anigh  him.  se.Wor.1  Don't  you  get 
anigh  them  osses.  Oxf.1,  Brks.1  Sur.1  And  for  all  that  I  was 
bad  so  long  he  never  come  a-nigh  me.  Hmp.1,  I.W.1  w.Som.1 
Used  with  vbs.  implying  motion  only.  Dhur  aewz  uz  nuy  dhu 
roa'ud,  bud  aay  niivur  diidn  goo  unuyum  [their  house  is  near  the 
road,  but  I  never  went  near  them].  [Aus.,  N.S.W.  We  mustered 
the  cattle  quite  comfortably,  nobody  coming  anext  or  anigh  us 
any  more  than  if  we'd  taken  the  thing  by  contract,  BOLDREWOOD 
Robbery  (1888)  I.  xi.] 

ANIGHST,  prep,  and  adv.    Der.  Wor.  Hrf.  Glo.  Oxf. 
Brks.  Sus.   Hmp.   Wil.    Dor.  Cor.    Also  written   anist 
Der.2  nw.Der.1  Cor.12  ;  anyst  Cor.2    [anai'st,  ani'st.] 
1.  prep.    Near,  near  to  ;  gen.  used  with  v.  of  motion. 

Der.2,  nw.Der.1  Wor.  I  'oodn't  live  anighst  her  wotever,  OUTIS 
Vig.  Man.  in  Wor.  Jnt.  s.Wor.1  Hrf.1  They  never  come  anighst 
me.  Bio.  I  never  cud  get  anist  un  (S.S.B.)  ;  Master  Michael  .  .  . 
oodn't  let  un  come  anighst  the  house,  GISSING  Vill.  Hcmtpden 
(1890)  II.  v;  Glo.1  Oxf.1  A  said  'twas  I  as  'ut  'im,  an'  I  never 
went  nooer  anighst'n.  Brks.  Blessee,  child,  doantee  go  anigst  it, 
HUGHES  T.  Brown  (1856)  37  ;  Now  thou'rt  like  to  get  th'  lotment 
thou'lt  not  go  anyst  'un,  ib.  T.  Brown  Oxf.  (1861)  xix  ; 
Brks.1  Best  not  come  anighst  that  ther  hoss,  med  be  he'll  kick  "e. 
e.Sus.  HOLLOWAY.  Hmp.1  Wil.  The  miller  zeed  it  ael,  but 
couldn't  come  anighst  un,  AKERMAN  Spring-tide  (1850)  48  ;  Wil.1 
Nobody's  bin  anighst  us  since  you  come  ;  Wil.2  Dor.1  Don't  goo 
aniste  en.  Cor.  Don't  you  come  anist  my  door  agen  for  a  bra' 
spur.  FORFAR  IVisard  ^871  j  54  ;  They  durstn't  ha'  gone  anighst 
a  shop,  PARR  Adam  ami  Eve  (,1880;  I.  276.  w.Cor.  So  take  and 

go  the  west  [way]  home  and  dos'en  aw  come  anist  me,  THOMAS 
Rant/igal  Rhymes  (1895)  7.    Cor.2  Don't  go  anist  him,  MS.  add. 
2.  adv.    Nearly,  almost. 

Dor.  You've  said  anighst  all,  HARDY  Tower  (1882)  327,  ed.  1895. 

[A-  (pref.w)  + nighest,  superl.  of  nigh.] 

ANIGHT(S,  adv.  War.  Wor.  Som.  [anai't]  At  night, 
of  a  night. 

War.,  Wor.  I  can't  sleep  anights  (H.K.).  s.Wor.1  w.Som.1  You 
can't  never  do  it  by  day,  but  you  can  zometimes  anight. 

[Bid  him  take  that  fof  coming  a-night,  SHAKS.  As  You, 
ii.  iv.  48;  Though  I  him  wrye  a-night  and  make  him 
warm,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  D.  1827.  A-,  on  +  night.] 

ANIND,  see  Onhind. 

ANISE,  sb.  A  plant-name  applied  to  (i)  Afyssum 
maritimum  (Dev.)  ;  (2)  Koniga  maritinta  (Dev.) ;  (3) 
Myrrhis  odorata  (Dun). 

Dev.4  Anise,  the  same  as  Sweet  Alice. 

[Dial,  uses  of  anise  (Pimpinella  antsum),  Fr.  ants,  Lat. 
ariisum,  Gr.  avlaov.} 

ANK,  v.  Lan.  To  be  of  opinion,  to  assert  em- 

Lan. '  Con  aw  ? '  cried  Jimmy  ;  '  aw  ank  a  con,'  STANDING  Echoes 
(1885)  24.  e.Lan.  In  common  use  among  the  natives  of  the  Tod- 
morden  valley,  and  in  Burnley  (F.E.B.). 

[Etym.  obscure.  Perh.  the  same  word  as  hank  (to 
fasten),  q.v.] 

ANKER,  sb.     Sc.  Nhb.  Cor.    [a'rjkar,  ae'rjka(r).] 

1.  A  liquid  measure  :  ten  imperial  gallons. 

Sc.  I  had  whiles  twa  bits  o'  ankers  o'  brandy,  SCOTT  Rob  Roy 
(1817)  xviii ;  Anker,  a  liquid  measure  formerly  in  use  in  all  districts 
that  traded  with  the  Dutch  (JAM.  Sitppl.}.  S.  &  Ork.1  Danish 
anker,  38  Danish  quarts,  10  imperial  gallons.  Nhb.  About  ten 
ankers  of  gin,  RICHARDSON  Borderer's  Tablc-bk.  (1846)  VII.  175. 

2.  A  small   cask  adapted  for  carrying,  and  containing 
about  four  gallons. 

Sc.  Tun,  anker,  and  cag,  DRUMMOND  Muchomathy  (1846)  66. 
s.  &  w.Sc.  A  small  barrel  used  by  smugglers  for  carrying  their 
brandy  on  horseback,  &c. ;  also  the  small  barrel  open  at  one  end 
used  for  holding  the  oatmeal  in  daily  use.  Still  so  used  in  se- 
cluded districts  of  the  s.  and  w.  of  Scotland,  and  is  a  big  or  a  wee, 
a  muckle  or  a  little  anker,  according  to  its  size  or  capacity  (JAM. 
Suppl.}.  Frf.  Some  bring,  in  many  an  anker  hooped  strong,  From 
Flushing's  port,  the  palate-biting  gin,  TENNANT  Anster  (1812)  viii. 
Cor.  We'll  drink  it  out  of  the  anker,  my  boys,  DIXON  Sngs.  Eng. 
Peas.  (1846)  160,  ed.  1857;  Cor.1 ;  Cor.2  'Free-traders'  imported 
their  '  moonshine  '  in  such  ankers  when  the  nights  were  dark. 

3.  A  dry  measure. 

S.  &  Ork.1  An  anker  of  potatoes,  one-third  of  a  barrel.  Or.  &  Sh.I. 
A  dry  measure  similar  to  the  firlot,  for  measuring  potatoes  (JAM. 

[1.  Anker,  a  liquid  measure  chiefly  used  at  Amsterdam. 
It  is  the  fourth  part  of  the  awm,  and  contains  two  stekans  : 
each  stekan  consists  of  sixteen  mengles  ;  the  mengle 
being  equal  to  two  Paris  pints,  CHAMBERS  Cycl.  (1788) ; 
A  few  anchors  of  right  Nantz,  SMOLLETT  Per.  Pick.  (1751) 
I.  ii.  io.— Du.  anker,  a  measure  of  wine,  the  fourth  part 
of  an  awm  (aani) ;  also  a  cask  holding  the  above  quantity; 
the  word  is  also  used  in  the  fish-trade  (DE  VRIES).  G.  and 
Dan.  anker,  Sw.  ankare  (SERENIUS)  ;  MLat.  anceria  (OFr. 
ancere) ;  see  DUCANGE.] 

ANKERLY,  adv.    ?  Obs.   Sc.    Unwillingly. 

Slk.  GAM.)    [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

[Perh.  a  deriv.  of  anker  (OE.  ancor],  an  anchorite,  in 
ref.  to  his  unwillingness  to  join  in  the  society  and  pleasures 
of  the  world.] 

ANKLING,  see  Rankling. 

ANKOR,  sb.  Nhb.  [a'rjkar.]  The  bend  of  a  scythe 
or  adze. 

Nhb.1  Some  men  prefer  the  angle  at  which  a  scythe-blade  is  set 
from  the  handle  to  be  more  or  less  acute.  Hence  the  direction  in 
fixing  a  new  handle  is  '  Give  'or  a  bit  mair  ankor,'  or  '  A  bit  less 
ankor,'  as  the  case  may  be.  The  same  direction  is  given  in  fixing 
a  new  handle  to  an  adze. 

[Perh.  a  use  of  anchor,  with  regard  to  the  angle  made 
by  the  fluke  with  the  long  shank.] 

ANKSOME,  see  Anxom. 

i  2 




ANLET,  sb.  w.Yks.  [a'nlat]  A  mark  in  the  shape  of 
an  annulet,  or  small  ring. 

w.Yks.1  Anlet,  the  mark  on  a  stone,  being  an  ancient  boundary 
in  this  neighbourhood. 

[Annelet,  a  little  ring  for  the  finger ;  any  annelet  or 
small  ring  used  about  apparel  or  armour,  COTGR.] 

ANNAUST,  see  Anewst. 

ANNET,  s*.1  Nhb.  s.Pem.  Cor.  Written  anny  s.Pem. 
The  Kittiwake,  Rissa  tridactyla. 

Nhb.1  s.Pem.  LAWS  Little  Eng.  (1888)  419.  Cor.  RODD  Birds 
(1880)314.  [FoRSTERSzfa//ozi'(i8i7)92  ;  SWAINSON  Birds  (1885) 

[See  Annet,  sb.2] 

ANNET,  sb.2    Nhb.  Lan.    [a'nat] 

1.  The  common  Gull,  Larus  canus. 
Nhb.  SWAINSON  Birds  (1885)  208. 

2.  A  '  gull,'  a  silly  fellow. 

Lan.  That  eendless  annul  o'  thoine's  keen  bitter,  SCHOLES  Tim 
Gamwattle  (1857)  39. 

[Perh.  equiv.  to  ON.  dnd  (gen.  andar),  a  duck,  Dan.  and, 
cp.  OE.  ened.] 

ANNOY,  v.  Yks.  Lan.  War.  Shr._  Ess._  (obs.)  Som. 
Also  by  aphaeresis  noy  w.Som.1  [anor,  noi.] 

1.  To  hurt,  trouble,  damage. 

War.3  It  does  not  annoy  my  memory  [to  write  down  dialect 
words],  Shr.1  That  theer  bit  o'  roche  'as  annoyed  my  spade. 
Ess.  Leaue  oxen  abrode  for  anoieng  the  spring  [shoots  of  under- 
wood], TUSSER  Husbandrie  (1580)  105,  st  n.  w.Som.1  Don't  you 
believe  it,  he  widn  noy  you  'pon  no  'count  in  the  wordle. 

2.  Hence  (i)  Annoyance,   sb.  offence,   damage ;      (2) 
Annoisome,  adj.  hurtful ;   (3)  Annoyment,  sb.  intent  to 
injure,  malice  ;  (4)  Annoyous,  (5)  Annoyful,  adj.  trouble- 

(i)  w.Som.J  Nif  you'll  plase  to  let  us  put  up  the  ladder  in  your 
garden,  we'll  take  care  not  to  make  no  noyance.  (2)  w.Yks.2  No 
man  shall  put  any  scabbed  horse  to  the  common  whereby  they 
maie  be  annoysome  or  troublesome  to  his  neighbours  (obs.).  (3) 
w.Som.1 1  knows  em  purty  well,  'tis  all  a-do'd  vor  noyment.  Lan.1 
(4)  Anoyful.  (5)  Yo're  varra  anoyous ;  give  oer. 

[1.  I  noye  or  hurte  one,  Je  nuys,  PALSGR.  ;  It  dooth  no 
good  . . .  but  anoyeth,  See  ye  nat,  lord,  how  mankinde  it 
destroyeth  ?  CHAUCER  C.  T.  F.  875.  AFr.  anoyer  (mod. 
ennuyer).  2.  Annoyance.  Suffrance  suffreth  swetely  all 
the  anoyaunces  and  the  wronges  that  men  doon  to  man 
outward,  CHAUCER  C.  T.  i.  655.— Annoyful.  Alle  tarying 
....  anoyful,  ib.  B.  2220. — Annoyment.  I  warrant  she 
neuer  fele  anoyment,  Play  Sacr.  (MATZNER).— Annoyous. 
Ony  thing  That  anoyus  or  scathfull  be,  BARBOUR  Bruce, 
v.  249;  Thilke  thinges  shullen  ben  unjoyful  to  thee  or 
elles  anoyous,  CHAUCER  Boeth.  11.  v.  95. — Annoysome.  Cp. 
the  aphetic  lit.  E.  form  noisome:  The  noisome  pesti- 
lence, BIBLE  Ps.  xci.  3.] 

ANNUAL  MEADOW  GR ASS,  phr.  Sus.  Poaannua; 
called  also  Causeway  grass,  q.v. 

Sus.  The  annual  meadow,  vernal,  smooth  .  .  .  seem  to  be  best 
adapted  for  the  feed  of  sheep,  MARSHALL  Review  (1817)  V.  489. 
ANNY,  see  Annet. 

ANOINT,  v.  Nhb.  Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Der.  Nhp.  Shr.  Hrf. 
Glo.  e.An.  Ken.  Wil.  Dor.  Som.  By  aphaeresis  'noint 
Win.  n. Yks.1  w.Yks.2  3  Chs.1  *  s.Chs.1  w.Som.1 ;  nint  Wil.1 ; 
ninte  Shr.1 ;  again  corrupted  to  oynt  Suf.1 ;  aint  e.An.1 
Nrf.1  Suf.1 ;  aaint  Nrf.1  Suf.1  [anoi'nt,  noint,  naint,  aint.] 
1.  To  thrash,  chastise  by  word  or  act,  '  to  baste.' 
Nhb.  Aw'd  peel  her  te  the  varry  sark  Then  'noint  her  wiv  a  twig 
o'  yeck,  WILSON  Pitman's  Pa_y(i843)  n.  Wm.  Maister's  nointed 
me  to-day  for  talking  in  class  (B.K.).  n. Yks.1,  w.Yks.2;  w.Yks.3 
Au'll  noint  thee.  Chs.12,  s.Chs.1  Shr.1  Billy,  if  yo' dunna  come 
back  and  get  on  wuth  that  leasin'  I'll  ninte  yore  'ide  fur  yo'. 
Shr.  &  Hrf.  Neint,  to  beat,  BOUND  Prov.  (1876).  Hrf.  I  saw  Bill 
Jones  'ninting  the  parson,  N.  &  Q.  (1865)  3rd  S.  viii.  547.  e-An.1, 
Nrf.i  Suf.1  I'll  aaint  yar  hide  for  ye.  Ken.1  Wil.1  I'll  'nint  ye 
when  I  gets  home  !  Dor.  Anoint,  to  beat  (W.W.S.).  w.Som.1 
Jimmy!  tumm'ld  down  again  and  dirt  yer  pinny  !  you  bad  boy,  I'll 
noint  your  bottom  vor  'ee,  I  will,  you  young  rascal ! 
Hence  Anointing,  a  thrashing. 

Wm.  He  gat  hissel  a  good  nointing  for  his  pains  (B.K.).     s.Chs.1 
They  gen  [gave]  him  a  pratty  nointin'.      Nhp.1  You'll  get  a  good 

nineting,  young  lad.     Shr.2     Shr.  &.  Hrf.  I'll  give  you  a  neinting, 
BOUND  Prov.  (1876).     Glo.1 
2.  To  run,  hurry  away. 

w  Yks  2  A  man  said  of  his  mare,  '  You  should  see  her  nant  up 
them  hills.'  Now,  lad,  noint  it.  He  did  make  us  nanty.  nw.Der.1 
Shr.1  They  wun  comin'  alung  as  fast  as  the  pony  could  ninte. 
Shr.  Hrf.  How  that  horse  did  neint  along,  BOUND  Prov.  (1876). 

n'  I'll  anoint  him  with  a  cat-and-nine-tails,  SMOL- 
LETT Rod.  Random,  v.  ME.  The  kyng  away  fly,  Which 
so  well  was  anoynted  (Fr.  si  bien  otngt)  mdede,  Rom. 
Partenay,  5653.  2.  The  sense  'to  hurry  along'  is  a 
development  from  sense  1 ;  cp.  the  use  of  beat,  pelt,  in  the 
sense  of  hurried  movement.] 

ANOINTED,  ppl.  adj.  In  gen.  dial,  use  in  Irel.  and 
Ens  Also  by  aphaeresis,  nointed  n.Yks.12  m.Yks.1 
Chs12  Lin  x  Rut.1  Lei.1  w.Som.1  nw.Dev.1 ;  nineted  Nhp.1 
se-Wor.1  Shr.12  Hrf.2  I.W.2  ;  niented  I.W.2 

1.  Of  persons:  thoroughly  bad,  wholly  given  up  to  evil 
courses,  notorious. 

Wxf. '  Why,  you  anointed  rogue,'  says  he,  KENNEDY  Banks  Bow 
(1867)  287.  n-Yks.1 ;  n.Yks.2  A  nointed  youth.  s.Lan.  The  ex- 
pression a '  neignted  yung  rogue '  was  common  in  this  district  some 
years  ago.  It  is  seldom,  if  ever,  now  heard,  Manch.  City  News 
(Feb.  8,  1896).  Chs.12  Lin.  He's  a  'nointed  one,  THOMPSON 
Hist.  Boston  (1856)  7 1 6.  Rut.  ELLIS  Pronunc.  (1889)  V.  256.  Lei.1 
A'sa'nineted'un,ais.  Nhp.1  Wor.  Called  him  an 'anointed young 
vagabond,'  ./V.  &  Q.  (1865)  3rd  S.  viii.  452.  se.Wor.1  'E's  a  nineted 
un,  'e  is.  s.War.1  He's  an  anointed  young  rascal.  Shr.1  E's  a 
nineted  pippin  [said  of  a  vicious  youth]  ;  Shr.2  Hrf.2  Ninetedum, 
corruption  of  'anointed  one.'  Him's  a  ninted  yarb.  Hnt.  He's 
the  most  anointed  young  hound  I  ever  met  in  my  life,  N.  &  Q. 
(1865)  3rd  S.  viii.  452.  Nrf.  We  commonly  hear  a  very  bad  boy  01 
man  called  '  an  anointed  willain,'  ib.  (1867)  3rd  S.  xii.  237.  Suf. 
(F.H.)  Ken.  Anineted,  nineted,  audacious,  fast  (A.M.);  Ken.1  He's 
a  regular  anointed  young  dog.  The  devil's  own  anointed  young 
rascal.  I.W.1 ;  I.W.2  Don't  hay  nothin  to  do  wi'  that  feller,  he's 
a  nineted  rogue.  w-Som.1  There  idn  nit  a  more  nointeder  young 
osebird  in  all  the  parish.  Dev.  He  is  an  anointed  wretch,  Reports 
Provinc.  (1882)  7.  nw-Dev.1  Cor.  Aw,  he  was  an  anointed  old 
rascal,  '  Q.'  Troy  Town  (1888)  xi ;  That  boy'd  end  badly,  for  aw  was 
a  most  anointed  lem,  THOMAS  Randigal  Rhymes  (1895)  3  ;  Cor.1 2 

Hence  Ninety-bird,  one  who  is  given  up  to  evil  ways. 


2.  Very  great,  terrible. 

w.Som.  It  was  an  anointed  shame,  ELWORTHY  Gram.  (1877)  22. 

[Anointed  in  this  sense  is  prob.  conn,  with  anoint,  vb.  (to 
thrash).  An  '  anointed  scoundrel '  would  mean  a  scoundrel 
who  has  deservedly  been  well  thrashed.] 

ANOINTER,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  War.  Wor.  Glo.  Oxf. 
Bck.  Wil.  Som.  Also  written  nointer  Yks.  Chs.1  s.Chs.1 ; 
nineter  War.2  Glo.1  Wil.1 ;  neinter  Chs.1 

1.  A  scapegrace,  a  mischievous  fellow.    Also  used  as  adj. 
w.Yks.  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  31, 1884)  8.     Chs.1     s.Stf.  He's 

a  reglar  nointer,  I'd  believe  anythin'  o'  him,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy.  Ann. 
(1895).  War.  NORTHALL  Flk-Phr.  (1894).  w.Wor.  That  lad's  a 
nineter,  sir,  he  is.  He'll  fight  like  a  robin,  Berrow'sjm.  (Mar.  10, 
1888).  s.Oxf.  David  Loveday  names  his  dog  '  Nainter'  because  it  is 
troublesome,  barking  at  the  wrong  time,  and  sometimes  worrying 
the  sheep,  Flk-Lore  Jrn.  (1884)  II.  188 ;  '  She  allus  were  a  reglar 
nineter,'  said  her  father  with  a  delighted  chuckle.  '  Whatever's  a 
nineter,  uncle?' asked  Sam.  'A nineter?  Why, a  nineter's  a  reglar 
Bedlam,'  answered  Tom,  ROSEMARY  Chilterns  (1895)162.  Bck.  He's 
a  nice  young  nineter,  he  is!  (A.C.)  Wil.1  A  nineter  young  rascal. 

2.  A  trickster,  a  sharp,  crafty  person. 

w.Wor.  He  be  a  nipper  and  a  nineter,  he  be  (W.B.).  Glo. 
Som.  Nineter,  SWEETMAN  Wincanton  Gl.  (1885). 

3.  An  energetic,  pushing  person. 
s.Chs.1  Hey's  a  nointer,  that  mon. 

4.  A  miser,  a  skinflint. 
Wil.  SLOW  Gl.  (1892)  ;  Wil.1 

5.  Of  things :  causing  perplexity  or  surprise ;  a  '  puzzler.' 
w.Yks.  That's  a  nointer  (G.B.  W.) ;  (B.K.) 

[Anoint,  vb.  (q.v.)  +  -er.  The  word  means  prob.  one 
who  deserves  an  '  anointing,"  i.  e.  a  thrashing.  The  use 
of  the  suffix  -er  (of  the  agent)  is  remarkable.] 

ANOINTING,  adj.    Bck.    Mischievous. 

Bck.  Aint  he  a  nineting  young  rascal  ?  (A.C.) 

[See  Anointed.] 




ANON,  adv.    Dev.    [ano'n.]    To-night. 
Dev.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)      Dev.  &  Cor.  Monthly  Mag. 
(1808)  II.  621.      Dev.3  Yii  shet  away  'ome  Bill,  us'll  volleree  anon. 
Midden  be  airly,  tho'  tweel  be  avore  owly-light  [midnight]. 

[This  sense  is  due  to  the  earlier  use  of  anon  in  the 
sense  of  soon,  in  a  short  time.  I  am  gone,  sir,  And  anon, 
sir,  I'll  be  with  you  again,  SHAKS.  Twelfth  Nt.  iv.  ii.  131. 
OE.  on  an,  into  one  (moment).] 

ANON,  int.  Widely  diffused  throughout  the  dial,  of 
Sc.  Irel.  Eng.  Amer.  Also  written  anan  N.Cy.1  Chs.123 
s.Chs.1  Der?  e.An.1  I.W.1  Wil.1  Cor.12;  non  n.Yk.12; 
nan  Nhp.2  Hrf.1  Glo.1  e.An.1  Hmp.1  I.W.1  Wil.1  Dev.1 
nw.  Dev.1  Cor.12;  name.  An.2;  a'an  e.An.1 ;  annan  Dor.1 
[ano'n,  ana'n,  non,  nan.]  An  interrogation.  What  did 
you  say  ?  A  mode  of  expressing  that  the  hearer  has  failed 
to  catch  the  speaker's  meaning. 

Sc.  The  brute  of  a  lad  puzzles  me  by  his  '  anan,'  and  his  '  dunna 
knaw,"  SCOTT  Redg.  (1824)  v.  Ir. '  Anan  ! '  said  she,  not  under- 
standing hisquestion,  LEVER  Martins  (1856)  I.  195,  ed.  1872.  Dur. 
Traveller.  '  Pray  which  is  the  road  to  Durham  ?' — Clown.  'Non!' 
(J.H.)  n-Yks.1  Anon  or  anan  is  an  interjectional  sound  of  doubting 
inquiry,  similar  to  the  utterly  inexpressible  (by  letters)  sound  of 
assent  or  attention  which  is  employed  by  many  Yorkshire  people 
when  listening  to  a  narrative  or  a  remark  where  verbal  observa- 
tions are  unneeded.  w.Yks.1,  Chs.12  ;  Chs.3  Anan,  what's  that? 
s.Chs.1  I  have  never  got  the  word  at  first  hand,  and  think  it  died 
out  with  the  last  generation.  Der.1  Obs.  (1890).  Nhp.2  Wor. 
Anan,  what  do  you  say  ?  PORSON  Quaint  Wds.  (1875).  Hrf.1,  Glo.1 
e.An.1  Often  contracted  to  A'an,  or  N'an.  Nrf-Anan?  An?  N.&Q. 
(1850)  ist  S.  ii.  217.  Ken.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)  w.Sus. 
Anan,  Nan.  This  interjection  has  the  same  sense  as  the  word 
'  hay '  in  Hampshire,  HOLLOWAY.  Hmp.1,  I.W.1  Wil.1  Anan,  'Nan. 
Used  by  a  labourer  who  does  not  quite  comprehend  his  master's 
orders.  Dor.1  Som.  Anan,  Nan,  eh  !  what?  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873). 
Dev.1,  nw.Dev.1  Cor.  Anan.  An  interjection  used  by  old  people 
within  remembrance,  though  now  extinct,  QuiLLER-CoucH  Hist. 
Polperro  (1871)  172;  Cor.12  [Amer.  Anan,  how?  The  word 
is  common  in  Pennsylvania,  BARTLETT.  We  have  in  Philadelphia 
'  Anan,'  interrog.  what  ?  N.  &  Q.  (1870)  4th  S.  vi.  249.] 

[See  Anon,  adv.] 

ANONSKER,  adj.  n.Yks.  [ano-nska(r).]  Eager, 
desirous,  set  upon  a  thing. 

n.Yks.1 ;  n.Yks.2  They've  setten  him  anonsker  o'  t'sea  [anxious 
to  become  a  sailor], 

[Of  ON.  origin  ;  cp.  Dan.  an,  on  +  ijmske,  wish.] 

ANOTHER,  in  comp.  (i)  -gates,  (2)  -guess,  (3)  -kins,  of 
a  different  kind  ;  (4)  -when,  another  time. 

(i)  Lan.1  (2)  Lei.1  Shr.1  Another-guess  sort,  generally  taken 
in  the  sense  of 'better.'  Ah!  the  poor  toud  missis  wuz  another 
gis-sort  o'  body  to  "er  daughter-law.  Glo.  Thelikeo'webeanother- 
guesssortoffolk,GissiNG.So</!q/W,s.P«roA(i889)I.  117;  Glo.2 You 
are  another  guess-sort  of  a  man.  (3)  n-Yks.1  He  was  anotherkins 
body  te  t'ither  chap  ;  n.Yks  2  That's  anotherkins  teeal  [a  different 
version  of  'the  story].  m.Yks.1  That  plum's  of  anotherkins  sort. 
(4)  Ken.' 

[Another-gates.  When  Hudibras  about  to  enter  Upon 
an  othergates  adventure,  BUTLER  Hud.  i.  iii.  42 ;  He 
would  have  tickled  you  othergates  than  he  did,  SHAKS. 
Twelfth  Nt.  v.  i.  198.  Another-gates,  i.e.  of  another  gate, 
of  another  way;  see  Gate.  Orig.  an  adv.  gen.  in  -es, 
a  late  analog,  formation. — Another-guess.  At  present 
I  am  constrained  to  make  another  guesse  divertisement, 
Com.  Hist.  Francion  (NARES).  This  is  a  form  of  another- 
gates,  which  was  also  pron.  another  gets.  See  Othergates.] 

ANOUST,  see  Anewst. 

ANOW,  see  Enow. 

ANOWER,  see  Inower. 

ANPARSE,  ANPASSY,  see  Ampersand. 

ANSEL,  see  Own-self. 

ANSELL,  ANSTIL,  see  Hansel. 

ANSH,  see  Haunch. 

ANSWER,!/.1    Chs.  War.  Som.    [ansa(r).] 

1.  To  last,  endure. 

w.Som.1  That  there  poplar  'out  never  answer  out  o'  doors,  I'll  be 
a  ratted  in  no  time. 

2.  With  prep,  to,  (i)  to  succeed  with  ;  (2)  to  be  easily  led. 
Chs.1  (i)  It  is  said  that  clay  land  easily  answers  to  bones.   (2)  He's 

a  soft  sort  o'  chap  ;  he'll  answer  to  owt.     War.  (J.R.W.) 

ANSWER,  sb.  and  v?    Irel. 

1.  56.    A  bite  (in  fishing). 
Wmth.  Did  you  get  ere  an  answer? 

2.  v.    To  bite  (of  fish). 

nJr.  Are  there  many  fish  there  ? — Yes,  because  they  answered 
them  many  a  time  (S.A.B.). 
ANSWERABLE,  adj.     Sus.  Som.  Dev.    [avnsarabl.] 

1.  Durable,  lasting. 

w.Som.1  A  man  said  to  me  of  a  draining  tool,  '  Dhik-ee  soa-urt 
bee  dee'urer,  but  dhai  bee  moo'ur  aan'surublur '  [that  sort  are 
dearer,  but  they  are  more  answerable,  i.e.  cheaper  in  the  end]. 
Dev.  'Twas  good  answerable  reed  [for  thatching],  Reports  Pro/vine. 
(1887) 3 

2.  With  prep,  to,  corresponding  to. 

Sus.  They  did  pretty  middlin'  answerable  to  their  size,  EGERTON 
Flks.  and  Ways  (1884)  85. 

[1.  Answerable,  consentaneus,  COLES  (1679).  2.  The 
daughters  of  Atlas  were  ladies  who  brought  forth  children 
answerable  in  quality  to  those  that  begot  them,  RALEIGH 
Hist.  World  (JOHNSON).] 

ANSWERING,  prp.  used  as  prep,  and  conj. 

1.  prep.    Corresponding  to. 

Cum.,  Wm.  Answering  this  time  last  week  [at  the  correspond- 
ing time],  SULLIVAN  Cum.  and  Wm.  (1857)  90. 

2.  conj.    Provided  that. 

Cum.,  Wm.  Answering  he  conies,  SULLIVAN  Cum.  and  Wm. 
(1857)  90. 

ANT,  v.1  Sh.I.  [ant.]  To  show  attention  to,  respect, 

Sh.I.  Ant,  to  pay  regard  to  (Coll.  L.L.B.);  Freq.  used  with 
negative,  '  Never  ant  him'  (K.I.)  ;  An  prickin  nerves  ant  no  da 
will's  intent,  BURGESS  Rasmie  (1891)  118.  S.  &  Ork.1 

ANT,  v.2    Chs.    [ant]    A  method  of  ploughing. 

Chs.1  To  plough  out  a  small  subsoil  furrow  from  a  reen. 

ANTELUTE,s6.    ?  Obs.    Shr.    [a'ntilut]    A  tea-party. 

Shr.1  Now  then,  girls,  if  yo'n  look  sharp  an'  get  yore  work  done, 
yo'  sha'n  g66  to  the  antelute. 

ANTER,  see  Aunter. 

ANTERIN,  see  Undern. 

ANTERS,  ANTHERS,  see  Aunters. 

ANTHILL-GRASS,  sb.  Midi,  counties.  Festuca  syl- 

Midi.  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  (1790)  107,  ed.  1796. 

ANTHONY  OVER,  sb.    Gall.    A  child's  game  at  ball. 

Gall.  The  bairns  vexed  his  soul  by  playing '  Antony  Over '  against 
the  end  of  his  house,  CROCKETT  Stickit  Min.  (1893)  99  ;  Throwing 
a  ball  over  a  house,  from  one  party  of  children  to  another  (S.R.C.). 

ANTHONY-PIG,  sb.  Chs.  Der.  Hrt.  Ken.  Hmp.  Dev. 
Also  written  Tanthony-pig  Chs.12 

1.  The  smallest  pig  of  a  litter,  the  favourite  one  supposed 
to  be  dedicated  to  and  under  the  special  protection  of 
St.  Anthony,  the  patron  saint  of  swineherds. 

Der.2  Anthony-pig,  the  ruckling  of  the  litter ;  nw.Der.1  Hrt. 
We  call  a  poor  starved  creature  a  Tantony  pig,  SALMON  Hist,  of 
Hrt.  (1728).  Ken.  The  favourite  pig  of  the  farrow,  GROSE  (1790) ; 
The  word  Anthony  is  by  analogy  used  as  a  diminutive  generally 
(P.M.);  Ken.1  Hmp.  Tanthony-pig,  N.  &Q.  (1851)  ist  S.  iii.  429. 
Dev.3  Anthony's  pig  is  also  called  nessel  tripe. 

2.  Fig.    One  who  follows  close  at  heel. 

Chs.1 ;  Chs.2 To  follow  anyone  like  a  Tantony  pig,  is  to  stick  as 
close  to  him  as  St.  Anthony's  favourite  is  supposed  to  have  done 
to  the  saint. 

[He  will  follow  him  like  a  St.  Anthony's  pig.  St.  A. 
is  notoriously  known  for  the  patron  of  hogs,  having  a  pig 
for  his  page  in  all  pictures,  FULLER  Worthies,  II.  56. 
Tantony  repr.  St.  Antony.  The  form  occurs  in  SWIFT: 
Lord  !  she  made  me  follow  her  last  week  through  all  the 
shops  like  a  Tantiny  (sic)  pig,  Polite  Conv.  I.] 

ANTIC,  sb.  and  adj.    Van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  Dur. 
Lan.  Der.  Brks.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.    Also  written  hantic, 
hantick,  hanteck.  See  below,    [a'ntik,  arntik.] 
1.  sb.     Gen.  used  in  the  pi.      Manoeuvres,  movements, 
odd  ways  and  tricks. 

Sc.  Antick,  a  foolish  ridiculous  frolic  (JAM.).  Dur.1  Lan.  Tom 
oth-Grinders  an  Owd  Lurry  wi  him,  laighin',  dancin,  an  playin 
o  maks  o  antiks,  Abrum  o'  Flap's  Quortin'  (1886)  13.  nw-Der.1, 
Brks.1  w.Som.1  Hot  ailth  the  mare  ?  her's  all  vull  o'  her  hantics. 
Dev.  I  niver  did  zee  nobody  za  vull  ov  hantecks  as  'er  is,  HEWETT 




Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  86 ;  Dev.1  What  hanticks  a  had !  naddling  his 
head,  drawing  out  his  hands,  and  blasting  up  his  ees  to  the  gurt 
oaks.  Naut.  After  this,  we  had  a  little  few  more  '  antics,'  as  the 
sailors  call  them,  moving  from  columns  of  divisions  with  the  ships 
in  line  ahead  into  other  formations  in  line  abreast,  then  by  sub- 
divisions and  so  forth,  Standard  (Aug.  12,  1889)  3,  col.  i.  [Anticks, 
gesticulations  such  as  Merry  Andrews  employ,  GROSE  (1790)  MS. 
add.  (C.)] 

2.  A  fool,  a  buffoon  or  clown. 

Cor.1  You  dunderheaded  old  antic,— lave  that  to  the  musicianers, 
'  Q.'  Three  Ships  (1890)  i ;  Cor.1  I  never  seed  such  an  antic  in  my 
born  days  ;  Cor.2  Such  an  antic. 

3.  adj.     Droll,  grotesque. 

NJ.1  He's  very  antic.     Antickest  [most  funny]. 

4.  Frantic  with  excitement,  mad,  unmanageable. 
w.Som.1  Hantic.     n.Dev.  What's  the  matter?  .  .  .  what  art  tha 

hanteck?  Exm.  Crtship.  (1746)  1.  620 ;  Hantick,  wanton  and  unruly, 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add  (M.)  ;  Dev.1 

[1.  Antic,  he  that  plays  anticks,  JOHNSON  ;  To  dance 
anticks  is  to  dance  like  a  Jack-pudding  after  an  odd  and 
ridiculous  manner,  KERSEY.  2.  Antick,  a  buffoon  or 
juggler,  KERSEY  ;  Jugglers  and  dancers,  anticks,  mum- 
mers, mimicks,  MILTON  S.A.  1325;  There  the  antic 
(i.e.  Death)  sits,  Scoffing  his  state,  and  grinning  at  his 
pomp,  SHAKS.  Rich.  II.  HI.  ii.  162.  3.  The  prize  was  to 
be  conferred  upon  the  whistler  that  could  go  through  his 
tune  without  laughing,  though  provoked  by  the  antick 
postures  of  a  Merry  Andrew,  ADDISON  Sped.  No.  179 ; 
He  came  running  to  me  . . .  making  a  many  antic  gestures, 
DE  FOE  Crusoe  (1719)  183.  It.  antico  (ancient),  a  term 
applied  in  the  i6th  cent,  to  the  grotesque  work  found 
among  the  ruins  in  Rome,  and  ascribed  to  the  ancients.] 
ANTIOUS,  adj.  Pern,  [e'n/as.]  Ancient,  beautiful 
with  age,  rare. 

s.Pem. '  'Tis  an  antious  old  place,"  said  of  a  somewhat  ruinous 
building  (E.D.)  ;  The  idea  of '  beautiful '  is  always  associated  with 
that  of '  old  '  or  '  ancient.'  It  is  difficult  to  know  which  of  the  two 
is  uppermost  in  the  mind  of  the  speaker.  It  is  certain  that  the 
word  is  never  used  when  mere  age  is  considered.  This  chist  [chest] 
is  a  very  antious  one.  Oh,  here's  an  antious  set  of  china  !  This 
pictier  [picture]  is  owld  an'  hansom,  David,  deed,  it's  antious 

ANTLE,  see  An,  Hantle. 

ANTLE-BEER,  adv.  Dev.  fae-ntl-bia(r).]  Cross- 
wise, irregular  (the  form  of  two  uprights  and  one  cross- 
piece,  like  a  door-frame). 

n.Dev.  Et  wel  zet  arter  tha  antlebeer  lick  the  dooms  of  a  door, 
Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  274 ;  GROSE  (1790). 
Hence  fig.  cross-grained. 

Dev.  They  only  thought  it  was  my '  appurted  witherful  develtry ,' 
as  they  called  it,  and  Nurse  added  that  I  was  '  antle-beer,'  MADOX- 
BROWN  Dwale  Bluth  (1876)  bk.  iv.  i. 
ANTLING,  see  Hantling. 

ANTONMAS,s6.  Sh.I.  St.  Anthony's  Day,  a  festival 
held  Jan.  29,  twenty-four  days  after  Christmas  (old  style). 
Sh.I.  Jan.  29.  By  oldest  people  called  St.  Anthony's  Day.  now 
Fower-an-twenty  Day,  and  UphellyA.  Yule  ends,  Manson's  Aim. 
(1893)  16;  Antonmas  is  observed  here  yearly  as  the  last  day 
of  Yule-tide.  In  the  country  districts  the  young  people  meet  and 
have  a  dance,  but  in  Lerwick  there  is  generally  a  torchlight 
procession  of  guizers,  who  afterwards  make  a  bonfire  of  their 
torches  and  then  proceed  to  the  houses  thrown  open  for  their 
entertainment  where  they  have  fiddling  and  dancing  (K.I.); 
Antinmas.  St.  Anthony's  Day  in  the  calendar  [new  style]  is  I7th 
January  (JAM.  Suppl.).  S.  &  Ork.1 

[Anthony + mass  (a  Church  festival).] 
ANTRIMS,  sb.  pi.     Wm.  Yks.  Chs.  Der.  War.  e.An. 
Also  written  antrums  e.An.1  Suf.1 ;  antherums  n.Yks.2 
[a'ntrimz,  a'ntramz.] 

1.  Airs,  whims,  caprices,  with  an  implication  of  temper. 
N.Cy.1     Wm.  Antrums,  tantrums,  flightiness,  airs  that  one  gives 

oneself,  GIBSON  Leg.  and  Notes  (1877)  91.  Chs.1  At  your  antrims 
again;  Chs.23,  Der.2,  nw-Der.1,  War.  (J.R.W.),  e-An.1,  Nrf.1 
Suf.1  'As  in  'as  antrums  this  morning. 

2.  Doubts,  hesitations. 

[Etym.  unknown.    See  Tantrums.] 
ANTRUM,  see  Undern. 

ANT-TUMP,  sb.  War.  Won  Shr.  Hrf.  Also  written 
anty- tump  War.2  Shr.1  Hrf.1;  anti-tump  w.Wor.1  [an'ti- 
tump,  a-nt-tump.]  An  ant-hill. 

War.2,  w.Wor.1,  s.Wor.1  Shr.1  'E  raved  an  tore  like  a  bull  at 
a  anty-tump.  Hrf.1 

[Ant + lump,  q.v.] 

ANUNDER,  adv.  and  prep.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum. 
Wm.  Yks.  Som.  Dev.  Also  written  annundher  N.I.1; 
anonder  n.Sc.  QAM.)  Cum.1;  anuner  Nhb.1;  anoner 
Abd.  UAM.);  in-under  Nhb.1  h.Yks.2  w.Som.1  nw.Dev.1; 
innundher  N.I.1;  in-onder  n.Yks.2  [anu-nda(r),  anu-na(r).] 

1.  adv.     Beneath,  under  (of  actual  position). 
NJ.1,  N.Cy.1    Nhb.1  Aa's  gan  anuner.     nw.Dev.1 

2.  prep.     Under,  underneath. 

Sc.  As  a  hen  gathereth  her  chickens  anunder  her  wings,  HEN- 
DERSON Matt.  (1862)  xxiii.  37.  Sh.1.  He  aims  me  a  lick  just  anunder 
da  belt,  BURGESS  Rasmie  (1891)  15.  Abd.  A  lamb  anoner  Nory'scare, 
Ross  Helenore  (1768)  12,  ed.  1812.  Ant.  Anondther,  Anonder 
(W.J.K.).  Nhb.  His  left  han's  anunder  me  heed,  ROBSON  Sag.  Sol. 
(1860)  ii.  6  ;  Anunder  his  care,  ib.  Bk.  of  Ruth  (1860)  ii.  12;  Nhb.1 
The  boxis  inunder  the  bed.  Dnr.  Ah  sat  doon  unnonder  his  shaddow 
wih  greet  deleyght,  MOORE  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  ii.  3.  Com.  En  onder 
them  he  said  was  two  lile  princes  buried,  Mary  Drayson  (1872) 
13 ;  Com.8  If  I  stopt  anonder  ya  tree  i'  t'wud,  I  stopt  anonder 
twenty,  23.  At  keeps  o'  he  cares  anonder  ya  hat,  55.  Wm.  An 
buried  him  snugly  an-under  some  trees,  WHITEHEAD  Leg.  (1859)  8 ; 
Ye'll  be  best  anonder  t'blankets.  I  isn't  in  anonder  t'least  doubt 
about  it  (M.P.).  n.Yks.  Ah  sat  me  down  on  t'binch  in  under  t'awd 
yak  tree,  TWEDDELL  Clevel.  Rhymes  (1875)  48.  w.Som.1  Dhai  vaewn 
un  tu  laa-s  aup-mdhu  taal-ut,  een  uun'dur  u  buun'l  u  aa-y  [they 
found  him  at  last  up  in  the  tallet,  underneath  a  bundle  of  hay]. 

3.  Beneath  in  command,  in  subjection  to. 

n.Yks.2  He  was  in-onder  t'other  man  [in  office].  w-Sora.1  Our 
Bill's  a  go  to  work  to  the  brew-house,  in  under  Mr.  Joyce  the 

[ME.  Ther  nis  non  betere  anonder  sunne,  K.  Horn, 567. 
An,  on  +  under.] 

ANVIL,  sb.  Ken.  [ae'nvl.]  In  comp.  Anvil-clouds, 
clouds  of  the  shape  of  an  anvil,  supposed  to  betoken  rain. 


ANXOM,  adj.    Yks.    [a-nksam.]    Anxious. 

e.Yks.  He'd  monny  a  anksome  lewk  at  his  store,  NICHOLSON 
Flk-Sp.  (1889)  42  ;  e.Yks.1  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[A  form  of  anxious,  contam.  with  the  suff.  -some ;  cp. 
fearsome,  q.v.] 

Hence  Anxomness,  anxiety. 

e.Yks.1  ATS.  add.  (T.H.) 

ANY,  adv.,  adj.  and  pron.  Van  dial,  uses  in  Irel.  and 
Eng.  See  below,  [e'ni,  o'ni.] 

1.  adv.    At  all. 

n.Yks.  It  dizn't  dry  onny  (I.W.).  ne.Yks.1  It  didn't  rain  onny. 
s.Not.  Ah  don't  see  as  she's  improved  any  (J.P.K.).  swiin.1  He's 
not  worked  any  sin'  June.  She  can't  sit  up  any.  Wor.  If  I 
leaves  it  till  to-morrow  it  won't  hurt  any  (H.K.).  s.Oxf.  They  be 
Sunday  does  .  .  .  and  scarce  wore  any,  ROSEMARY  Chilterns  (1895) 
76.  Suf.  He  tell  them  brick  every  now  and  agin  to  see  if  they've 
wasted  any  (C.  G.  de  B.).  Snr.1  The  cuckoo  don't  sing  this  year 
scarce  any.  Slang.  You  don't  want  bein'  made  more  drunk  any, 
KIPLING  Badalia  (1890)  7. 

2.  pron.  One  of  two  things  indifferently,  either. 

Wm.1  Ther's  nobbet  twoa  left — will  ta  hev  onny  on  em  ? — Ay,  aa'l 
tak  onny  on  em  thau  likes  to  gie  ma'.  s.Lan.  John,  fetch  me  one 
of  those  two  pairs  of  trousers  out  of  my  wardrobe. — Which  shall  I 
bring  ? — Oh,  any  of  them  will  do  (S.W.). 

3.  In  phr.  (i)  Any  bit  like,  tolerably  good,  used  with 
ref.  either  to  the  weather,  health,  or  behaviour;  (2)  - 
body,  an  indef.  pers.  pron.  also  construed  as  pi. ;  (3)  — end 
up,  in  any  case,  at  any  rate ;  (4)  —  make,  any  kind  ;  (5) 
—  metre,    for  the  future  ;   used  in  positive,  as  well  as 
negative  phr. ;    (6)  —  more  than,  only,  but  that ;  (7)  - 
road,  anyway,  anyhow ;   (8)  —  road  up,   in    any   case ; 
(9)  —  thing,  at   all  ;    (10)  —  way  for  a  little  apple,  easily 
persuaded  ;    (n)  —  way  up,  in  any  case  ;  (12)  —  wise,  in 
any  way. 

(i)  ne.Yks.1  Wa  s'all  be  leadin'  ti-moorn  if  it  be  onny  bit  leyke. 
e.Yks.1  Ah  could  ha  putten  up  wiv  her  if  she'd  been  onny-bit-leyk. 
w.Yks.  Noa  two  fowk  owt  to  be  moor  comfortable  if  tha'd  be 
ony-bit-like,  Clock  Aim.  (1878)  48;  w.Yks.2  I'll  come  and  see  thee 



to-morrow,  if  it's  onnv-bit-like.  Lan.1  If  th'  weather's  onny-bit. 
like.  nw.Der.  H.R.  2  n.WU.  'Tis  cowld  enough  to  vriz  anj'- 
body.  Anybody  caant  do  nothin  now  wi'out  bein  took  up  far't 
;E.H.G.).  w.Som.1  Un-ee  bairdee  keod-n  voo-urd-u  due  ut,  neef 
dhai  diid-n  due  ut  nai-tuymz,  keod  ur  ?  [one  could  not  afford  to 
do  it,  if  one  did  not  do  it  night-times,  could  they?]  (3)  s.Cbs.1  I'll 
send  ye  a  chem  [team]  anny  end  up.  Stf.2  I  dunna  know  when 
ar  J  ack's  cumin  whom ,  bar  oi'll  let  yer  know  ony  end  up.  (4)  m.  Yks. ' 
Onnymak,  any  shape,  form,  or  sort.  (5)  nJr.  A  servant  being  in- 
structed how  to  act,  will  answer  '  I  will  do  it  any  more '  (G.M.HA 
6  War.2  I  wouldn't  a-gone  any  more  than  I  promised  to  buy  Dick 
a  trumpet.  Wor.  I  wouldn't  do  it  any  more  than  I've  got  so 
much  else  to  do  H.K.X  s.Wor.1  I  should  be  sure  to  go  to  church 
any  more  than  I've  not  got  a  gownd  to  my  back.  n.WU.  I  shouldn't 
trouble  to  pick  them  apples  to-day,  any  more'n  might  be  wet  to- 
morrow (E.H.G.;.  Wil.1  He's  sure  to  come  any  more  than  he 
might  be  a  bit  late.  (7)  w.Yks.  (J-w-)  s-stf-  Any  ">ad,  you  tell 
'em  that.  MURRAY  Rainbow  Gold  ( 1886^  137.  [Aus.,  N.S.W.  I  don't 
want  to  blow — not  here,  any  road — but  it  takes  a  good  man  to  put 
me  on  my  back,  BOLDREWOOD  Robbery  (1888)  I.  i.]  (8si  Stf.2 
I  dunna  know  when  ar  Jack's  cumin  whom,  bur  oi'll  let  yer  know 
ony  road  up.  (9)  swJJn.1  He's  never  ailed  anything.  10 
N.Cy.1  Ony  way  for  a  little  apple,  (n)  Stf.2  Oi'll  let  yer  know  ony 
way  up.  (12)  Sur.  I  knowed  you  ha'  time  enough  to  wait  at  this 
plaace,  anywise,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  III.  iv. 

[1.  Cp.  the  use  of  '  any-thing '  in  CHAUCER  :  For  if  hir 
wheel  stinte  any-thing  to  tome,  Tr.  &*  Cr.  i.  848.  2.  And 
if  that  any  of  us  have  more  than  other,  Lat  him  be  trewe, 
and  parte  it  with  his  brother,  ib.  C.T.  D.  1533.] 

ANYESDER,  sb.    Sh.I.    A  sheep  in  its  second  year. 

S.  &  Ork.i 

[An,  one+yesier  (yearster),  repr. year+suff.  -ster.] 

ANY  KIN,  adj.  Obsol.  Yks.  [o'ni  kin.]  Of  any  kind 
or  sort. 

n.Yks.  D'ye  knaw  ov  onny  kin  things  like  them  ? — I  decant  think 
I  hev  onny  kin  things  like  them  (I.W.) ;  n/Yks.1,  m.Yks.1 

[Noe,  for  anikins  chanse  Sal  I  noght  take  sli  a  no|>er 
venganse,  Cursor  M.  1941.] 

ANY  WAY(S,  adv.  phr.  Irel.  Cum.  Yks.  War.  Oxf. 
Sur.  See  below. 

1.  In  any  way,  in  any  respect,  by  any  means. 

e. Yks.1  Was  he  onny  ways  put  oot?  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  War. 
If  the  child  ever  went  any  ways  wrong,  GEO.  ELIOT  S.  Afarner 
'1861)  xiv.  s.Oxf.  I'll  go  if  I  anyways  can,  ROSEMARY  Chiltrrns 
(1895)  17.  Sur.1  We  can't  make  anyways  sure. 

2.  At  all  events. 

Ir.  I  may  be  poor,  but  any  way  I'm  honest  (A.S.P.).  n.Yks. 
Anyways  I'm  mista'en  if  he  is,  LINSKILL  Behv.  Heather  and  N.  Sea 
(1884)  i.  w.Yks.  Onnyway,  thah'rt  noan  bahn  wi'  us  (./E.B.). 
[Amer.  Block  Island  is  rather  a  wisht  kind  of  a  place  any  way,  Flk- 
LoreRec.(iS8i)lV.  93.] 

3.  In  every  way,  in  all  respects. 
Cum.1  This  is  enny  way  as  good  as  that 

4.  Carefessly,  confusedly. 

n.Yks.  He  thrust  them  tegither  onnyway  (I.W.).  e-Yks.1  Onny 
ways,  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[1.  All  those  who  are  any  way  concerned  in  works  of 
literature,  ADDISON  Sped.  No.  529;  All  those  who  are  any 
ways  afflicted  ...  in  mind,  body,  or  estate,  Bk.  Com.  Pr. 
(Prayer  for  all  conditions  of  men).] 

ANY  WHEN,  adv.  Lin.  Bdf.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp. 
I.W.  Wil.  Dor.  At  any  time. 

niin.1  I'll  goaony-when  you  like,  if  nobbut  it  duzn't  raain.  Bdf. 
(F.H.),  Ken. (P.M.)  Sur.  I  can  come  the  first  week  in  November 
or  any  when  from  Nov.  i,  N.  &  Q.  (1881)  6th  S.  iv.  367  :  Two- 
pence is  good  enough  for  eggs  any  when,  ib.  542 ;  Sur.1  Sus. 
'  Anywhen '  may  be  heard  any  day  and  every  day,  A^  &  Q.  (1853) 
ist  S.  vii.  335  ;  Sus.1,  Hmp.1.  I.W.1,  WU.  (W.C.P/i  Dor.  If  I  was 
quite  sure,  I  would  go  any-when,  HARDY  Tess  (1891)  vi ;  Dor.1 

[He  giveth  not  himself  to  wildness  any  when,  Hist. 
Jacob  6-  Esau  (1568),  Dodsley's  Old  Eng.  Plays,  II.  196 
(ed.  HAZLITT).] 

APACE,  adv.    Lan.    [ape's.]    By  degrees,  steadily. 

Lan.  A  man  who  was  making  headway  in  his  business  quietly 
without  much  show  would  be  said  to  be '  getting  on  apace '  (S.  W.). 
ne.Lan.1  He  will  get  on  apace. 

[The  word  now  means  in  lit.  E.  '  at  a  good  pace.  '  The 
dial,  meanings  are  nearer  the  usage  of  CHAUCER,  where 
it  often  implies  a  slow  pace :  In  lasse  whyle  Than  thou 

wolt  goon  a  paas  nat  but  a  myle,  C.  T.  c.  866 ;  And  forth 
she  walketh  esily  a  pas,  ib.  F.  388.  Fr.  a  pas.  Cp.  pas  a 
pas,  step  after  step,  COTGR.] 

APAST,  prep,  and  adv.  Yks.  Stf.  War.  Hmp.  Wil.  Som. 
[apa'st,  apa'st,] 

1.  prep.     Of  time  :  after,  past. 

s.Stf.  Ten   apast  seven   by  the  clock,  PINNOCK  Bit.  Cy.  Ann. 
\    '  1895).     Hmp.1     WU.  SLOW  Gl.  (1892). 

2.  Of  place  :  beyond,  past. 

w.Yks.  Ah've  getten  apast  Sarah  Alice  at  summin'  [arithmetic], 
Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  23,  1891).  Hmp.1  Som.  JENNINGS  Obs. 
Dial.  ui.Eng.  ( 1825). 

3.  adv.    Of  place  :  past 
War.2  He's  just  gone  apast. 

[ME.  apassed  (pp.  of  apassen)  in  Allil.  P.  I.  539,  and 
CHAUCER  Boeth.  11.  v.  35.  OFr.  apasser,  to  pass  on.] 

APE,  sb.    Yks.  Lan.     [ep.] 
L  A  mischievous,  troublesome  child. 

m-Yks.1  Thou  young  ape,  get  out  of  the  road  with  thee,  before  I 
pick  thee  over.     ne.Lan.1 
2.  Cotnp.  Ape-faced. 

n.Yks.2  Yap-feeac'd,  pug-nosed,  monkey-faced. 

APEAK,  adv.    n.Yks.     [apia'k.]    In  a  peak. 

n.Yks.2  Belt  apeeak  ;  built  up  to  a  point  or  pyramid. 

[A-,  on  +peak.] 

APEN,  see  Open. 

APERN,  see  Apron. 

APESOME,  see  Apish. 

A-PICK-A-BACK,  see  Pick-a-back. 

APIECE,  adv.  n.Cy.  Der.  [apl's.]  Severally,  to  each 

n-Cy.  Now  lads  !  here's  healths  apiece  (HALL.)      nw.Der.1 

[Neither  have  two  coats  apiece,  BIBLE  Luke  ix.  3.  A 
piece,  for  each  one  piece,  hence  severally.] 

A-PIECES,  adv.  phr.  Lan.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.  e.An. 
[aprsaz.]  In  pieces,  to  pieces. 

Lan.  I  fund  foak  bizzy  knokink  the'r  heaws  sides  epeeses. 
WALKER  Plebeian  Pol.  (1796)  7,  ed.  1801.  ne.Lan.1.  Lin.1,  Nhp.1, 
War.  (J.R.W.),  e-An.1  Sul1  Ta  crumble  all  'apieces. 

[What  so  many  may  do,  Not  being  torn  a-pieces,  we 
have  done,  SHAKS.  Hen.  VIII,  v.  iv.  80.  A-,  on  +pieces.] 

APIEST,  see  Alpiust. 

APISH,  adj.    n-Yks.    [ye-pi/.] 

n.Yks.2  Yapish,  Yapsome,  impertinent. 

A-PISTY-POLL,  adv.  Dor.  Of  a  child  :  carried  on 
the  back  or  shoulders.  Cf.  pick-a-back. 

Dor.  Gl.  (1851) ;  Dor.1  A  mode  of  carrying  a  child  with  his  legs 
on  one's  shoulders,  and  arms  round  the  neck  and  forehead. 

APLACE,  adv.  Cld.  (JAM.)  Conveying  the  idea  that 
one  is  present,  as  opposed  to  that  of  his  being  absent ; 
as  '  He's  better  awa  nor  aplace,'  i.e.  it  is  better  he  should 
be  absent  than  present. 

[Things  abused  to  idolatry .  .  .  are  farre  better  away 
then  aplace,  GILLESPIE  Cerent.  (1637)  in.  ii.  22  (N.E.D.) ; 
To  telle  How  such  goddes  come  aplace,  GOWER  C.  A.  11. 
152.  A-,  on  +  place.} 

APLOCH,  see  Ablach. 

APOD,  see  Uphold. 

APONTED, />>>.    Dor.    [apo'ntad.]    Tainted. 

Dor.1  Decs  vish  is  a-ponted. 

[A-  (pref?)  + panted,  pp.  ofpont  (to  bruise),  q.v.] 

APPARATUS,  sb.1  w.Cor.  [aepare-tas.]  A  kitchen 

w.Cor.  The  cooking  stove  in  the  kitchen  is  so  called  (T.C.P.) ; 
I  have  never  heard  this  word  in  Penzance,  but  several  times  at 
Falmouth  (M.A.C.). 

APPARATUS,  sb.2    Nhb.  Dur.    See  below. 

Nhb..  Dur.  Apparatus,  machinery  at  the  surface  for  separating 
the  small  coals  (screened  out  from  the  round)  into  nuts  and  duff. 
The  small  coals,  which  have  passed  through  the  screen,  are  drawn 
up  either  a  vertical  or  an  inclined  framing,  in  a  tub  called  an  ap- 
paratus tub,  which  teems  itself  at  the  top  of  the  frame,  and  is  passed 
over  two  or  more  screens,  NICHOLSON  Coal  Tr.  Gl.  (1888). 

APPEAL  TO,  v.  Sur.  [api'L]  To  approve  of,  find 
benefit  from. 

Sur.1  How  do  you  find  the  whiskey  suit  you  ?— I  appeal  to  it 
very  much.  [Unknown  to  our  other  correspondents.] 




APPEAR,  sb.    Glo.    [api-a(r).]    Appearance 
Glo.  Often  used  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bisley  (H.b.H.) ;  Glo. 
[Which  she  on  every  little  grass  doth  strew . . .  against 
the  Sun's  appear,  FLETCHER  Faithful  Shepherd  (c.  1610)  v.  i. 

APPEAR,  v.    n.Irel.    Of  ghosts :  to  '  walk,'  to  haunt 


n.Ir.  Ghosts  still  '  appear'  in  old  churchyards,  or  when  a  murd. 
of  a  particularly  striking  kind  has  been  committed  (R.M.Y.) ;  N.I.1 

[And  many  bodies  of  seyntis  . .  .  apperiden  to  many, 
WYCLIF  (1388)  Malt,  xxvii.  53.] 

APPEARENTLY,  flafo.  m.Yks.  [apia'rantli.]  Seebelow. 

m.Yks.1  In  freer  use  as  an  affirmative  response  than  is  usual  in 
ordinary  speech.  We's  ganging  to  t'feast,  ye  see,  apparently. 
It's  boon  to  weet,  appearently  [it  is  going  to  wet  (or  ram)]. 

APPELL,  v.    Obs.    Sc.  QAM.)    To  challenge. 

Sc.  There  were  many  Southland  men  that  appelled  other  in  barrace, 
to  fight  before  the  King  to  the  dead,  for  certain  crimes  of  lese- 
majesty,  PITSCOTTIE  (ed.  1768)  234. 

[ME.  I  appelle  hym  for  trouthe  broken,  Rowlands?*  (Jl. 
(1400)  343  (N.E.D.).  Lat.  appellare,  to  call  upon.] 

APPERIL,  sb.    s.Irel.    Risk,  peril. 

s.Ir.  Don't  be  out  of  her  on  your  apperl,  LOVER  Leg.  (1848)  II.  289. 

[Faith  !  I  will  bail  him,  at  mine  own  apperil,  B.  JONSON 
Magn.  Lady,  v.  x ;  Let  me  stay  at  thine  apperil,  Timon, 
SHAKS.  Timon,  i.  ii.  32.  A-  (pref.lo)+ peril.] 

APPERNTLE,  sb.    Chs.  Shr.    [a-pantl.]    Anapronful. 

s-Chs.1  A  apperntle  o'  tatoe-pillins  for  th'  pigs.  Shr.1  W'eer'n 
'ee  bin  laisin,  Peggy?— I'  the  paas'ns  piece;  I've  got  whad  yo' 
sin,  an'  a  good  apparntle  o'  short  ears. 

[Appern,  apron  +  -tle  (suff.);  this  is  a  common  suff.  in 
the  Shr.  dial. ;  cp.  cantle,  hantle,  bucketle,  pochette.  It  is  prob. 
an  equiv.  of-ful;  see  Shr.1  (gram,  xliii).] 

APPETIZE,  v.  Sc.  Nhb.  In  pp. :  having  appetite  for 

Sc.  I  am  well  appetized  for  my  dinner,  Monthly  Mag.  (1798)  II. 
436 ;  Supper  for  which  I  feel  rather  more  appetized  than  usual, 
SCOTT  Monastery  (1820)  39,  ed.  1879.  N.Cy.1,  Nhb.1 

[A  deriv.  of  appetite  (Fr.  appetit),  formed  on  the  analogy 
of  vbs.  in  -ize.] 

APPING,  see  Happing. 

APPLE,  sb.1 

1.  The  cone  of  Finns  abies  (Lin.  Won). 
Wor.  (H.K.) 

2.  Comb,  (i)  Berk  apple,  Pinus  sylvestris  (n.Yks.);  (2) 
Deal—  (e.An.),  (3)  Fir —  (nw.Cum.   Lin.  Sus.    Hmp.), 
(4)  Pine  —  (Hrt.  Nhp.),  the  cone  of  P.  abies. 

(4)  Nhp.1  Pie-apple  or  Pur-apple,  the  cone  of  the  fir.  Hrt.  Cones, 
or  what  we  call  pine-apples,  ELLIS  Shep.  Guide  (1750)  134. 

[The  fir-cone  was  formerly  called  a  pine-apple,  q.v.] 
APPLE,  sb.2    [a-pl,  se'pl.l      Pyrus  malm.       Irel.  Mr 
Lin.  Nhp.  Wor.  Shr.  Hmp.  Wil.  Som.  Dev.  Cor. 

1.  Comp.  (i)  Apple-bee,  a  wasp ;  (2)  -dumplings,  plant- 
name,  the  great  hairy  willow  herb ;  (3)  -headed,  see  below ; 
(4)  -meat,  pies,  tarts,  &c.,  made  with  apples  ;  (5)  -mill,  a 
machine  in  which  apples  are  crushed  in  cider-making; 
(6)  -pear,  a  variety  of  pear ;  (7)  -potato,  a  certain  kind  of 
potato ;  (8)  -scoop,  a  scoop  or  spoon,  made  of  bone,  used 
to  abstract  the  cores  from  apples ;  (9)  -shrub,  the  plant 
Weigelia  Rosea  ;  (10)  -wife,  a  woman  who  sells  apples. 

(i)  Cor.  MonthlyMag.  (1808)11.421.  (2)  Nhb.1  Apple-dumplins, 
Epilobium  hirsutum.  Called  also  Corran-dumplin.  (3)  Nhp.1  Apple- 
headed,  a  term  applied  to  a  low,  stunted  oak  with  a  round  bushy 
head.  (4)  s.Dev.  (G.E.D.)  (5)  nw.Dev.1  (7)  Myo.  First  and  fore- 
most there's  no  better  than  the  apple-pratees,  HARRINGTON  Sketches 
(1830)  III.  xvi.  (8)  nXin.1  Apple-scohp,  an  instrument  made  of 
a  sheep's  metacarpal  bone,  sometimes  carved,  dyed  green,  &c.,  used 
for  taking  the  cores  out  of  apples.  ne.Wor.  (J.W.P.)  Wil.1  Apple- 
scoop,  made  from  the  knuckle-bone  of  a  leg  of  mutton,  and  used  for 
eating  apples,  the  flavour  of  which  it  is  supposed  to  improve.  (9) 
w.Som.1  Apple-shrub,  the  Weigelia  Rosea,  no  doubt  so  called  from 
the  likeness  of  its  flowers  to  apple-blossom.  It  was  only  intro- 
duced from  China  in  1855.  It  is  now  one  of  our  commonest 
flowering  shrubs.  Dev.  We  call  it  the  apple-shrub,  Reports  Provinc. 
(1885)  87.  (10)  Nhb.1  He  sent  the  apple-wives  to  mourn,  A  month 
iv  wor  awd  cassell,  OLIVER  Local  Sngs.  (1824)  15. 

2.  Comb,  with  attrib.  adj.,  applied  to  plants  or  fruit- 

(1)  Cane  Apple,  Arbutus  unedo  or  strawberry-tree  (Irel.) ; 

(2)  Coddled  — ,  Epilobium  hirsutum  or  willow  herb  (Lin. 
NnoV  (q)  Morris— ,  see  below  (Hmp.);    (4)  Scrog— , 
q.v; (5)  Scalded-  Lychnis  diurna  (Shr.) ;  (6)  Well 

see  below  (Hmp.). 

(3)  Hmp.1  Morris-apple,  an  apple  with  very  red  cheeks.  (5) 
Shr.1  Scalded  apple,  Red  Campion.  (6)  Hmp.1  Well-apple,  a  light 
yellow  apple. 

APPLEv.1    Lin.  Wor.    To  gather  fir-cones  or  apples. 

Lin.  The  poor  people  supply  themselves  with  very  good  fuel  by 
gathering  the  fir-apples  ;  you  will  sometimes  see  twenty  children 
in  my  plantation  appleing,  as  they  call  it,  YOUNG  Agric.  Sun*. 
Wor.  (H.K.) 

APPLE,  v.2    Lin.  Nhp.  Hrt.    Used  of  roots.    To  form 

into  tubers. 

n-Lin.1  Apple,  to  bottom,  to  root.  Spoken  of  potatoes,  turnips, 
and  other  bulbs.  s.Nhp.  Unless  the  soil  has  some  mixture  o£  sand 
the  turnips  do  not  apple,  as  they  call  it :  that  is,  do  not  bottom  well, 
MORTON  Nat.  Hist.  (1712)  487.  Nhp.1  Turnips  apple  well,  when 
the  roots  swell,  and  assume  a  bulbous  form.  Hrt.  [Turnips]  did 
apple  or  bottle  well,  ELLIS  Mod.  Hush.  (1750)  IV.  iv.  70. 

APPLE-BIRD,  sb.     Dev.  Cor.    The  Chaffinch,  Frin- 

gilla  coelebs. 

Dev.  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  Cor.  SWAINSON  Birds  (1885) 
63  ;  Cor.12 

APPLE-BLOWTH,  sb.  Dor.  Som.  [ae-pl-bliib.]  Apple 
blossom.  See  Blowth. 

Dor.  When  the  apple-blooth  is  falling  and  everything  so  green, 
HARDY  Tess  (1891)  159.  Som.  To  inspect  the  apple-blooth  and 
hear  the  birds  sing,  RAYMOND  Gent.  Upcolt  (1893)  105. 

APPLE-BOUT,  sb.  n.Wil.  [ae-pl-beut]  An  apple- 


APPLE-CART,  sb.    Nhb.  Yks.  Der.  Lin.  Som.    Used 
metaph.  in  various  ways. 
1.  Of  the  human  body. 

n.Cy.  Down  with  his  apple-cart  [knock  or  throw  him  down] 
(HALL.).  n.Yks.  He'll  sharpen  thy  apple-cart  for  thee  [he  will 
thrash  thee,  if  thou  dost  not  take  care]  (I.W.).  nw.Der.1.  Lin.1 

leying  ' „. 

2.  Of  anything  carried,  chiefly  in  phr.  to  upset  the  apple- 

Som.  Don't  upsit  th'  apple-cart  !  That  is,  be  careful  you  do  not 
let  fall  anything  carried,  PULMAN  Sketches  (1842)  77,  ed.  1871. 

3.  Of  a  plan,  project.    Also  in  phr.  as  above. 

Nhb.1  That's  upset  his  apple-cairt  for  him,  aa  think  [that  has 
completely  stopped  his  project]. 

APPLE-DERN,  sb.    Cor.    [arpl-dan.] 

Cor.2  Apple-dern,  the  dead  and  dry  stock  of  an  apple-tree,  MS. 

APPLE-DRANE,  sb.    Som.  Dev.  Cor.    A  wasp. 

w.Cy.  Apple-drone,  a  wasp  ;  a  terrible  devourer  of  apples  and 
more  especially  when  they  are  beaten  or  ground  to  make  cider 
(HALL.).  •w.Som.1  Common,  but  not  so  much  used  as  '  wapsy." 
Dev.  Leek  bullocks  sting'd  by  appledranes,  P.  PINDAR  Royal  Visit 
(1816)  III.  365  ;  An'  apple-dreane  an'  a  drumble-drone  Wert  aw' 
ther'  wert  ter  zee  ;  Th'  drumble-drone  lay  dead  i'  th'  snaw,  Th' 
yapple-dreane  i'  th'  dree  ! '  MADOX-BROWN  DivaleBluth  (1876)  bk. 
iv.  ii  ;  I  dreamt  there  wor  an  apple-drain  buzzin',  PEARD  Mothei 
Molly  (1889)  145  ;  There's  a  appledrane's  nist  down  in  the  cassia- 
tree  moot,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892)  47  ;  Appledrane,  a  wasp  or  bee, 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.)  Cor.1  Apple-drain,  a  drone,  a  wasp. 

[See  Drone.] 

APPLE-FOOT,  sb.  War.  Shr.  Glo.  An  apple  pasty  or 

War.3  An  apple  turnover  of  clumsy  shape.  Shr.1  The  plural 
form  of  the  term  is  '  applefit.'  They  are  often  given  to  the  men 
for  their '  bait.'  Now,  Dick,  bin  yo'  gwei'n  to  get  any  bayye  [sic]  ?— 
W'a'n  'ee  got?— Apple  fut.  Glo.  NORTHALL  Flit.  Phr.  (1894). 

APPLE-GARTH,  sb.  Obs.*.  Yks.  [a'pl-gab.]  An 

n.Yks.2  e.Yks.1  Still  preserved  in  Apple-garth  looan— a  lane 
at  Bridlington  which  led  to  the  orchards  of  the  monastery,  previous 
to  the  dissolution,  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

[An  applegarthe,/owan'M»«,  LEVINS  Manip. ;  An  appelle 
garth,  pometum,  Cath.  Angl.  See  Garth.] 




APPLE-GOB,  sb.  Shr.  A  boiled  apple-dumpling.  Cf. 


APPLE-JACK,  sb.  e.An.  Apples  sliced  and  sugared, 
and  baked  in  a  pastry  crust.  Sometimes  used  of  apples 
pared,  and  baked  whole  inside  the  dough. 

e.An.1  A  homely  sort  of  pastry,  made  by  folding  sliced  apples  with 
sugar  in  a  coarse  crust  and  baking  them  without  a  pan.  Also  called 
flap-jack,  apple-hoglin,  crab-lanthorn,  turn-over.  Nrf.  We  shall 
have  roast-beef  and  apple-jack  for  dinner  to-day  (P.K.E.);  Nrf.1 
Apple-John,  sugared  apples,  baked  in  a  square  thin  paste,  the 
two  opposite  corners  flapped,  or  turned  over.  Suf.  An  apple  jack 
contains  only  one  apple,  whole  and  pared  (F.H.) ;  Suf.1  Apple-jack, 
or  Apple-John,  sugared  apples,  baked  in  a  paste,  with  two  opposite 
corners  turned  over  the  apple,  or  flapped  so  as  to  form  a  '  three 

APPLE- JOHN,  sb.    Chs.  War.  e.An. 

1.  A  special  kind  of  apple. 

Chs.  War.  WISE  Shakespere  (1861)  97.  e.An.1  Apple-John, 
John-apple,  a  species  of  apple. 

2.  See  Apple-jack. 

[1.  John-apple,  a  good  relished  apple  that  lasts  2.  years, 
KERSEY  ;  Nor  John-apple,  whose  wither'd  rind  entrench'd 
By  many  a  furrow  aptly  represents  Decrepid  age,  PHILLIPS 
Cider  (NARES)  ;  I  am  withered  like  an  old  apple-John, 
SHAKS.  i  Hen.  IV,  in.  iii.  5.  This  apple  is  so  called  because 
it  is  ripe  about  St.  John's  Day  (June  24).] 

APPLE-OWLING,  sb.  Wil.  The  custom  of  knocking 
off  from  the  trees  the  useless  fruit  remaining,  after  the 
apple-harvest  has  been  gathered  in. 

Wil.1  Apple-owling,  knocking  down  the  small  worthless  fruit,  or 
'griggles,'  left  on  the  trees  after  theapple  crop  hasbeen  gathered  in. 

APPLE-PIE,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  Glo.  Hrt.  Suf.  Ess.  Name 
given  to  various  plants :  (i)  Artemisia  vulgaris,  or  mug- 
wort  (Chs.) ;  (2)  Cardamine  pratensis,  or  lady-smock 
(Yks.) ;  (3)  Epilobium  hirsutum,  or  great  hairy  willow 
herb  (Yks.  Chs.  Glo.  Hrt.  Suf.  Ess.) ;  (4)  ?  Lychnis 
diurna  (n.Yks.). 

(i)  Chs.1  Apple-pie.  (3)  n.Yks.  Apple-pie,  from  time  immemorial 
the  name  for  the  hairy  willow  herb,  from  the  scent  of  its  flowers 
strongly  resembling  the  smell  of  warm  apple-pie  (G.M.T.).  Chs.3 
The  great  hairy  willow  herb  is  called  Apple-pie,  the  smell  re- 
sembling that  of  the  apple.  Glo.1  Hmp.1  (4)  n.Yks.  Apple-pie, 
?  Lychnis  diuma  (I.W.). 

APPLE-PIE  BED,  sb.  Gen.  colloq.  use  in  Eng.  A  bed 
made  by  way  of  a  practical  joke  with  one  sheet  so  folded 
as  to  make  entry  impossible. 

Nhp.1  Apple-pie  bed.  A  bed  is  so  called  when  it  is  made  with 
a  single  sheet,  one  end  tucked  under  the  pillow,  the  other  turned 
over  at  the  top,  which  doubles  the  sheet  in  the  middle,  and  pre- 
vents the  longitudinal  extension  of  the  occupant.  Colloq.  Some 
'  evil-disposed  persons '  have  already  visited  his  room,  made  his 
bed  into  an  apple-pie,  plentifully  strewn  with  hairbrushes  and 
razors,  Sat.  Review  (Nov.  3,  1883)  566,  col.  2  (FARMER)  ;  The 
servants,  who.  to  begin  with,  thought  nothing  more  amusing  than 
the  young  gentlemen's  apple-pie  beds  and  booby-traps,  have 
reached  the  verge  of  mutiny  by  the  fifth  week,  Standard  (Aug.  3, 
1889)  5,  col.  2  ;  Apple-pie  bed,  so  called  from  the  apple  turnover, 
a  sort  of  pie  in  which  the  crust  is  turned  over  the  apples,  N.  &  Q. 
(t894)  8th  S.  v.  347. 

APPLE-PIE  FLOWER,  sb.  n.Hmp.    See  Apple-pie  (3). 

APPLE-PIE  ORDER,  sb.  Gen.  dial,  use  in  Eng.  Phr. 
expressive  of  perfect  order  and  regularity. 

w.Yks.8  A  room  with  everything  tidy  and  properly  placed  is 
pronounced  to  be  '  in  apple-pie  order.'  Lin.1  The  house  was  in 
apple-pie  order.  Oxf.1  MS.  add.  Colloq.  I  am  just  in  the '  order ' 
which  some  folks — though  why  I  am  sure  I  can't  tell  you — would 
call  apple-pie,  BARHAM  Ingoldsby  (1864)  Old  Woman  in  Grey. 

APPLE-PIE  PLANT,  see  Apple-pie  (3). 

APPLE-PUMMY,  sb.  Som.  [ae-pl-pumi.]  The  pulp 
of  apples  remaining  after  all  the  cider  has  been  ex- 

w.Som.1  While  full  of  juice  and  in  process  of  cider  making, 
the  ground  apples  are  simply  pummy.  I've  a-drawd  a  load  o' 
apple-pummy  up  in  the  copse  ;  I  reckon  they  [the  pheasants]'!! 
zoon  vind  it  out. 

[Water  wherein  a  good  quantity  of  apple-pomice  hath 
been  boil'd,  EVELYN  Pomona  (1664)  95  (N.E.B.).] 
VOL.  i. 

APPLE-RINGIE,  sb.  Sc.  Also  written  apple-ringy, 
apple-riennie  (B.  &  H.).  The  plant  Southernwood, 
Artemisia  abrotomnn. 

Sc.  Would  you  like  some  slips  of  apple-ringy,  or  tans}'  or  thyme  ? 
Petticoat  Tales  (1823)  I.  240  (JAM.);  The  aipple-ringic  and  the 
sweet  brier,  OCHILTREE  Redbtirti  (1895)  ii.  Ayr.  The  window 
looked  into  a  small  garden  rank  with  appleringy ,  and  other  fragrant 
herbs,  GALT  Sir  Andrew  (1821';  1.44.  Lnk.  Here  is  plenty  of  apple- 
ringy,  FRASER  Whatips  (1895)  i. 

[Apple-ringie  may  prob.  be  a  corn  of  AFr.  averoine 
(WRIGHT  Voc.  554.  14);  cp.  Fr.  aurone.  Aiironnr,  the  herb 
Southernwood,  COTGR.  Lat.  abrotonum.] 

APPLE-SHEELY,  sb.  Nhb.  The  Chaffinch,  Fringilla 
coelebs.  See  Sheely. 


APPLE-STUCKLIN,  sb.  Nrf.  Suf.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W.  Also 
written  -stucklun  I.W.1;  -stucklen  I.W.2  [ae-pl-st^klan.] 
Apples  sliced  or  whole,  sugared,  and  baked  in  a  paste. 
Cf.  apple-turnover. 

Nrf.,  Suf.,  Sus.,  Hmp.  A  homely  sort  of  pastry,  made  by  folding 
sliced  apples  with  sugar  in  a  coarse  paste,  and  baking  them  with- 
out adish  or  pan,  HOLI.OWAY.  I.W.1;  I.W.2  Apple-dumpling  baked. 

APPLE-TERRE,  sb.    Obs.    Sus.    An  orchard. 

e.Sns.  HOLLO  WAY  ;  Sus.12 

[Apple  +  Fr.  terre,  a  piece  of  ground.] 

APPLE-TURNOVER,  sb.  Lin.  Lei.  Wor.  A  kind  of 
apple-tart  baked  without  a  dish. 

n.Lin.1  Apple-turnover,  an  apple  puff.  .  Lei.1  Apple-turnover,  a 
large  puff,  made  with  a  circular  or  oval  piece  of  paste  doubled 
over,  and  containing  apples.  Wor.  (J.W.P.) 

APPLE-TYE,  sb.    Sus.    A  loft  where  apples  are  kept. 


[See  Tye.] 

APPLETY-MOY,  sb.  Wm.  [a'plti-moi.]  Apples 
stewed  to  a  pulp. 

Win.  Applety-moi  consists  of  apples  stewed  until  soft  and  then 
crushed  to  a  pulp  (E.W.P.)  ;  Bobby  browt  oot  a  girt  weyshin  pot 
full  a  applety-moi,  Spec.  Dial.  (1885)  pt.  iii.  10. 

[Cp.  ME.  applemoyle  (also  pomesmoille  in  gloss.  Cookery 
Bks.  (E.E.T.S.  91) ;  appitlmoy  in  Form  of  Cury,  79.  May, 
moyle,  repr.  Fr.  mouille,  moistened,  soaked.] 

APPROBATION,  sb.  Rut.  [aeprabe'Jan.]  An  authori- 
tative opinion. 

Rut.1  I  can't  make  out  what's  wrong  wi'  her  ;  so  I  shall  send  for 
Clark,  and  get  his  approbation  of  it. 

[An  old  meaning  of  this  word  was  the  action  of  authori- 
tatively declaring  good  or  true ;  hence  the  dial,  sense 
'  opinion.'  By  learned  approbation  of  the  judges,  SHAKS. 
Hen.  VIII,  i.  ii.  71.] 

APPROOF,  sb.     Yks.  Som.     [apru'f.] 

1.  Approval,  praise. 

w.Yks.  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (June  7,  1884).  m.Yks.  Speaking  of 
Hungarian  flour,  an  old  farmer  used  words  after  this  fashion — 
'  Such  rubbish  as  that  gets  no  approof  of  mine'  (W.B.T.).  Som. 
He  may  crack  about  his  dairy  as  much  as  he  do  like,  but  'e  see 
the  judge  giv"  he  no  approof  (W.B.T.). 

2.  Obsol.    Courage,  pluck  tried  by  experience. 

w.Yks.  I  like  Jack  better  nor  Tom  ;  there's  more  approof  in 
him  (W.B.T.). 

[This  word  is  noted  as  old  in  JOHNSON.  1.  One  and  the 
self-same  tongue,  Either  of  condemnation,  or  approof, 
SHAKS.  M.  for  Meas.  n.  iv.  174.  2.  A  soldier  and  of  very 
valiant  approof,  ib.  Alts  Well,  n.  v.  3.  OFr.  aprove,  proof, 

APPURTENANCES,  sb.  Cor.  The  heart,  liver,  and 
lungs  of  an  animal. 


[An  appurtenance  of  a  lamb,  viscera,  pantices,  COLES 
(1679).  This  word  is  freq.  found  in  its  aphetic  form 
purtenance,  q.v.] 

APRICOCK,  sb.  n.Cy.  Lan.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  Shr. 
Hrf.  Som.  [e'prikok.]  The  apricot.  See  Abricock. 

N.Cy.1,  n-Lan.1,  nXin.1,  Lei.1,  Nhp.1,  War.3,  Shr.1,  Hrf.1  Som. 
JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825). 

[Apricot  or  apricock,  a  kind  of  wall-fruit,  JOHNSON  ; 
An  apricock,  Malum  praecoquum,  COLES  (1679) ;  Abricot, 
the  abricot  or  apricock  plumb,  COTGR.  ;  Yond  dangling 





apricocks,  SHAKS.  Rich.  II,  HI.  iv.  29  ;  Of  trees  or  fruites 
to  be  set  or  remooved,  i.  Apple-trees  ...  2.  Apricocks 
TUSSER  Hush.  76.  Port,  albricoque.  See  Abricock.  | 

APRIL,  sb.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Der.  War. 
Comp.  (i)  -errand,  an  errand  upon  which  a  person  is  sent 
on  the  first  of  April,  as  a  practical  joke  ;  (2)  -gawby, 
(3)  -gob.  (4)  -gobby,  (5)  -gowk,  (6)  -noddy,  various  names 
for  an  April  fool. 

(i)  n.Cy.  This  ...  is  called  a  '  gawk's  errand,'  '  an  April  errand,' 
'hunt  the  gowk,'  Fit-Lore  Rec.  (1879)  VII.  85.  (2)  Chs.1  April 
gawby.  War.  (J.R.W.)  (3)  Chs.1  April  gob.  nw.Der.1  April  gob. 
an  April  fool.  (4)  Chs.1  April  gobby.  (5)  n.Cy.  We  in  the  North  call 
persons  who  are  thus  deceived,  April-gowks,  BRAND  Pop.  Antiq. 
(1777")  400  ;  April  gowks  are  past  and  gone,  You're  a  fool  and  I  am 
none  [i.  e.  after  midday,  the  person  who  attempts  the  joke  is  called 
the  fool],  Flk-LoreRec.  (1879)  VII.  85.  Nhb.1  The  cuckoo  has  become 
synonymous  with  jest  and  joke  ;  gowk  is  cuckoo.  Boy  :  '  Hi, 
canny  man.  see  what  ye've  dropt.'  The  canny  man  turns  round  to 
see,  and  is  hailed  with  a  yell,  '  O,  ye  April-gowk  !  '  as  the  boy 
runs  off.  Cum.  One  of  these  gentlemen  we  hope  to  send  back 
to  London  as  our  representative  in  Parliament,  and  the  other  as 
an  April-gowk  [speech  of  a  political  West  Cumbrian  gentleman, 
Apr.  i,  1879]  (M.P.);  Cum.1  n.  Yks.2  April  gowk,  an  April  fool. 
The  old  custom  of  making  April  fools  is  said  to  have  proceeded 
from  letting  insane  persons  be  at  large  on  the  first  of  April,  when 
amusement  was  made  by  sending  them  on  ridiculous  errands. 
April  day  is  here  called  '  Feeals'  haliday,'  fools'  holiday.  (6)  n.Lan.1 
Apple-noddy's  past  an'  gone,  An'  thou's  a  noddy  for  thinkin'  on. 

APRIL-FOOL,  sb.  Lei.  One  upon  whom  practical 
jokes  are  successfully  played. 

Lei.1  A  person  may  be  made  an  April-fool  of  at  any  time  of  the 
year.  Ah  suppose  a  wanted  to  mek  a  Epril  fule  on  me. 

APRILLED,  ppl.  adj.  Dev.  [apri'ld.]  Sour,  on  the 
point  of  turning  sour,  applied  to  milk  or  beer.  Also, 
fig.,  to  a  person's  temper. 

Dev.Aprill'd,  turned  sour,  MOORE  Hist.  Dev.  (1829)  I.  353.  n.Dev. 
Why,  than  tha  wut  be  a  prilled,  or  a  muggard  [made  sour,  or 
sullen],  Exm.  Scold.  (1746)  1.  194;  Aprilld,  soured,  or  beginning 
to  turn  sour,  when  applied  to  milk  or  beer,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add. 
(H.)  ;  Bin  'e  wur  aprilled  hours  ago,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  4. 
Dev.1  Why,  the  ale  was  worse  ;—  that  was  a-prill'd,  was  maukish, 
dead  as  dishwatter,  pt.  ii.  12. 

[A-  (pref?)+  prilled,  pp.  of  prill,  q.v.] 

APRON,  sb.  Van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  and  Eng.  Also 
written  apern  se.Wor.1  w.Som.1  [a'pran,  a'pan.] 

1.  The  diaphragm  of  an  animal. 

e.Yks.1  nXin.1  The  inner  fat  of  a  pig  and  the  fat  of  a  goose 
are  called  the  pig-appern  and  the  goose-appern.  se.Wor.1  Apern 
or  Apun,  the  midriff  of  a  pig.  e.An.1  Apron,  the  cawl  or  omentum 
of  a  hog.  Dev.  He  drove  his  long  brow-antler  up  to  its  hilt  in 
the  hound's  side  ;  and  then,  in  withdrawing  it,  brought  out  that 
portion  of  the  interior  known  as  '  the  apron  '  Memoir  Russell 
(.1878)  xiii. 

2.  The  skin  covering  the  belly  of  a  roast  duck  or  goose. 
n.Lan.1    Sus.,  Hmp.  Apron,  the  flat,  skinny  covering  of  the  body 

of  a  goose  or  duck,  HOLLOWAY  w.Som.1  The  skin  between  the 
breast-bone  and  the  tail  of  a  duck  or  goose  when  sent  to  table,  is 
called  the  apern. 

3.  The  abdomen  of  the  brachyurous  .  .  .  crustaceans,  as 
crabs  ;  so  called  because  it  is  folded  under  and  closely 
applied  to  the  thorax  (CD.). 

Bnff.1      e.Yks.1  Appron,  the  hinge-like  appendage  of  a  crab's 

4.  A  strip  of  lead  on  a  chimney. 

e.An.2  The  upper  part  of  a  chimney  opening  above  the  grate.  Suf. 
A  piece  of  lead  or  zinc  fastened  to  the  front  of  a  chimney  where  it 
the"  roof  r°tPreVenttherain  """""&  down  the  chimney  through 

5.  Comp.  fij  Apron-man,  a  tradesman,  a  mechanic  • 
(2)  -piece,  (3)  -string  farmer,  see  below  ;  (4)  -strinK- 
wo'  PTOperty  held  in  virtue  of  a  wife  !  (5)  -trad!, 



(2)  eXan.1  Appron-piece,  the  front  part  of  a  fire- 
range  which  supports  the  oven.  (3)  s.Wor.  Apron  string  farmer, 
an  effeminate  town-bred  farmer  (H.K.).  (4)  Hrt.  A  man  being  pos: 
sessed  of  a  house  and  large  orchard  by  apron-string-hold,  felled 
almost  all  h,s  fruit-trees,  because  he  expected  the  death  of  his  sick 
wife,  ELLIS  Mod.  Hush  (nioWI 
traade  oal  petch'd  to  scraim/r  V 

^  r-       - 
$     ^ 

[2.  Apron  of  a  goose,  in  popular  language,  the  fat 
skin  which  covers  the  belly,  BAILEY  (1755).  4.  The 
aprons  (of  lead)  round  the  chimney-stalks,  LOUDON,  §  935 
(N.E.D.).  5.  You  have  made  good  work,  you  and  your 
apron-men,  SHAKS.  Cor.  iv.  vi.  96;  We  answered  the 
apron-man  (the  wine-drawer),  ROWLEY  Search  for  Money, 
1609  (NARES,  s.  v.  Aperner).— The  dial,  form  apern  was 
common  in  the  i6th  and  i7th  cents.  Apernes  of  mayle, 
STOW  Survey,  XII.  103;  Semjcinctium . . .  Tablier,  a  womans 
aperne,  an  artificers  or  handicraftsmans  aperne,  Nomeit- 
clator  (NARES). 

APROPO,  v.    Som.    To  match,  resemble. 

w.Som.1  Dhik'ee  dhae-ur  aa'breepoa-z  muyn  nuzaak'lee  [that  one 
resembles,  or  matches,  mine  exactly].  I  heard  this  spoken  of  a 
canary.  By  no  means  uncommon. 

[Fr.  a  propos,  fitly,  just  pat  (CoTGR.).] 

APS,  sb.  War.  Glo.  Hrt.  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  Wil. 
Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  apse  Sur.1  Sus.1  Hmp.1 
w.Som.1  nw.Dev.1;  eps  Ken.1  [aps,  aeps, aps.]  Theaspen- 
tree,  Populus  tremula.  See  Asp. 

War.  Aps,  or  Apse,  the  oldest  form  of  asp  or  aspen.  Glo.1  Hrt. 
ELLIS  Mod.  Hush.  (1750)  VII.  i.  101.  Ken.  May  7,  1787.  For 
32  feet  Epps  Timber  at  iod  per  foot  £i  6s.  8d.,  Pluckley  Overseers 
Ace.  (P.M.) ;  Eps,  an  asp  tree  (K.) ;  Ken.1 ;  Ken.2  Sur.1  A  field  in 
Titsey  parish  is  called  the  Apses  field.  Hmp.1  Made  out  of  apse 
[made  of  aspen  wood].  Wil.1  Always  so  called  by  woodmen.  w.Som.1 
The  wind  Ve  a  blowed  down  a  girt  limb  o'  thick  apse  tree.  nw.Dev.1 

Hence  Apsen,  made  of  aps  or  aspen  wood ;  comp. 
Apsen-tree,  the  aspen. 

Sus.  They  must  be  taken  without  the  patient's  knowledge .  .  .  and 
put  into  a  hole  in  an  apsen  tree,  EGERTON  Flks.  and  Ways  (1884)  112. 
Som.  JENNINGS  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1869).  Cor.1  Severing  [shivering] 
like  an  apsen-tree. 

[OE.  ceps,  the  aspen-tree  (in  Leechdoms  and  dLlfric 

APS,  see  Haps. 

APSE,  sb.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  aps.  [aps.] 
An  abscess,  tumour. 

w.Som.1  Her  've  a  got  a  apse  'pon  her  neck.  Dev.  N.  &  Q. 
(1857)  2nd  S.  iii.  240.  s.Dev.  Fox  Kingsbridge  (1874).  Cor.  Apse 
is  with  us  an  evident  corruption  of  abscess,  ./V.  &  Q.  (1857^  2nd 
S.  iii.  240. 

[A  corruption  of  abscess.] 

APSE,  int.  Chs.  Also^ written  arpse  Chs.13;  yaps, 
yahpse,  yeps  s.Chs.1  [yaps,  yeps.]  An  exclamation  of 
surprise  or  reproof,  as  in  phr.  apse  upon  thee.' 

Chs.1  Apse  upon  thee  !  or  Arpse  upon  thee  !  If  a  man  took  up  a 
piece  of  iron  which  he  unexpectedly  found  was  too  hot  to  hold  he 
would,  very  likely,  in  dropping  it,  make  use  of  the  exclamation; 
Chs.3  Apse,  or  Arpse  upon  thee !  An  exclamation  often  used  in 
scolding  a  child  for  some  peccadillo  ;  like  '  Out  upon  thee!'  s.Chs.1 
Yaps  upon  yO! 

APT,  adj.    Irel.    [apt]    Of  persons:  certain,  sure. 

Ir.  They'll  be  apt  to  keep  her  in  it  all's  one.  BARLOW  Lisconnel 
(1893)  8;  Ay,  he's  a  terrible  big  man,  isn't  he?  Apt  to  knock  the 
head  off  himself  he'd  be,  if  he  was  offering  to  come  in  at  our  door, 
ib.  86.  n.Ir.  If  you  go  out  to-day  you'll  be  apt  to  take  cold.  If  you 
cut  the  loaf  that  way  you'll  be  apt  to  cut  yourself  (W.H.P.). 

Hence  Aptly,  certainly,  without  fail. 

Ant.  Will  you  be  drawing  turf  for  me  to-morrow? — I  aptly  will 

APTISH,  adj.    Yks.     [a-pti/.] 

1.  Skilful,  useful,  accurate. 


2.  Intelligent,  quick-witted. 

Yks.  I  have  heard  an  old  country  schoolmaster  speak  of  a  lad 
as  an  aptish  pupil,  but  I  do  not  fancy  the  word  is  generally  known 
(R.S.).  n-Yks.1  He's  eptish  at  his  book-lear ;  n.Yks.2 

{Apt,  prompt,  ready  to  learn  +  -ish.] 

APTYCOCK.  Dor.  Cor.  Also  written  aptcock. 
[ae-pti-kok,  ae'pt-kok.]  A  clever  little  fellow. 

Dor.  I  have  heard '  aptcock '  (T.C.P.).  Cor.1  Well  done,  my  little 
apticock ;  Cor.2 

[Apt,  intelligent,  quick-witted  -I-  -cock,  the  well-known 
suff.  in  surnames,  as  in  Alcock,  Badcock ;  prob.  fr.  the 
use  of '  cock '  as  a  familiar  term  of  appreciation  for  a  man 
who  fights  with  pluck  and  spirit] 




A-PURPOSE,rtflfo.  Nhb.Wm.Lan.Oxf.Brks.  [aparpas, 
apa  pas.]  On  purpose,  deliberately,  with  intention.] 

Nhb.1  He's  deund  aporpose  to  myek  hissel  leuk  clivvor.  Wm.1 
Lan.  O  purpus  fur  to  let  foke  get  o  seete  on  um,  ORMEROD  1'elley 
fro  Raclide  (1851)  i;  'An  accident  done  a-purpose,'  chimed  in 
Mrs.  Clowes,  BANKS  Manch.  Man  (1876)  xiv.  Oxf.1  He  done  it 
a-purpose,  MS.  add.  Brks.1  A  drow'd  [threw]  I  down  a-purpose 

[A-,  on  +  purpose.] 

APURT,  adj.  and  adv.    Som.  Dev.    [ap5't.] 

1.  adj.    Sulky,  sullen,  disagreeable. 

n.Dev.  B'ant  hur  well,  Nan  ?  Is  our  Nell  apurt.  ROCK  Jim  ati  Nell 
(1867)  st.  55  ;  GROSE  (1790) ;  Apurt,  with  a  glouting  look,  Monthly 
Mag.  (1808)  II.  421.  Dev.1  BET.  I  can't  go,  zure. — RAB.  Wull, 
verywull. — BET.  You  bea-purtnow,  pt.  i.g;  'Ot,' quotha  to  dame, 
'  glumping  eet  ?  zo  it  sim  you  are  a-purt  with  your  meat,'  pt.  ii.  13. 

2.  adv.    In  a  sulky  manner ;  disagreeably. 

w.Som.1  Her  tookt  her  zel  off  proper  apurt,  and  no  mistake. 

[A-  (pref?)+purt(io  sulk),  q.v.] 

APURTED,  adj.    Dev.    Sullen. 

Dev.  They  only  thought  it  was  my  '  appurted  witherful  develtry,' 
as  they  called  it,  MADOX-BROWN  Dwale  Bluth  (1876)  bk.  iv.  i. 

[A-  (prtf.2)+ purled,  pp.  ofpurt,  see  above.] 

AQUABOB,  sb.     Ken.    An  icicle. 

Ken.  GROSE  (1790) ;  I  have  never  heard  this,  and  on  inquiry 
cannot  hear  of  it ;  it  looks  rather  like  a  fabrication  (P.M.) ;  Ken.1 

AQUART,  adv.  Yks.  Also  written  aquairt  n.Yks.2 
[akwe'rt,  akwe't] 

1.  Across,  athwart 

ne.Yks.1  Used  of  motion  across.  T'beeos  ran  a-quart  t'staggarth. 

2.  In  a  state  of  disagreement,  at  cross  purposes. 
n.Yks.1  What,  then,  Marget  an'  her  man  hae  getten  aquart  agen? 

—Ay,  they's  had  another  differing-bout ;  n.Yks.2  There's  nought  to 
get  aquairt  about.  w.Yks.  (yE.B.) 

[A-,  on  +  quart,  vb.  (q.v.).] 

AQUAT,  adv.1  Dor.  Som.  Also  written  aquott. 
[akwo't.]  In  a  squatting  position. 

w.Dor.  ROBERTS  Hist.  Lyme  Regis  (1834).  e.Som.  Aquat,  sit- 
ting flat,  likeabird  on  its  eggs,  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873).  w.Som.1  Steed 
o'  tendin'  the  things,  there  was  he  a-quat  down  in  by  the  vire  [s.v. 

[A-,  on  +  quat,  vb.  (q.v.).] 

AQUAT,  adv.2  Dev.  Also  written  aquot  Dev.3 
[akwo't,  akwa't.]  Full  to  satiety. 

Dev.  'Chave  eat  so  much  'cham  quit  a-quot  [I  have  eat  so  much 
that  I  am  cloyed],  RAY  (1691).  n.Dev.  I  mind  an  alkitole  o't  Avore 
a  month  had  got  a-quot,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  st.  61  ;  Aquott, 
weary  of  eating,  GROSE  (1790).  Dev.3  Willee  'a  zome  moar  tii  ayte, 
missis  ? — No  thankee,  vather,  I  be  aquat  now;  purty  nigh  vit  tu  bust. 

[A-  (pre/.2)  +  quat,  adj.  (q.v.).] 

AQUEESH,  ACQUEESH,  see  Atweesh. 

AR,  see  Air,  adj.,  AIT. 

AR-,  see  Ear-. 

ARADJ,  sb.  Dur.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.  Not.  Also  written 
arran  Dur.1  n.Yks.  ne.Yks.1  w.Yks.1  ne.Lan.1;  aran 
n.Cy.  w.Yks.3;  arrin  Der.2  nw.Der.1;  arrand,  arand, 
arrant  w.Yks.  ;  arrian  w.Yks.2  [a'rand,  a'rant,  a'ran, 

1.  A  spider,  a  cobweb. 

n.Cy.  GROSE  (1790).  Yks.  At  public  worship  the  composure 
of  a  lady  near  him  is  much  disturbed  by  an  arrant,  HAMILTON 
Nugae  Lit.  (1841)  316;  Arran,  the  long-legged  outdoor  spider 
(S.P.U.).  n.Yks.  Sweep'th  Arrans  down  ;  till  all  be  clean,  neer 
lin,  Els  he'l  leauk  all  Agye,  when  he  comes  in,  MERITON  Praise  Ale 
(1684)  1.  437.  w.Yks.  Arran  is  used  in  this  parish  for  spiders  of 
every  size,  WATSON  Hist.  Htfx.  (1775)  531  ;  You  never  heard  of 
Bruce,  perhaps? — And  th' arrand?  BRONTE  Shirley  (1849)  v;  w.Yks.1 
Thou  hed  as  nice  a  lang  waist  as  onny  body,  as  slim  an  as  smaw, 
eigh,  as  an  arran,  ii.  297  ;  An  arran  or  an  Espin  leaf  wad  a  flaid  him 
out  of  his  wits,  ib.  ii.  306 ;  w.Yks.234,  ne.Lan.1  Der.1  The  word 
arion  was  common  in  living  memory,  but  has  not  been  heard  so 
much  of  late  years  ;  Der.2,  nw.Der.1  Not.  Arain,  used  only  for 
the  larger  kind  of  spiders,  RAY  (1691).  [According  to  correspon- 
dents the  word  is  now  obs.  in  Notts.] 

2.  Comp.  Arain-web,  Aran-web,  a  cobweb. 

N.Cy.1,  Dur.1,  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  Arran-web,  rarely  used.  w.Yks. 
It's  better  to  be  a  bit  blustcrin  an  rough  an  have  summat  to  show 
for  it  nor  to  caar  in  a  corner  wol  th'  arrand-webs  stick  to  yo, 

HARTLEY  Clock  Aim.  (1896)  9  ;  She  had  hair  colour  o'  gowd,  an' 
fine  and  silky  as  an  arran-web,  DIXON  Craven  Dales  (1881)  189  ; 
w.Yks.3  The  infection  of  some  fevers  would  stop  in  an  arrinweb 
for  seven  years  ;  w.Yks.5 

[Arain,  large  spider,  COLES  (1677) ;  Oure  jeris  as  the 
arane  sail  thynke  .  .  .  The  erayn  makes  vayn  webbes, 
HAMPOLE  Ps.  Ixxxix.  10 ;  Oure  ;eris  schulen  bithenke  as 
an  yreyn,  WYCLIF  ib. ;  Aranye  or  erayne,  aranea, 
Prompt.  OFr.  araigne  (iraigne),  Lat.  aranea,  a  spider.] 

ARB-,  see  Herb-. 

ARBITRARY,  adj.  Hrf.  Ken.  Sur.  Also  written 
arbitry  Hrf.  Ken.1  [a'bitri.] 

1.  Independent,  impatient  of  restraint. 
Hrf.  (W.W.S.)     Sur.' 

2.  Hard  ;  greedy,  grasping. 

ARBOUR-TREE,  see  Harber. 
ARBY-ROOT,  same  as  Abby-root,  q.v. 
ARC,  see  Ark,  sb.2 

ARCG,  see  Argue. 

ARCH,  sb.1    Sc.  QAM.)    An  aim.    See  Arch,  v.  2. 

Abd.,  Rxb. 

ARCH,  sb.2  Cor.  Tech.  A  piece  of  ground  left  un- 
worked  near  a  shaft. 

Cor.  Mining  Gl.  (1852). 

ARCH,  v.    Sc.  Som.  Cor.    [e'rtj,  atj.] 

1.  To  make  or  cause  to  be  convex. 

w.Som.1  Thick  there  road  must  be  a-arched  a  good  bit  more  eet, 
vore  the  water'll  urn  off  vitty  like. 

2.  To  take  aim,  to  throw  or  let  fly  any  missile  weapon 
with  a  design  to  hit  a  particular  object. 

Sc.  Shoot  again, — and  O  see  to  airch  a  wee  better  this  time, 
Brownie  ofBodsbeck,  I.  155  (JAM.).  Abd.  Airch,  to  throw,  is  still  in 
use.  It  is  [so  called]  from  the  curve  described  by  a  missile  (G.W.). 
Rxb.  (JAM.) 

Hence  Arched,  ppl.  adj.  curved,  convex,  see  1 ; 
Archer,  sb.  (JAM.),  one  who  throws,  see  2  ;  Arching,  adj. 
convex,  see  1. 

Cor.  The  roads  in  a  mine,  when  built  with  stones  or  bricks,  are 
generally  arched  level  drifts,  Mining  Gl.  (1852).  Tech.  The  roads 
in  a  mine,  when  built  with  stones  or  bricks,  arc  sometimes  called 
arched  level  or  arched  ways,  WEALE  Diet.  Terms  (1873).  Abd. 
Archer,  a  marksman.  w.Som.1  He  idn  archin  enough  by  ever  so 

[OFr.  archer  (mod.  arquer),  to  arch,  to  curve  in  the  form 
of  a  bow  (arc) ;  a  deriv.  of  arc.} 

ARCH,  see  Argh. 

ARCHANGEL,  sb.     [ake'ngal.] 

1.  A  name  applied  to  several  species  of  Dead  Nettle 
and  allied  plants  :—  (i)  Lamium  album  (Lei.  Glo.  Dev.) ; 
(2)    Lamium   galeobdolon    (Som.) ;    (3)  van    species    of 
Lamium  (Glo.). 

Glo.1  Dev.  The  harmless  nettle  is  here  [Dartmoor]  called  arch- 
angels, BRAY  Tamar  and  Tavy(ed.  1879)  I.  274  ;  Dev.4  w.Soin.1 
Archangel,  the  yellow  nettle,  often  called  weazel  snout.  [Our 
English  archangels  and  a  few  others  are  yellow,  Cornh.  Mag.  (Jan. 

2.  Red  Archangel,  Lamium  purpureum  (Nrf.) ;  Yellow 
Archangel,  Lamium  galeobdolon  (Lei.). 

[Archangel,  the  name  of  a  plant,  called  also  Dead 
Nettle,  JOHNSON  ;  Archangel  (dead  nettle),  Lamium,  COLES 
(1679) ;  Ortie  blanche,  the  herb  Archangel,  Blind  Nettle, 
Dead  Nettle.  Ortie  puante,  a  kind  of  Archangel  that  smells 
most  filthily,  COTGR.  ;  Lamium  album,  White  Archangel!. 
Lamium  luteum,  Yellow  Archangell.  Lamium  rubrum, 
Red  Archangell,  GERARDE  (ed.  1633)  702 ;  Deffe  nettylle, 
Archangelus,  Prompt.;  Archangelica,  the  blynd  netel, 
WRIGHT  Voc.  565.  15.] 

ARCHES,  sb.  pi.  Tech.  The  first '  bungs  of  saggers,' 
or  piles  of  clay  boxes  containing  ware  put  into  the 

Tech.  In  the  pottery  trade  arches  are  the  bungs  which  stand 
nearest  to  the  fire  and  between  the  fire-holes  or  mouths,  Lab. 
Gl.  (1894). 

ARCH-HOLE,  sb.    Cum. 

Cum.1  Arch-whol,  a  vent-hole  in  the  wall  of  a  barn. 

ARCHIE,  see  Urchin. 

K  2 




ARCHILOWE,s6.  Sc.  Also  written -logh.  The  return 
which  a  guest,  who  has  been  previously  treated,  makes 
to  the  tavern  company. 

Sc.  I  propose  that  this  good  gentleman  . . .  shall  send  for  a  tass  o' 
brandy,  and  I'll  pay  for  another  by  way  of  archilowe,  SCOTT  Rob 
Roy  (1817)  xxviii.  Lth.,  s.Sc.  When  [the  guest]  calls  for  the  bottle 
he  is  said  to  give  them  his  archilagh  (JAM.). 

[It  is  prob.  that  this  word  contains  Du.  gelag,  share, 
scot,  score  at  a  tavern.  Cp.  Gelach,  a  shot  or  a  score, 

ARD,  adj.  n.Cy.  [erd.]  Of  land  :  dry,  arid,  parched, 
used  of  soil  on  high-lying  land. 

N.Cy.1  Aird.     Cum.  Gl.  (1851)  ;  Cum.12 

ARDAR,  sb.    Obs.    Cor.    A  plough. 


[A Celtic  Cornish  word, prob.  Lat.aralrum,  plough, 
cogn.  w.  Gael,  ar,  plough,  and  Goth,  arjan,  to  plough.] 

ARDENT,  adj.  used  as  sb.    Sc.    [e'rdant.]    Whisky. 

Bnff.1  Will  ye  tack  a  glass  o'  wine  ? — Na  ;  a'll  tack  a  drop  o'  the 

[Cp.  phr.  ardent  spirits,  in  which  ardent  refers  to  their 
fiery  taste.] 

ARDER,  sb.  usually  pi.  The  n.  counties,  e.  and  s.Cy. 
(RAY)  Sus.  (K.)  Also  written  ader  Dur.  n.Yks. ;  aither 
N.Cy.1  n.Yks.12  e.Yks. ;  ather  N.Cy.1  Nhb.1  n.Yks.2 
[i'Sar,  a'tSar.] 

1.  A  ploughing,  esp.  the  fallowing  of  vacant  land. 

n.Cy.  Arders,  fallowings  or  plowings  of  ground,  RAY  (1691). 
n-Yks.1  I  believe  the  meaning  to  be  restricted  to  the  ploughing  or 
furrowing.  e.Yks.  The  first  or  second  aither  ;  the  same  as  '  airth  ' 
of  some  places,  and  '  earth '  of  others,  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  ( 1 788). 
Sus.  (K.),  s.  &  e.Cy.  RAY  (1691).  (Obs.  Not  known  by  any  of  our 
correspondents  in  these  parts  of  the  country.)  [WORLIDGE  Syst. 
Agric.  (1681).] 

2.  Fallow  or  ploughed  land. 

Cum.  Arden  [sic],  fallow  quarter,  Gl.  (1851).  m.Yks.1  Aither, 
furrowed  ground.  e.Yks.  When  we  come  to  sowe  olde  ardure, 
BEST  Rur.  Econ.  (1641)  132. 

3.  Lands  divided  according  to  the  crops  they  bear  in  the 
customary  rotation  ;  hence,  the  order  or  rotation  of  crops 
in  husbandry. 

n.Cy.  Aither,  a  course  of  cropping,  or  portion  of  the  rotation, 
MORTON  Cycl.  Agric.  (1863)  ;  N.Cy.1  In  husbandry  the  arders  are 
the  divisions  of  tillage  land  set  apart  for  regular  courses  of  crops 
in  successive  years.  Nhb.1  Before  the  commons  enclosures,  the 
tillage  land  was  divided  into  '  fields.'  Each  field  consisted  of  a 
great  number  of  scattered  strips  or '  yard  lands.'  The  '  East  field,' 
'  West  field,'  'North  field,'  &c. ,  represented  groups  of  different 
freeholds— each  owner  having  yard  lands  in  all  the  '  Athers,'  or 
'  fields.'  The  object  of  this  was  to  arrange  for  a  rotation  of  crops. 
Thus,  the  East  field  being  fallow,  the  West  field  would  be  under 
oats,  the  North  field  under  wheat,  and  so  on  in  annual  rotation. 
Obs.  Dur.  What  is  here  called  four  aders,  viz.  wheat,  clover,  oats, 
and  fallow,  Rep.  Agric.  Surv.  (1793-1813).  n.Yks.2 Arders,  partsof 
a  field.  '  A  field  in  aithers.'  These  words  signify  portions  set 
apart  for  different  growths,  as  'an  aither  of  wheat,'  'an  aither  of 

4.  Thickness  of  soil  to  work  among. 

n.Yks.  Soil  laid  on  a  field  macks  mair  ader  (I.W.). 

[1.  Arders,  the  fallowings  or  ploughings  of  ground, 
KERSEY  ;  Arders,  fallowings  or  ploughings,  COLES  (1677) ; 
Who  can  expect  to  reap  much  from  a  single  ardour, 
or  once  ploughing?  ROBINSON  Treat.  Faith  (1688)  117 
(N.E.D.).  Prob.  ON.  arSr,  plough.] 

ARD-SREW,  sb.  Nhb.  Also  written  erdsrew. 
[e-rd-sriu.]  The  common  shrew-mouse.  See  Harvest- 


ARDUR,  sb.     Obs.    Cor. 


[A    Celtic    Cornish    word ;     cp 
agricola '  (DAVIES).    See  Arder.l 

ARE,  see  Ear,  v. 

AREADY,  adj.    Som.    [are'di.]     Ready. 

A  ploughman. 

W.  arddwr,  'arator, 

-•A  i  j.    s^      "    , '  5°weuere,  ib.  (B.) 

v.  192.    A-  (pref?)  +  ready,  cp.  yreiiie,  Horn.  (c.  1250)  239.] 

To  grant  rest 
gintlemen,  TWEDDELL 


Nhb.1  Yen's  retherairfish 

AREAR,  adv.1    Ken.    [aria'(r).]     Reared  up,  upright. 

Ken.  To  stand  arear  (K.)  ;  Arear,  Arere  :  much  used  in  certain 
districts,  not  all  over  the  county  (A.M.) ;  Ken.1 

[A-,  on  +  rear,  vb.] 

AREAR,  adv.2    Obs.    Der.     Backward,  behind. 


[But  when  his  force  gan  faile  his  pace  gan  wex  areare, 
SPENSER  F.  Q.  in.  vii.  24 ;  Thanne  gan  he  go ...  Som 
tyme  asyde  and  som  tyme  a-rere,  P.  Plowman(c.)  vn.  405. 
OFr.  arere  (mod.  arriere).} 

AREAR,  int.    Cor.    Also  written  areah  Cor.1 

1.  An  exclamation  of  surprise.    See  Arrah. 

Cor.  Arrear  then  Bessy  ly  aloane  the  backy,  Cornwall:  A 
Western  Eclogue,  in  Gent.  Mag.  (1762)  287  ;  Arrere,  GROSE  (1700) 
MS.  add.  (C.);  '  Arreah !  thon,' replied  Mrs.  Brown;  'that's  the 
way  the  maggot  do  jump,  es  et?'  FORFAR  Wizard  (1871)  8; 
Cor.2  Arear  !  Oh,  strange  !  wonderful  ! 

2.  Comp.  Arrea-faa. 

AREAWT,  see  Arout. 

AREND,  v.    Sc.    [e-rand.]    To  rear. 

Fif.  [The  horse]  arendit,  he  stendit,  He  flang  an'  he  fam'd,  MS. 
Poems  (JAM.)  ;  I  asked  '  a  Fifer'  if  he  knew  what  an  arend  horse 
was.  '  A  rearer,'  he  replied,  '  because  he  is  in  danger  of  falling  back 
o'er  end  '  (G.W.). 

ARESS,  see  Hairif. 
AREST,  v.    Yks.    [are'st.] 
n.Yks.  God   a-rest   you,   merry 
Rhymes  (1875)  6. 
[A-  (pref. 
ARF,  see  Argh. 
ARFAL,  see  Arval. 
ARFISH,  adj.    Nhb.  Dur.  Yks.    [e'rfi/.] 

1.  Timid,  fearful,  apprehensive. 
N.Cy.1  I'm  rather  arfish  about  that. 

aboot  eet.  Dur.1  n.Yks.2  I  felt  arfish  i'  t'dark.  ne.Yks.1  Ah 
felt  a  bit  arfish.  e.Yks.  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  (1788).  w.Yks. 
Harfish,  timid,  as  horses  on  bog-land,  HAMILTON  Nugae  Lit.  (1841) 
356  ;  Mither,  I'se  arfish,  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  230. 

2.  Unwilling,  reluctant. 

Nhb.1     e.Yks.1  He's  nobbut  very  arfish  to  begin. 

[Arf+  -is/i.     See  Argh,  adj.] 

ARG,  adj.    Sh.I.    [arg.]    Eager,  fierce. 

Sh.I.  Arg  is  used  regularly  in  Isle  of  Foula  in  the  sense  of  keen, 
very  anxious  (equiv.  to  '  aber '  in  the  North  Isles)  (J.J.).  S.  &  Ork.1 

[Dan.  arg,  wicked,  bad;  cp.  G.  arg.] 

ARG,  see  Argue. 

ARGAN,  see  Organ. 

ARGE,  see  Argue. 

ARGERIE,  sb.    Sh.I.    [a'rgari.]    A  crowd,  multitude. 

Sh.I.  '  Argerie  '  I  take  to  be  the  right  form  and  not '  angorie ' ; 
I  have  heard  the  former  (although  very  rarely),  but  not  the 
latter.  Argerie  is  rather  a  derogative  word  (mob,  rabble)  (J.J.). 
S.  &  Ork.1 

ARGH,  adj.  and  adv.  Sc.  Nhb.  Dur.  Yks.  Lin.  Also 
in  Sus.  Also  written  (a)arf  N.Cy.12  n.Yks.12  ne.Yks.1 
m. Yks.1  w.Yks.  Lin.1 ;  arf(e  n.  and  e.Yks.  w.Yks.1;  airf 
Nhb.1 ;  erf  Sc. ;  earfe  Nhb.1  Dur. ;  awf  e.Yks.1 ;  arth 
Nhb.1 ;  airth  N.Cy.1  Nhb.1  n.Yks.2 ;  airgh,  ergh,  erch, 
arch,  airch  Sc. ;  auch  Bnff.1 ;  arrow  Abd. ;  yar  Sus. 
[af,  erf,  erj>,  erx,  a-ra.] 

1.  adj.  Timorous,  apprehensive,  afraid. 

Sc.  In  kittle  times  when  foes  are  yarring  We're  no  thought 
ergh,  BEATTIE  To  Mr.  A.  Ross,  in  Helenore  (1768)  3,  ed.  1812  ; 
And  fearfu'  will  it  be  to  me,  I'm  erch,  or  a' be  o'er,  JAMIESON  Pop. 
Ballads  (1806)  Doitul  and  Evir.  Bnff.1  Abd.  I  have  an  eargh 
kind  of  feeling  on  hearing  the  owls  (G.W.).  N.Cy.1  He  was  airth 
to  do  it ;  N.Cy.2,  Nhb.1,  Dur.  (K.)  n.Yks.  I'se  varra  arfe,  Shee'l 
put,  and  rive  my  ood  Prunella  Scarfe,  MERITON  Praise  Ale  (1684) 
1.  it ;  n.Yks.1 ;  n.Yks.2  I  was  airth  o'  gannin.  ne.Yks.1  Rooads  is 
seea  slaap  ah's  arf  o'  travellin'.  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.  '  Ise  arf  to  do 
it,'  generally  implies  difficulty,  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  ; 
w.Yks.1  Lin.1  I'm  arf  you've  hurled  the  bunny.  It's  nobbud  the 
soldiers  come  to  defend  the  '  old  women,'  who  are  arf.  Sus.1 2 

2.  Hesitating,  reluctant,  '  swithering.' 

Bnff.1  Abd.  An'  rogues  o'  Jews,  they  are  nae  arrow,  Wi'  tricks 
fu' sly,  ANDERSON  Poems  (1813)  116  (JAM.)  ;  Ye're  ergh  to  file 
your  fingers  [unwilling  to  work]  i,G.W.).  Fit,  Lth.  Erf  to  do 




anything  JAM.)-  Nhb.1  A  condition  of  mind  in  which  it  is  neces- 
sary to  proceed  with  great  caution.  n.Yks.1  e.Yks.1  Arf,  unwilling; 
indisposed  ;  disinclined.  m.Yks.1,  w.Yks.1 

3.  Scanty,  insufficient.     Cf.  4. 

Lth.  Ye  hae  na  made  the  line  of  that  side  o'  the  road  straight ; 
it  juts  out  there,  and  here  it  is  ergh  (JAM.).  Slk.  Airgh,  hollow  ; 
used  when  anything  is  wanting  to  make  up  the  level  (ib.).  Rxb.  (ib.) 

4.  adv.      Insufficiently,  not   fully  or  enough  ;    nearly, 
approaching  to. 

Lth.  I  canna  eat  that  meat ;  it's  ergh  boiled.  That  meat's  airch 
dune.  Rxb.  What  time  is  it  ? — It's  erfe  twal  o'clock  (JAM.). 

[1.  Arghe,  pusillanitnis,  Cath.  Angl. ;  Arwe  or  ferefulle, 
timidus,  pavidus,  Prompt, ;  If  Elinus  be  argh  and  ournes 
for  ferde,  Dest.  Troy,  2540;  His  hert  arwe  as  an  hare, 
R.  GLOUC.  457.  2.  A  !  lorde,  I  trymble  her  I  stande,  So 
am  I  arow  to  do  bat  dede,  York  Plays,  176.  OE.  earh 
(earg),  cowardly ;  cp.  ON.  argr,  G.  and  Du.  arg.] 

ARGH,  v.  Sc.  Also  written  arch,  ergh,  erf.  [erx,  erf.) 
To  be  timid,  fearful,  to  feel  reluctant  from  timidity,  to 

Sc.  I  airghit  at  keuillyng  withe  him  in  that  thrawart  haughty 
mood,  Wint.  Ev.  Tales,  II.  41  (JAM.)  ;  Argh,  to  dread,  quake  or 
tremble  with  fear  (ib.  Suppl.).  Lnk.  Dear  Jenny,  I  wad  speak 
t'ye,  wad  ye  let ;  An'  yet  I  ergh,  ye're  ay  sae  scornfu'  set,  RAMSAY 
Gentle  Shep.  (1725)  71,  ed.  1783. 

[Yet  when  I  had  done  all  I  intended,  I  did  ergh  to  let 
it  go  abroad  at  this  time  for  sundry  reasons,  BAILLIE  Lett. 
(I775)  I-  36?  (JAM-)  >  penne  arjed  Abraham,  and  all  his 
mod  chaunged,  Allit.  P.  (B.)  713.  OE.  eargian  (ergian),  to 
be  timid.] 

ARCHNESS,  sb.    Sc.  Yks. 

1.  Timidity,  superstitious  fear. 

Abd.  An  erghness  creeps  over  me  in  going  through  a  churchyard 
by  night  (G.W.). 

2.  Reluctance,  unwillingness. 

Sc.  We  must  regret  their  archness  to  improve  such  an  oppor- 
tunity, WODROW  Hist.  Ch.  Scotland  (1721)  I.  xxxii.  n.Yks.  They 
had  some  arfness  about  starting  wark  (I.W.). 

[Arghnes,  pusillanitnitas,  Cath.Angl.;  Arjnesse  alse  me 
thynkth  ys  hard,  Fore  hit  maketh  a  man  a  coward,  MS. 
in  HALL.  Argh,  adj.  +  -ness.] 

ARGIE-BARGIE,  sb.    Sc.  QAM.) 

Rnf.,  Ayr.,  Lnk.  Argie-bargie,  a  contention,  quarrel. 

ARGIE-BARGIE,  v.  Sc.  Also  written  arguy-barguy. 
To  argue,  bandy  words,  dispute. 

Frf.  I'se  nae  time  to  argy-bargy  wi'  ye,  Davit,  BARRIE  Licht 
(1885)  35,  ed.  1893.  Fif.  (JAM.)  Gall.  It  was  no  time  to  argie- 
bargie  about  words  and  sayings,  CROCKETT  Raiders  (1894)  xv. 

Hence  Arguy-barguying,  vbl.  sb. 

Sc.  There  was  eternal  arguy-barguy  in'  about  this  plea,  ROY 
Horseman  (1895)  xxxix. 

ARGISGME,  adj.  Lin.  Nhp.  Bck.  [a'gisam.]  Con- 
tentious, inclined  to  argue  or  dispute. 

n.Lin.  A  argisum  bairn  maks  a  awk'ud  man  (M.P.)  ;  n-Lin.1  It's 
the  argisumist  bairn  I  iver  did  see.  Nhp.2  n.Bck.  (A.C.) 

[Argue,  vb.  +  -some.     For  suff.  cp.  handsome,  winsome."} 

ARGLE,  sb.    Lin.    [a'gl.]    An  argument,  a  dispute. 

sw.Lin.  My  wife  and  she  had  a  bit  of  an  argle  about  it  (R.E.C.). 

[See  Argle,  v .] 

ARGLE,  v.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Won  Also  written  argal 
se.Wor.1 ;  argel  Lin.  [a'gl.] 

1.  To  argue,  dispute,  contend,  esp.  in  making  a  bargain  ; 
to  argle  out,  to  have  the  last  word  with  one's  opponent  in 
an  argument. 

Lin.  They  argell'd  for  awhile,  at  last  He  thirteen  for  a  shilling 
got,  BROWN  Lit.  Laur.  (1890)  74.  n.Lin.  Thaay  stood  an'  argled 
a  peace,  PEACOCK  Tales  and  Rhymes  (1886)  90  ;  n-Lin.1  Come 
maister,  it's  no  use  to  argle.  se.Wor.1  Er  argald  me  out,  as  your 
new  shawl  was  blue,  un  it's  green  now,  yunt  it  ? 

2.  Hence  Argling,  vbl.  sb. 

Der.2,  nw.Der.1  n.Lin.  I  thowt  she'd  a'  bitten  me  wi'  real  down 
force  o'  arglein',  PEACOCK  J.  Markenjuld  (1874)  I.  135 ;  n-Lln.1 
What's  the  good  o'  arglein'  about  what  folks  is  worth.  War. 


[I  will  never  stand  argling  the  matter  any  more,  Hay 
any  Work  (1589),  ed.  1844,  n  (N.E.D.).  A  perversion  of 
argue,  vb.,  fr.  the  influence  of  freq.  vbs.  in  -le.] 

ARGLE-BARGLE,    sb.      Lin.      An    argument.      Cf. 

ARGLE-BARGLE,  v.  Sc.  Lin.  A  frequentative  of 
argie-bargie,  q.v. 

Per.  Ye  maist  needs  set  him  up  tae  arglebargle  wi'  a  stranger 
minister  at  the  Free  Kirk,  IAN  MACLAREN  Brier  Bush  (1895)  214. 
Ayr.  It's  of  no  use  to  argol-bargol  wi'  me,  GALT  Sir  Andrew  (1822) 
xii.  Lnk.  But 'tis  a  daffin  to  debate,  And  aurgle-bargin  with  our  fate, 
RAMSEY  (1727)  I.  335,  ed.  1800  (JAM.).  Lth.(JxM.)  Edb.  Me  and  the 
minister  were  just  argle-bargling  some  few  words  on  the  doctrine  of 
the  camel  and  the  eye  of  the  needle,  MOIR  Mansie  Wauch  (1828) 
45.  n.Lin.1 

Hence  (i)  Argle-bargler,  sb.  a  caviller,  contentious 
person  ;  (2)  Argle-barging,  -bargling,  vbl.  sb. 

(i)  Ayr.  As  the  arglebarglers  in  the  House  of  Parliament  have 
threatened,  GALT  Legatees  (1820)  iv.  (2)  After  no  little  argol- 
bargling  with  the  heritors,  ib.  Ann.  Parish  (1821)  vii.  e.Lth.  Let's 
hae  nae  mair  argle-bargin',  HUNTER  J.  Inwick  (1895)  39.  Edb. 
James  and  me,  after  an  hour  and  a  half  s  argle-bargling  pro  and  con, 
MOIR  Mansie  Wauch  (1828)  xi. 

[A  reduplicated  rhyming  form  of  argle,  vb.] 

ARGOL-BARGOLOUS,  adj.  Sc.  Quarrelsome,  con- 
tentious about  trifles  (JAM.). 

Ayr.  No  doubt  his  argol-bargolous  disposition  was  an  inherit 
accumulated  with  his  other  conquest  of  wealth  from  the  mannerless 
Yankies,  GALT  Provost  (1822)  194. 

ARGOSEEN,  sb.  ?  Obs.  Sc.  (JAM.)  Unknown  to  any 
of  our  correspondents.  The  lamprey. 

Ayr.  Argoseen,  the  lamprey,  according  to  the  old  people. 

ARGOSIE,  sb.    Obs.    Sh.I.    Anger. 

S.  &  Ork.1 

ARGUE,  sb.    Sc.   Stf.   Der.  Shr.    [a'rgi,  a'gi.]    Also 
written  argy  Stf.2  nw.Der.1  Shr.12 
1.  Argument,  assertion  ;  dispute,  contention,  quarrel. 

n.Sc.  He  is  said  to  keep  his  ain  argie,  who,  whatever  be  said  to 
the  contrary,  still  repeats  what  he  has  formerly  asserted.  Cf.  '  to 
keep  one's  ain  threap '  (JAM.).  Stf.2  We'd  a  ret  good  argy  about  th' 
state  of  church  last  net.  nw.Der.1  Shr^Argue,)*.  We'ad'nafine 
argy  'bout  it,  'im  an'  me  ;  Shr.2  Getting  into  an  argy. 

[Argue,  vb.,  used  as  sb.] 

ARGUE,  v.  In  gen.  dial.  use.  Also  written  argy  Nhb.1 
Cum.13  Wm.1  Chs.1  n.Lin.1  War.2  Shr.1  Brks.1  Sur. 
nw.Dev.1  Cor.2;  argie  Sc.  Lan. ;  argay  N.I.1  ;  arg  Nhp.2 
War.2  Hrf.12  Glo.1  Oxf.1  Sus.1  Hmp.  Wil.1  Dor.  w.Som.1 
Cor.12 ;  arge  Glo.  ;  arcg  Cor.  (GROSE,  C.) ;  erger,  erg 
Pem.  [a-rgi,  e'rgi,  a-gi,  ag.] 

1.  To  contend  in  words,  often  with  a  strong  sense  of 
contradiction  involved  ;   hence,  to  dispute,  wrangle ;   to 
arg  out,  to  get  the  last  word  in  an  argument ;  cf.  down- 

Rnf.,  Ayr.,  Lnk.  Ye'll  argie  ither  fra  morn  ti'  nicht ;  ye're  never 
done  wi't  (JAM.  Suppl.).  N.I.1  You  would  argay  the  black  crow 
white.  Nhb.1  Cum.3  I  know  hoo  you  mak  o'  fwok  argies,  132. 
Wm.1  e.Yks.  Ah  sudn't  begin  to  arguy  wiv  him,  WRAY  Nestleton 
(1876)69.  n.Lan.1  Tourist:  'It's  a  fine  morning.' — Rusticc'Why, 
dud  I  say  it  wosn't  ?  dus'  ta  want  to  argie ! '  Chs.1  He  argid  till  he 
wur  black  i'  th'  face.  nXin.1  Nhp.2  Them  two  be  ollas  argin. 
War.2  Don't  argy  so.  You'd  arg  anybody  out  o'  their  wits. 
se.Wor.1  Shr.1  It  dunna  si'nify  talkin' ;  I  'ate  to  'ear  folks  argy 
throm  mornin'  till  night  about  nuthin'.  Hrf.1 2  He  would  arg  me 
that  it  was  so.  s.Pem.  LAWS  Little  Eng.  (1888)  420 ;  From  mornin' 
to  night  he's  ergin'  av  her,  BROWN  Haverfordwest  (1882)  56.  Glo. 
Well,  then  they  arged  for  iver  so  long,  BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn 
(1890)  ii ;  Glo.1  Oxf.1  I  teld'n  'twas,  but  a  arg'd  I  out  'twasn't. 
(An  argument  is  seldom  more  than  a  succession  of  statements  and 
flat  contradictions;  as,  '  I  knows  'tis';  '  I  knows  chent.')  Brks.1 
Sur.  Well  I  can't  argy  it,  not  being  a  scholard,  JENNINGS  Field 
Paths  (1884)  137  ;  Sur.1  Sus.1  These  chapelfolks  always  wants 
to  arg.  Hmp.  They'd  harg  me  out  o'  my  Christian  name  (J.R.W.). 
Wil.1  Dwoan't  'ee  arg  at  I  like  that!  I  tell  'ee  I  zeed  'un  !  w.Dor. 
ROBERTS  Hist.  Lyme  Reg.  (1834).  w-Som.1  He  wanted  vor  t'arg 
how  I  'adn  agot  no  right  vor  to  go  there,  but  I  wadn  gwain  vor  to 
be  a  downarg  by  he.  n.Dev.  Lord,  dame,  doant  agg  an'  argy 
zo,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  St.  6;  nw-Dev.1  Cor.1  He's  all'ays 
ready  to  argee  ;  Cor.2 

2.  To  be  of  weight  or  account  in  an  argument ;  hence, 
to  signify. 

Cum.  See  how  blue  the  sky  is.— That  doesn't  argy.     It  might  be 




better  with  never  a  blenk  of  blue,  CAINE  Hagar(i6&i)  L  45  ;  Com.1 
It  doesn't  argy.  nJ>ev.  Ott  dith  et  argy.  Dame,  to  roil.  ROCK  Jim 
a*1  Aa/(i867)st8a. 

3.  To  show-testiness,  be  ill-tempered,  or  contentious  ;  to 
be  self-willed 
Sns.  To  arg.  to  want  one's  own  way.     Don't  arg.  don't  be  cross. 

4.  To  grumble. 

Som.  VG.AW.) 

Hence  Arging,  vbL  sb.  and  ppl.  adj.  arguing. 

Der.2.  War.2 

[L  I'll  are.  as  I  did  now,  for  credance  againe.  HEYWOOD 
Spider  &>  Flit  (NARES)  ;  Quath  Actyf  fo  al  angryliche 
and  argueynge  as  hit  were,  What  is  pouerte  pacient? 
P.  Plowman  (c.)  XVIL  115.] 

ARGUFICATION,  sb.    Nhp.  Shr.  Hrf.    [agifike-pm.] 

1.  Dispute. 

2.  Significance,  import. 

Nhp.1  There's  no  argufication  in  that.    Hrt1  Of  no  argufication. 

3.  Investigation.    ?  Obs. 

Shr.2     [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.") 

[Deriv.  from  argufy,  q.v.,  with  suff.  -ation.  after  the 
analogy  of  signification  from  signify.] 

ARGUFY,  v.  In  gen.  dial.  use.  Also  written  argify 
Wm.1  w.Yks.8  Chs.1  Stf.«  Lin.  War.4  seWor.1  GIo.1  Bdf. 
Nrf.  Ken.  Sur.1  Sus.1  Dor.  w.Som.1  Dev.1  nw.Dev.1; 
arguify  Sus.a  ;  argeefy  Cor.1  ;  argnefy  Ess.  Som.  See 
below,  [a-rgifai.  a'gifai,  a'gifoi.] 
L  To  argue,  dispute  ;  to  wrangle. 

Gall.  But  we  talked  to  him  an'  argufied  wi'  him,  CROCKETT  Popish 
Parson  (1896).  IT.  You  might  as  well  be  argufyin'  wid  a  scutty- 
wren.  BARLOW  Lisctnuut  (1895)  151.  Wm.1.  n-Yks.1  w.Yks.1 
Wheniwer  I've  argified  wi'  em,  ii.  319  ;  w.Yks.2  Lan.  Hoo's  a 
rare  un  fur  gab  when  hoo  taks  th'  notion,  an'  I'm  noan  so  mich 
i'  th'  humour  t'argufy  mysen  to-day.  BURNETT  Lowrie's  ,i877x  ii. 
Chs.1  What,  tha  wants  for  t'argify.  dost  ta  ?  Stt2  Oi  wunnar 
argifoi  wi  ys,  mester,  bar  oim  sartin  oim  reiL  Hot.1.  n-Lin.1.  Lei.1 
Nhp.1  Don't  argufy  with  me  any  longer.  War.  (J.R.W.V  ;  War.23 
Shr.1  It's  no  use  yo'  to  argufy,  for  yo'n  never  mak  me  believe  to  the 
contrairy.  Glo.  I  be'unt  the  man  to  argify  with  *e  about  a  body. 
GISSIXG  BoOi  of  this  Parish  (1889)  I.  19,  Hut  (T.P.F.)  Ken. 
My  poor  old  aed's  dat  addle  I  can'  argify,  not  no  sheap  !  Ef  erra  won 
6v  my  little  uns  want  to  argify  [dispute  my  authority]  I  jest  gin 
'im  a  tidy  spat,  an'  dat  shets  "im  up  an'  done  wid  it  :  A.  M.  )  Sos.2 
s.Hmp.  Well,  we  needn't  argufy  it,  VERSEY  L.  Lisle  ^1870)  viiL 
w  J)or.  ROBERTS  ffist.  Lymt  Ktg.  (  1834  .  Som.  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial. 
a:Eng.  ^1825%  w-Som.1  Tuumbl  fuul'ur  t-aaTgifuy,  ee  oa'n 
niivur  gee  ee*n  [terrible  fellow  for  arguing,  he  will  never  give  in]. 
More  frequentative  than  '  arg.'  Dev.  'Tidden  no  use  tu  argify  no 
longer.  —  I  tellee  'tez.  then,  an'  there's  an  end  o't  :  HEWETT  Peas.  Sf>. 
1.1892  ;  Dev.1.  nw.Dev.1,  Cor.1  [Amer.  BARTLETT.] 
2.  To  prove,  be  of  weight  as  an  argument  ;  hence,  to 

Wm.1  e-Yks.1  That  ahgifyes  nowt  w.Yks.1,  neJLan.1.  Mot1 
n-LJn.  It  duzn't  argify  what  foaks  says.  I  mean  to  ware  my  awn 
addlin's  just  as  I  like  VM.P.};  nlin.1  It  duzn't  argyfy  what  his 
faayther  was  es  long  es  he's  a  punct'al  man.  Lei.1  That  doon't 
argifoy  nothink.  Nhp.1  What  does  that  argufy?  War.  J.R.W.\ 
War.3.  se-Wor.1  Shr.2  Whod  argufies  a  haggling  a  thisn.  Hrf.2 
It  does  not  argufy.  What  thee  says  don't  argufy.  Glo.1  ;  Glo.2  It 
don't  argufy.  Brks.1  What  a  chap  like  that  ther  zes  dwoant  argivy 
nothun'.  Bdf.  It  argifies  nothing  [it  is  a  matter  of  no  consequence], 
BATCHELOR  Anal.  Eng.  Lan.  (1609.  Hnt  VT.P.F.'  eJ^n.1  What 
does  that  argufy  •  Ess.  Month.  Mag.  1,1814  I-  49s-  Snr.1  It  don't 
argify  much  which  way  you  do  it  Sns.1  I  do'ant  know  as  it  argi- 
fies much  whether  I  goos  to-day  or  whether  I  goos  to-morrow  ; 
Sns.2,  Hmp.1  Colloq.  What  argufies  snivling  and  piping  your  eye  ? 
DIBDIS  Poor  Jack  c.  1800'  2,  ed.  1864.  [Amer.  BARTLETT.] 

Hence  (i)  Argufying,  vbl.  sb.  disputing,  arguing  ;  (2) 
Argufyment,  sb.  an  argument,  dispute. 

(  i  }  Ir.  She  admonished  her  friends  to  come  in  wid  themselves  and 
never  mind  argufying,  BARLOW  Idylls  1,1893)  101.  n-Yks.1  He's 
ower  fond  o'  argufying  ;  n-Yks.2  Nrt  It's  no  use  argifying  with 
a  wumman.  SPILLING  Molly  Miggs  (i873">  13.  [Amer/I  listen  to  a 
preacher,  and  try  to  be  better  for  his  argufying.  BARTLETT.]  (a)  Ir. 
Folks  risin'  argyfyments  about  blathers  and  nonsinse,  BARLOW 
Idylls  ,1893'  197  :  I  believe  they'd  raise  an  argufyment  about  the 
stars  in  the  sky.  A.  180. 

[L  I  have  no  learning,  no,  not  I,  Nor  do  pretend  to 
argufy,  COMBE  Dr.  Syntax,  II.  v  ;  For  my  peart,  measter, 
I  can  neither  see  nor  hear,  much  less  argufy,  when  I'm 
in  such  a  quandery,  SMOLLETT  Sir  L.  Greaves,  viii. 
Argue,  \b.  +  -fy,  prob.  fr.  assoc.  with  signify.] 

ARGY,  sb.  Shr.  Mtg.  [a'gL]  An  embankment  to 
protect  low-lying  waterside  meadows  from  floods. 

Shr.1  A  place  near  Kinnersley — a  raised  bank  with  a  plantation 
of  poplars  and  other  trees,  having  a  small  brook,  the  '  strine.'  on 
one  side,  and  a  ditch  on  the  others-is  called  by  the  people  of  that 
neighbourhood  '  the  argy ' :  Shr.2  Argy.  an  embankment  betwixt 
Melverly  and  LJanymynech,  which  was  constructed  as  a  pro- 
tection against  the  overflowings  of  the  Severn. ...  It  is  five  feet 
across  the  top,  and  varies  from  ten  to  twenty  feet  in  height  above 
the  average  level  of  the  meadows  on  the  waterside.  Mtg.  The 
argy  extends  along  the  Severn  from  Pool  Quay  to  Melverly.  and 
unless  it  gives  way,  the  adjoining  meadows  are  preserved  by  it 
from  being  swamped  when  the  Severn  is  in  flood  (J.S.L.). 

[W.  argot,  a  stoppage,  a  dam.] 

ARIGHT,  adv.    Sc.  n.Yks.    [wi-xt,  wit]     Rightly. 

Sc.  His  hame  Pegasus,  held  wi*  straw-raip  reins,  Aye  jogged 
aricht  an'  kept  his  name  frae  stains,  ALLAN  LMts  (1874)  143.  GalL 
He  was  aware  that  all  men  did  not  act  aright  on  even.-  occasion, 
CROCKETT  Stidai  Mia.  (1893)  12.  n.Yks.  An  ondersteead  areet, 
CASTILLO  Poems  ,1878)  52. 

[A-,  on  4  right,  sb.] 

ARIGHT,  v.  Lan.  [arit.]  Of  a  boat :  to  right,  to 
cause  to  recover  its  proper  position. 

Lan.  Heard  at  Liverpool  ^F.H.). 

[A  vbl.  use  of  aright,  adv.] 

ARISE,  adv.    Nhp.    [arai's.]    Crosswise. 

Nhp.1  A  square  piece  of  wood  cut  diagonally  would  be  said  to  be 
'  cut  a-rise." 

[This  is  the  same  word  as  arris,  q.v.;  for  the  advb.  use 
cp.  arris-wist,  so  as  to  present  a  sharp  edge,  diagonally, 
ridge-wise  (N.E.D.).] 

ARISH.  see  Arris,  Arrish. 

ARK,  sb.1  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf. 
Der.  Lin.  Also  in  Hrt.  Also  written  airk  Cum.1;  airc 
Nhb.1  [erk,  ark,  ak.] 

L  A  receptacle,  usually  a  large  wooden  chest,  made  to 
contain  flour,  corn,  fruit,  clothes,  &c. 

Sc.  My  auldest  brither  Sandy  was  a'  but  smoored  in  the  meal  ark 
hiding  frae  thae  limmers,  CHAMBERS  Pop.  Rhymes  1870  72 ;  Good- 
wife  gae  to  your  butter  ark.  And  weigh  us  here  ten  mark,  & 
168  :  What  are  we  to  eat  ourselves  . .  .  when  we  hae  sent  awa 
the  haill  meal  in  the  ark  and  the  girnel  ?  SCOTT  OU  Mortality  (1816 
xix.  Lnk.  He  had  an  old  meal  ark  before  him  as  a  table,  FRASEK 
»%««/ys.i895Nviii.  N.Cy.1  2Hhb.1  A  meal-ark  is  still  the  name  given 
to  a  meal-chest  in  country  places.  Arks  were  made  of  oak.  and  con- 
tained the  family  dresses.  The  front  was  often  ornamented  with 
carved  borders  and  joined  with  wooden  pins.  Cum.1  A  meal  ark. 
Wm.  [Black  arks]  are  often  used  as  repositories  for  haver  cakes, 
Drnham  Tracts  (.ed.  1895)  II.  96  :  We  hae  baith  meal  en  maut  ith 
ark.  WHEELER  Dial.  1 7001 40  :  A  think  he'd  bed  his  heead  i't  meeal 
ark.  CLARKE  Spec.  Dial.  (.1868;  16,  ed.  1877  ;  Wm.1  Yks.  The  black 
ark  was  a  ponderous  piece  of  oaken  furniture  about  six  feet  in 
length  and  three  in  depth  ;  the  inside  was  usually  divided  into 
two  parts  [formerly  used  to  hold  clothes,  now  flour,  &c.].  If  you 
go  to  the  black-ark,  bring  me  out  x  mark,  Ten  mark,  x  pound, 
throw  it  down  upon  the  ground.  Hagmena  Song  in  Drnham  Tracts 
^ed.  1895)  II.  9&  n-Yks.2  Meeal-ark.  or  meeal-kist,  the  flour  bin. 
Formerly  seen  as  a  fixture  in  Urge  old  farm-houses,  built  of  stone 
slabs  on  the  ground-Door.  DC. Yks.1  Obs.  e-Yks.  Ark,  a  sort 
of  moveable  granary,  MARSHALL  Rtir.  Eton.  ^1788  .  m-Yks.1 
w.Yks.  GROSE  1790;  MS.  ado.  (P.)  ;  A  meal-ark,  dothes-ark 
J.T.'  ;  w.Yks.1  Meol,  at  I  fetch'd  out  o't  ark,  ii.  300  ;  w.Yks.23 
Lan.1  Apple  arks,  HIGSON  Gorton  Hist.  Recorder  1852'  12 ; 
She  had  secreted  a  small  quantity  of  tea  in  her  meal  ark,  *.  14. 
Go  an  treyd  t'meal  into  th'  ark.  neXan.1  Chs.1  The  chest  in 
which  oats  are  kept  in  a  stable  is  always  called  a  '  curn-ark ' ;  Chs.3 
Ark,  formerly  called  a  standard  ;  a  flour  ark.  These  arks  are 
often  elaborately  carved,  and  sometimes  contain  secret  drawers. 
s-Chs.1  A  compartment  in  a  granary.  Often  called '  curn-ark.'  Stf.2 
A  large  oblong  box  or  chest,  divided  into  compartments,  generally 
two,  for  keeping  corn,  meal,  &c.  Goo  an  fatch  nK  a  hantle  u  com 
out  uth*  ark.  Der.  Just  get  off  o'  that  art  .  .  .  She  lifted  up  the 
great  carved  lid,  VERKEY  Stone  Edgt  1868)  ii;  Der.1;  Der.2  Ark. 



a  chest  ;  hence  the  name  of  Arkwright.  nw.Der.1  n.Lin.  Obs.  or 
obsol.  (E.P.) ;  n-Lin.1  Apple-ark,  Ark.  Hrt  ELLIS  Cy.  ffsuf.  (1750). 

[Ark,  a  country  word  for  a  large  chest  to  put  fruit  or 
corn  in,  KERSEY  ;  An  ark,  a  large  chest  to  put  fruit  or  corn 
in,  WORLIDGE  Syst.  Agric.  (1681) ;  Coffre,  a  coffer,  chest, 
hutch,  ark,  COTGR.  ;  Quen  this  corn  to  the  kniht  was  said 
He  did  it  in  an  arc  to  hald,  Metr.  Horn.  (c.  1325)  141. 
OE.  earc,  Lat.  area.} 

ARK,  sb?  Rut.  Hrf.  Ess.  Also  written  arc  Hrf.12 
Ess.  [ak.]  Clouds  in  lines  converging  to  two  points  on 
opposite  parts  of  the  sky.  See  Noah's  ark. 

Rut.1  They  say  when  you  see  the  hark  it  mostly  tokens  rain. 
Hrf.  BOUND  Prov.  (1876);  Hrf.1  A  mare's-tail  cloud;  Hrf.2  Seen 
in  the  morning  and  evening  only  on  rare  occasions.  Found  only 
in  Upton  Bishop  among  very  old  people.  Ess.  The  ark  worn't  out, 
no  clouds  appear'd,  CLARK  J.  Noakes  (1839)  n  ;  Gl.  (1851);  Ess.1 

ARK,  sb?  Sc.  The  masonry  in  which  the  water- 
wheel  of  a  mill  moves. 

Abd.  This  name  is  in  common  use  (W.  M.).  Per.  At  the  foot  of 
the  ark,  where  the  water  leaves  the  wheel,  we  used  to  be  certain 
of  trouts  when  guddling  (G.  W.). 

ARL,  sb.  Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Rdn.  Glo.  Also  written 
orl  s. Wor.1  Shr.2  Hrf.2  Rdn.  Glo.1 ;  aul  Hrf.1 ;  harrul  Glo.1 
[51,  ol.] 

1.  The  alder,  Alnus  gluiinosa. 

w.Wor.1,  s-Wor.1  Shr.2  Orl,  exclusively  confined  to  Hrf.  side. 
Hrf.1  When  the  bud  of  the  aul  is  as  big  as  the  trout's  eye  Then  that 
fish  is  in  season  in  the  river  Wye  ;  Hrf.2  Rdn.  MORGAN  Wds. 
(1881).  Glo.1  The  berries  of  [the  arl  or  orle]  are  used  medicinally 
for  boils  and  gatherings.  A  quart  of  berries  is  stewed  in  two  or 
three  quarts  of  water  and  simmered  down  to  three  pints.  A  little 
more  liquorice  is  added  to  give  an  agreeable  flavour.  The  dose  is 
a  wineglassful  in  the  morning. 

2.  Comp.  Arl-timber,  the  wood  of  the  alder,  also  attrib.  • 
•tree,  -wood. 

Hrf.  The  gardener  says  the  wood  is  called  arl-timber  (S.S.  B.). 
Glo.  Orle-timber,  coppice  wood,  border  wood  (H.T.E.) ;  The  maid 
servant  from  the  Cotswolds  says  that  certain  trees  are  known  as  orl- 
timber  trees,  and  when  cut  down  are  known  as  orl-timber.  She 
says  the  alder  is  not  called  orl-tree,  but  orl-timber  tree  (S.S.B.). 
Hrf.  Arl-tree  (ib.\  Glo.  Orl-wood,  the  timber  of  the  alder  (ib.). 

ARLE,  v.  Sc.  n.Irel.  Nhb.  Yks.  Also  written  earle 
Yks. ;  yearl  Nhb.1 ;  airle  N.I.1  [erl,  yerl,  «L] 

1.  To  bind  by  payment  of  money,  to  give  earnest-money 
as  '  clincher '  to  a  bargain,  to  engage  for  service,  secure. 

Sc.  Arle,  to  put  a  piece  of  money  into  the  hand  of  a  seller,  at 
entering  upon  a  bargain,  as  a  security  that  he  shall  not  sell  to 
another,  while  he  retains  the  money  (JAM.).  Per.  Are  you  feed, 
lassie?— Yes,  I  was  erled  an  hour  ago  (G.W.).  NX1  Nhb.  Aw 
move  that  when  wor  Vicar  dees,  the  place  for  him  be  arid,  OLIVER 
Local  Sngs.  (1824)  9  ;  Nhb.1  What  did  the  misses  arle  ye  wi  ? — She 
ga'  me  two  shillin'.  Yks.  To  arle  or  earle  a  bargain,  to  close  it, 
GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.) 

Hence  Ailing,  vbl.  sb. 

Per.  The  custom  of  arling  is  common  here  (G.W.). 

2.  To  earn. 

3.  Ironically :  to  beat  severely,  cf.  arles,  3. 


[She  arled  him  for  her  groom,  bridegroom,  She  arled 
him  for  her  groom,  Broom,  Green  Broom  (Nhb.1).  Deriv. 
of  arles,  sb.  (q.v.).] 

ARLES,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  Lan.  and 
Lin.  Also  written  airlesN.I.1 ;  arls  w.Yks.*;  alls  N.Cy.1; 
erles  Nhb.1  Lin.;  erls  Yks.;  earls  Irel.  w.Yks.4  Lan. 
n.Lin.';  carles  N.I.1  N.Cy.12  Dur.  Cum.  Yks.  n.Yks.3 
w.Yks.1  Lan. ;  erl,  earle  Wm. ;  yearles  N.Cy.1  Lan. ; 
yearls  Cum. ;  yerls  Cum.  Wm. ;  arless  w.Yks.  [erlz, 
eralz,  yerlz,  alz.] 

1.  Money  paid  on  striking  a  bargain  in  pledge  of  future 
fulfilment,  esp.  that  given  to  a  servant  when  hired ;  earnest- 
money  ;  also^o-. 

Sc.  A  piece  of  money  put  into  the  hands  of  a  seller  . .  as  a  pledge 
[that he]  shall  not  strikea  bargain  with  another,  while  he  retains  the 
arles  in  his  hand  JAM.\  Aries  ran  high,  but  makings  were  naething, 
man,  HOGG  Jacob.  Rel.  (1819)  1. 102  ;  He  had  refused  the  devil's  arles 
(for  such  was  the  offer  of  meat  and  drink),  SCOTT  Redg.  (1824)  xi 
Inv.(H.E.F.)  Rnf.  Jack  was  selling  Pate  some  tallow '  Done  • ' 

quo'  Pate,  and  syne  his  erls  Nail'd  the  Dryster's  wauked  loof  [palm], 
WILSON  Watty  and  Meg  (1792)  7,  Newc.  ed.  Ayr.  An'  name  the 
arles  an'  the  fee  In  legal  mode  an'  form,  BURNS  (1786)  132  ;  Their 
demeanour  towards  me  was  as  tokens  and  arles  of  being  continued 
in  respect  and  authority,  GALT  Proms/ (1822)  xxviii.  Lnk.  He  turn'd 
his  rosy  cheek  about,  and  then,  ere  I  could  trow,  The  widdifu'  o' 
wickedness  took  arles  o"  my  mou,  MOTHERWELL  Sng.  (1827)  242.  • 
e.Lth.  It's  no  ower  late  for  him  to  tak  back  his  arles  to  the  tither 
side,  HUNTER  J.Inwick  (1895)  194.  Gall.  Here's  a  silver  merk, 
I'or  the  King's  arles,  and  here's  Sergeant  Armstrong's  file  wi' 
twal  unce  o'  the  best  lead  bullets,  CROCKETT  Raiders  (,1894)  xliv- 
Ir.  Where's  my  footin',  masther?  Where's  my  arles?  CARLETON 
Fardoroiigha  (1848)  i.  Ant.  In  hiring  a  servant,  for  buying  a  cow, 
load  of  hay,  &c.,  you  give  a  shilling  or  half-a-crown  as  'earls,'  to 
make  the  bargain  sure,  Ballymena  Obs.  (1892).  N.I.1,  N.Cy.1 2 
Nhb.1  In  hiring  servants,  any  bargain  made  between  master 
and  servant  was  accounted  void,  before  entry  into  servitude, 
if  arles  had  not  been  offered  and  accepted.  Nhb.  &  Dur.  Aries, 
earnest  money,  formerly  given  to  men  and  boys  when  hired 
at  the  bindings,  GREENWELL  Coal.  Tr.  Gl.  (1849).  Cum.  &  Win. 
Servants  return  the  arles,  when,  after  being  hired,  they  change  their 
mind.  What !  she's  sent  t'yerls  back  !  (M. P.)  Wm.  In  Appleby 
within  recent  years  the  Wrings  were  opened  by  the  charter  being 
read  at  the  Cross,  after  which  bargains  clinched  with  the  'yerls  ' 
were  binding  on  man  and  master  (B.K.).  Yks.  Give  me  earles 
[or  God's-penny](K.).  n.Yks.1  Aries,  or  Festing-penny.  ne.Yks.1 
Aries,  money,  [ranging]  from  as.  to  5*.  w.Yks.  HUTTON  Tout- 
to  Caves  (1781);  w.Yks.1  Butcher  Roberts  put  eearles  into  my 
hand,  an  bad  me  ten  pund  neen  for  him,  ii.  289;  w.Yks.2 
Erles,  money  given  to  a  clergyman  when  first  engaged  ;  w.Yks.4, 
Lan.1,  ne-Lan.1,  Lin.  (K.)  n.Lin.1  Aries  (obsol.).  [This  money  is 
returned  by  the  seller  of  farm  produce  to  the  buyer  on  payment] 
as  luck  or  '  to'n-agean '  (s.v.  To'n  agean).  Thomas  Sheppard, 
John  Oxley,  and  David  Hill  took  12  acres  2  roods  of  wheat  at 
85.  6rf.  per.  acre,  and  as.  6d.  for  earls.  Northorpe  Farm  Ace.  1789. 

2.  A  gift  to  servants  from  a  visitor ;  a  '  vail.'  a  '  tip.' 
Yks,  (K.) 

3.  Phr.  to  give  any  one  his  arles,  to  give  any  one  his 
deserts,  freq.  applied  to  a  beating. 

Inv.  To  gie  ane  his  arles  (H.E.F.).  Bnff.1  A'll  gee  ye  yir  arles, 
my  boy,  gehn  ye  dinna  haud  yir  tung. 

4.  Comp.  Aries-penny,  Arral-sbilling. 

Ayr.  Your  proffer  o'  luve's  an  airle-penny.  My  Tocher's  the 
bargain  ye  wad  buy,  BURNS  My  Tocher's  the  Jewel  1794).  Lnk..  And 
this  is  but  an  arle-penny  To  what  I  afterward  design  ye,  RAMSEY 
Poems  (1721)  II.  561,  ed.  1800  (JAM.).  N.Cy.12,  Wm.  (B.K.) 
n.Yks.1  Aries-penny,  God's  penny,  Festing-penny.  w.Yks.1,  Der.2, 
nw.Der.1  w.Yks.  Arral-shilling  is  common  where  statute  hirings  are 
held  iJB.K.). 

[1.  Argentum  Dei  .  .  .  Money  given  in  earnest  of  a 
bargain  :  in  Lincolnshire  called  Erles  or  Aries,  BLOUNT 
Law  Diet.  (1691) ;  pis  ure  lauerd  jiueS  ham  as  on  erles  of 
be  eche  mede  bat  schal  cume  berafter,  Halt  M.  (c.  1220)  7. 
4.  Aries  penny,  earnest-money  given  to  servants,  or  in 
striking  any  bargain,  BAILEY  (1755) ;  Aries  penny, 
earnest-money  given  to  servants  when  they  are  first  hired, 
BAILEY  (1721);  Glossographia  (1707).] 

ARLICH,  adj.  Sc.  (JAM.)  Also  written  arlitch.  Sore, 
fretted,  painful. 


[Arr  (a  scar),  q.v.  +  -lic/i  (Eng.  -fy).] 

ARLIES,  int.     Chs.     [a'liz.] 

s.  Chs.  I  f  one  boy  were  chasing  another,  and  the  latter  cried  '  arlies,' 
he  would  expect  to  be  allowed  a  little  breathing  space  before  the 
chase  was  resumed  (T.  D. ) ;  s.Chs.1 

ARLING,  sb.    Nhb.    Earnest-money.    Cf.  arles,  sb.  1. 

Nhb.  He'  ye  getten  yor  arlin  ?  Hoo  much  hes  she  gi'en  ye  for 
arlin?  (R.O.H.) ;  Nhb.1  The  arlin  is  sometimes  called  'the  bond- 
money  '  (s.v.  Arle}. 

[A  vbl.  sb.  fr.  arle,  vb.] 

ARLY-BONE,  sb.    Brks.    The  hip-bone  of  a  pig. 

m.Brks.  The  '  arly  bwun  '  is  known  in  all  farm-houses.  It  is 
taken  off  the  ham  before  the  latter  goes  to  be  cured,  and  is 
roasted  soon  after  the  pig-killing  (B.L.).  s.Brks.  Here  the  name 
'  early  bone  '  is  in  common  use  (M.J.B.  \  Brks.1 

ARM,  sb.1  Chs.  Lin.  Nhp.  War.  Wor.  e.An.  Wil.  Dor. 
Som.  Dev.  [am.] 

1.  The  axle,  the  iron  upon  which   the  wheel   of  any 
vehicle  turns. 



Chs.1  Formerly  the  arms  were  simply  a  continuation  of  the 
wooden  axle ;  now  they  are  invariably  made  of  iron  and  are  let 
into  each  end  of  the  thick  wooden  axle.  n.Lin.1,  Nhp.1,  War. 
(J.R.W.),  se.Wor.1  Suf.  A  wooden  axle-tree  with  iron  arms. 
An  axle-tree  of  iron,  arms  and  all  (F.H.).  Wil.  MORTON  Cyclo. 
Agric.  (1863).  Dor.  Off  came  the  wheels,  and  down  fell  the  carts  ; 
and  they  found  there  was  no  linch-pins  in  the  arms,  HARDY  Wess. 
Tales  (1888)  II.  186.  w.Som.1  Dhu  weel  km  oa-f,  un  dh-aa-rm  oa  un 
wuz  u-broa-kt  rait  oa-f  [the  wheel  came  off,  and  its  axle  was 
broken  right  off].  nw.Dev.1 

2.  The  spoke  or  radius  of  any  large  wheel ;  the  beam  of 
a  windmill  to  which  the  sail  is  fixed. 

w.Som.1  [The  arm  of]  a  water-wheel,  or  the  fly-wheel  of  a  steam- 
engine.  The  entire  motive  power  of  a  windmill — i.e.  each  of  the 
four  great  beams,  with  all  the  apparatus  fixed  to  it— is  called  the 

3.  A  trowel. 


4.  Comb,  (i)  Arm  by  arm,  (2)  arm  and  crook,  (3)  ann-in- 
crook,  (4)  arm-in-link,   (a)  arm-in-arm,  freq.  applied  to 
the  walking  together  of  couples  in  the  courting  stage ; 
(b)  on  familiar  terms,  cf. '  hand-and-gloye ' ;  (5)  bend  of  the 
arm,  the  elbow  ;  (6)  hand-in-arm,  arm-in-arm  ;  (7)  to  bend 
the  arm,  to  drink,  cf.  '  to  lift  the  elbow ' ;  (8)  to  make  a  long 
arm,  to  reach  ;  (9)  to  wish  your  arm  from  your  elbow,  see 

(i)  Lin.  Lots  o'  lads  and  lasses,  all  agrm  by  a6rm,  BROWN  Lit. 
Laur.  (1890)  9.  (a)  Dor.  Tidden  no  good  vor  a  ma'id  to  walk  arm-an'- 
crook  wi' the  likes  o' he,  HARE  Vitt.  Street  (i8g$)  in.  Som.'Tessaid 
theydowalkarman'crookup'pon  hill  a'most  every  day  o'  their  lives, 
RAYMOND  Love  and  Quiet  Life  (1894)  208.  Dev.3  (3)  Dor.  Then 
they  went  arm-in-crook,  like  courting  complete,  HARDY  Madding 
Oozfrf(i874)xxxiii.  (4) Chs.1  (a)  He's goin  arm- i'-linkwi'ahr  Polly. 
(4)  He's  arm-i'-link  wi'  him.  (5)  w.Yks. '  Bend  o'  t'arm '  is  common 
for  elbow-joint,  Leeds  Men.  Suppl.  (May  2,  1891) ;  Bend  of  the 
arm,  common  in  Ossett  (M.F.).  (6)  w.Yks.3  Hand  i'  airm.  (7) 
Slang.  He  was  busy  arm-bending  in  the  public-house  when  the 
tattoo  sounded  (A.S.P.).  (8)  w.Yks.3  To  mak'  a  long  airm.  (9) 
n.Yks.2  They'll  shak  ye  by  t'hand  an  wish  your  airm  off  by  t'elbow 
[will  give  you  the  hand,  but  with  no  good  will  at  heart,  as  hollow 
friends  do]. 

5.  Comp.  (i)  Arm-bend  ;  (2)  -lede,  the  direction  of  the  out- 
stretched arm  ;  (3)  -load  ;  (4)  -poke,  the  arm-pit ;  (5)  -rax, 
see  Arm-twist;  (6)  -set,  the  setting  of  the  coat-sleeve,  the 
arm-pit ;  (7)  -shot ;  (8)  -skep;  (9)  -skew,  see  Arm-twist; 
(10)  -strength,  the  muscularity  of  the  arm  ;  (n)  -stretch ; 
(12)  -twist ;  (13)  -wrist,  the  wrist. 

n.Yks.2  (i)  Airm-bend,  the  elbow-joint.  (2)  This  mun  be  your 
way  by  airmlede  [by  the  road  to  which  I  am  pointing],  (3)  Airm- 
looad,  Airmleead,  an  armful.  (4)  Suf.  Under  the  left  arm-poke 
place  a  swaler's  hart  and  a  liver  under  the  rite,  Garland  (1818)  9. 
n.Yks.2  (5)  Airmrax.  (6)  It  nips  at  t'airm-set.  (7)  Airmshot, 
arm's  length.  m.Yks.1  n.Yks.2  (8)  Airmskep,  a  coarse  twig 
basket  without  a  bow,  carried  under  the  arm.  (9)  Airmskew, 
a  sprain  of  the  arm.  (10)  Foorced  by  airm  strength,  (n)  Airm- 
stritch,  the  effort  of  the  arms,  as  at  a  rowing  match.  (12) 
Airmtwist,  a  sprain  of  the  arm.  (13)  w.Som.1  He  tookt  hold  o' 
my  arm-wrist.  Dev.  Whot's  the  matter  wi'  tha  babby  ? — I  can't 
ezackally  say,  but  'e  zims  tu  be  a-scrammed  in's  arm-wrist. 
Luketh's  ef 'e'd  a-broked  'n,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sf,  (1892).  Cor.1 

[2.  Les  rayeres  d'un  moulin  a  eau,  the  arms,  or  starts 
of  a  wheel  of  a  water-mill,  COTGR.] 

ARM,  sb.2    Sh.I.    The  end,  as  of  a  line. 

S.  &  Ork.1 

ARM,  v.  Irel.  Som.  Dev.  [am.]  To  conduct  by 
walking  arm-in-arm  with  ;  to  walk  arm-in-arm. 

n.Ir.  Arm  is  frequently  used  facetiously,  '  I'll  arm  you,'  i.e.  give 
you  a  lift, set  you  on  your  way,  though  the  necessity  for  help  may  be 
imaginary  and  assumed  (M.B.-S.) ;  N.I.1  Ant.  There  they  go  arm- 
ing along  (J.S.).  w.Som.1  Zo  your  Jim's  gwain  to  have  th'  old 
Ropy's  maid  arter  all.— No,  he  idn.— Oh,  idn  er?  well,  I  zeed-n 
a-armin  o'  her  about,  once,  my  own  zul,  last  Zunday  night  as  ever 
was.  nw.Dev.1 

[To  arm  her  to  her  lawyer's  chambers,  WYCHERLEY 
Plain  Dealer  (1675)  (N.E.D.).l 

ARM,  see  Haulm. 

ARM-HOLE,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  Stf.  Not.  Lei.  War.  Won 
Oxf.  The  arm-pit. 

Yks.  In  gen.  use  (J.W.).     Chs.1,  s.Chs.1    Stf.2  MoicOt  dunnafit 

very  well  under  th'  armhole.  Not.1,  Lei.1.  War.3,  Wor.  ;J.W.P.\ 
Oxf.1  MS.  add. 

[Arm-hole,  the  hollow  under  the  arm,  BAILEY  (1755) ; 
The  arm-pit  or  arm-hole,  ala,  axilla,  ROBERTSON  (1693) ; 
Armehole,  aiscella,  PALSGR.  ;  Gemini  (hath)  thyn  arm- 
holes,  CHAUCER  Astrol.  i.  xxi.] 

ARMING-CHAIR,  sb.    Cum.     An  arm-chair. 

Cum.  When  he'd  gotten  hissel  clappt  doon  iv  a  grand  armin-chair, 
SARGISSON  Joe  Scoap  (1881)  188.  Wm.  &  Cum.1  This  armin  chair 
I'll  meake  my  seet,  294. 

ARMSTRONG,  sb.  Sus.  A  name  for  the  plant 
usually  called  knot-grass,  Polygonum  aviculare. 

[So  called]  from  the  difficulty  of  pulling  it  up. 

ARMSTRONG,  adv.    e.An.    Arm-in-arm. 


ARMTLE,  sb.    Chs.  Stf.    [a'mtl.]    An  armful. 

s.Chs.1!  brought  dain  a  hooalarmtle  o' ballets  to  boot(s.  v.  Deck). 
s.Stf.  Oi  went  a-lizin  [i.e.  gleaning]  dhis  mornin  an  got  a  armtl 

[For  the  suff.  -tie  cp.  apperntle.] 

ARN,  sb.    Sc.    The  alder-tree. 

Sc.  (JAM.),  Bnff.  (W.M.)  Abd.  The  name  '  arn  '  is  better  known 
perhaps  than  the  alder  (G.W.)  ;  There  was  a  place  called  Ferniord, 
from  fearna-ord,  the  height  of  the  alders  or  arns,  these  trees 
being  still  remembered  by  old  people  as  growing  at  the  place, 
MACDONALD  Place  Names  in  Strathbogie  (1891)  192.  Edb.  (J.M.) 

[The  aller  or  arne  ...  is  also  found  in  marshy  places, 
NEWTE  Tour  (1791)  (N.E.D.).  Prob.  repr.  OE.  celren,  adj., 
fr.  alor,  alder.] 

ARN,  see  Awn,  Urn. 

ARNACK,  see  Neck. 

ARNARY,  see  Ordinary. 

ARNBERRIES,  sb.  pi.    Yks.     Obsol.     Raspberries. 


ARNOT,  sb.1  Sc.  Also  written  arnit,  arnet  A 

Abd.  Arnot  is  well  known  here  (W.M.)  ;  Or  on  the  Inches  rant 
and  sport  on  ilka  verdant  spot,  Or  fish  for  bandies,  arnits,  eels  in 
ilka  wee  bit  pot,  CADENHEAD  Flights  of  Fancy  (1853)  Our  Auld 

ARNOT,  sb.2  Sc.  [e'rnat.]  In  phr.  lea  arnot,  a  stone 
lying  in  the  field  (JAM.). 

Abd.  '  Be  ye  gweed  deevil,  be  ye  ill  deevil,"  cried  Fleeman  with 
much  indignant  energy,  '  I'se  try  you  wi'  a  lea  arnot,'  and  com- 
menced to  pelt  the  'archangel  ruined,'  Jamie  Fleeman,  51,  ed. 

ARNS,  sb.    Obs.    n.Cy.     Earnest-money. 


[The  Hooli  Goost  of  biheest,  which  is  the  ernes  of  oure 
eritage,  WYCLIF  (1388)  Eph.  i.  14.  Cp.  Wei.  ernes  ('  arrha '), 
borrowed  fr.  E.] 

ARNUT,  see  Earth-nut. 

ARON,  sb.  Plant-name  applied  to  (i)  Arum  macu- 
la/urn (Sc.)  ;  (2)  Richardia  aethiopica,  or  Arum  lily  (Wei.) 

Rxb.  Aron,  the  plant  called  Wake-robin,  or  Cuckoo's  pint  (JAM.;. 

[(i)  Aron,  Wake-Robin,  Cuckoe-pint,  COLES  (1677) ;  The 
roots  of  aron,  and  mixt  with  wheat-bran,  BURTON  Anat.  Mel. 
(1621)  462,  ed.  1836 ;  Aron,  the  herb  Aron,  Cuckoe-pint 
.  .  .  Pied  de  veau,  Calves-foot,  Ramp,  Aaron,  Cuckoe-pint, 
COTGR.  (2)  Take  Aron  roote,  Gabelhouer's  Bk.  Physic 
(1599)  183  (N.E.D.).  Gr.  3pov,  cp.  Lat.  arum,  the  herb 
Wake-Robin,  COLES  (1679).] 

AROUND,  adv.  and  prep.    Wm.  Stf.  Suf.  Gny.  Slang. 

1.  adv.  About,  here  and   there  in   no  fixed  direction, 

Wm.1  A  seed  em  gangen  aroond.  Stf.  Just  walking  around 
a  bit  (A.P.).  Suf.  He  does  nothing  but  hang  around,  doing 
nothing  (F.H.).  Slang.  On  the  day  this  'ere  job  come  off  Chris 
comes  around  to  me,  Dy.  News  (Jan.  4,  1895)  3,  col.  7.  [Amer. 
That's  a  'cute  little  copy  of  Keats  to  carry  around  (M.D.H.)  ;  Sam 
is  around  in  New  York,  BARTLEIT.] 

2.  prep.     Round. 

Gny.  It  goes  around  the  room  (G.  H.G.). 

3.  In  phr.  around  about,  round  about. 

Suf.  I  am  not  going  by  that  around  about  way,  but  across  the 
fields  (F.H.). 




AROUT,  adv.  and  prep.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  War.  Alsojn 
Hrt.  Also  written  areawt  Lan.1;  areat  Chs.1  [are't, 
area't,  areirt.] 

1.  adv.    Without,  outside,  out-of-doors. 

Lan.  I'r  no  sooner  areawt  boh  a  threave  o'  rabblement  wur 
watchin  on  meh  at  t'dur,  TIM  BOBBIN  View  Dial.  (1746)  58  ;  GROSE 
Suppl.  (1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)  ;  When  aw  should  foind  thee  areawt 
awd  kiss  thee,  STATON  Sng.  Sol.  (1859)  viii.  i  ;  Alone  to-day 
Areawt  i'  th'  broad,  green  fields  aw've  come,  RAMSBOTTOM  Phases 
of  Distress  (1864)  59  ;  Thou're  noan  fit  to  be  areawt  sich  a  day  as 
this,  WAUGH  Chimn.  Corner  (1874)  142,  ed.  1879  ;  Lan.1  Chs.1 
Was  he  i'  th'  haise?— Now,  he  were  areat ;  Chs.3,  War.  (J.R.W.) 

2.  prep.    Without. 

s.Stf.  I  to'd  him  we  could  du  arout  him  any  time,  PINNOCK  Blk. 
Cy.  Ann.  (iSgsX  Hrt.  If  yer  can't  do  arout  picklicking  you'll  'a 
'ter  do  arout  grub  altogether.  So  mind  that,  Miss  !  N.  &  Q.  (1870) 
4th  S.  vi.  328. 

[This  is  a  pron.  of  without  through  the  stages  wi-,  *-,  »r-.] 

AROVE,  adj.     Obs.    Yks.    Up  and  stirring. 

w.Yks.1  Our  lad's  quite  bobberous,  an  aw  a  roav,  ii.  305. 

ARPENT,  see  Orpine. 

ARPIT,  adj.    Shr.     Obsol.    Quick,  ready,  precocious. 

Shr.1  'Er  wuz  sich  a  mighty  arpit  little  wench,  I  never  thought 
'er'd  live ;  it's  sildom  as  they  dun,  w'en  a  bin  so  cute ;  Shr.2 
Arpit  at  his  laming,  saying  as  how  he's  so  heavy  o'  hearing. 

ARR,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Also  written  aar,  aur,  aurr,  awr  (JAM.) ;  err  Cum.1 ;  arrh 
Chs.28;  are.  Yks.  [er,  an] 

1.  A  scar  or  mark  left  by  a  wound. 

Sc.  While  the  cut  or  wound  is  healing  the  mark  is  called  a  scar  ; 
when  it  is  completely  healed  the  mark  is  called  an  aur  (JAM.  Suppl.'). 
N.I.1  Ant  Ballymena  Obs.  (1892).  N.Cy.12  Nhb.1  He  hes  an  arr 
on  his  finger.  Cum.  The  healen  plaister  eas'd  the  painful  sair — The 
arr  indeed  remains— but  naething  mair,  RELPH  Misc.  Poems  (1747") 
Harvest,  1.  26  ;  GROSE  (1790)  ;  Gl.  (1651} ;  Cum.12  Wm.  It's  a  sad 
arr  (M.P.)  ;  Wm.1,  n.Yks.1  n.Yks.2  I'll  gie  thee  an  arr  thou'll 
carry  t'thee  grave  ;  n.Yks.3  ne.Yks.1  He's  gitten  an  arr  ov  his 
back.  e.Yks.  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  50 ;  MARSHALL  Rur. 
Econ.  (1788) ;  e.Yks.1  Of  every-day  use  in  n.  Holderness,  MS.  add. 
(T.H.)  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.  HUTTON  Tour  to  Caves  (1781) ;  WILLAN 
ListWds.  (1811)  ;  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdalc  (c.  1882)231  ;  w.Yks.15, 
Lan.1,  ne.Lan.1,  e.Lan.1,  Chs.123  [Ar,  HOLLOWAY.] 

2.  A  spot  or  freckle  ;  also  used  attrib. 

w.Yks.  SCATCHERD  Hist.  Morley  (1830)  168.  [Term  of  abuse, 
as]  arr  toad,  Yks.  ff.  &  Q.  (1888)  II.  13  ;  w.Yks.5  An  arr-toad 
[freckled  toad]. 

3.  A  guilty  recollection,  leaving  an  impression  on  the 

n-Yks.1  It's  nobbut  a  black  arr,  thae  deeings  o'thahn  [thine]  wi' 
t'aud  man  [the  way  you  dealt  with  the  old  man  must  have  left  a  black 
mark  on  your  conscience] ;  n.Yks.2  An  arr  on  the  conscience.  A 
black  arr,  a  stain  on  the  character. 

4.  A  grudge,  ill-feeling. 
Or.I.,  Ayr.  (JAM.  Suppl.) 

Hence  Arred,///.  adj.  marked  with  scars  ;  esp.  of  the 
marks  left  by  small-pox.  See  Pock-arred. 

Sc.  (JAM.)  N.I.1  n.Yks.2  Arr'd,  branded  or  imprinted.  Lan.1 
He  wur  arr'd  o'  ower  wit'  smo-pocs. 

[Arr,  a  scar,  BAILEY  (1770) ;  Cicatrix,  a  nerre,  WRIGHT 
Voc.  680;  Cicatrix,  ar  or  wond,  MS.  isth  cent,  in  HALL.  ; 
Thai  ere  brokyn  myn  erres  (=corruptae  sunt  cicatrices 
meae),  HAMPOLE  Ps.  xxxvii.  5.  ON.  orr,  Dan.  ar.] 

ARR,  v.1    Yks.  Chs.    To  scar,  scratch ;  to  beat. 

n.Yks.2  I'll  arr  your  back  for  you.  ne.Yks.1  In  rare  use.  w.Yks. 
Take  care  not  to  arr  the  steel  fender,  HAMILTON  Nugae  Lit.  (1841) 
357.  Chs.1  Cum  ait  o'  that  hedge  wilt'a,  or  tha'lt  arr  thee. 

[Though  my  face  .  .  .  was  not  at  all  pitted  or  (as  they 
there  [i.e.  in  Lan.]  call  it)  arred,  but  in  time  as  cleare  and 
smooth  as  ever  it  was,  Life  of  A.  Marlindale  (1685)  19.  See 
Arr,  sb.] 

ARR,  v?  Sc.  Lan.  Der.  Also  written  yarr  Sc.  e.Lan.1 
[er,  yer,  a(r),  ya(r).]  Of  dogs :  to  snarl,  growl,  also^Sg-. 

Sc.  In  kittle  times  when  foes  are  yarring,  BEATTIE  To  Mr.  A. 
Ross  in  Helenore  (I^68)  132,  ed.  1812.  Lan.  Yerin  'em  hanch  and 
arre  at  us  bi  way  o  thanks,  CLEGG  Pieces  Rock.  Dial.  ',1895)  >  Lan.1 
Co'  that  dog  in,  dost  no'  see  how  it  keeps  arrin'  at  yon  felly. 
e.Lan.1,  nw.Der.1 

[A  dog  is  ...  fell  and  quarrelsome,  given  to  arre, 
VOL.  i. 

HOLLAND  Plutarch's  Mor.  (1603)  726  (N.E.D.).— A  word 
imitating  the  sound  of  a  snarl.] 

ARR,  v?    Nhp.    [a(r).]    To  egg  on,  incite  to  quarrel. 


[Thei  eggiden  him  in  alyen  goddis,and  in  abomynaciouns 
to  wraththe  arreden,  WYCLIF  (1382)  Deut.  xxxii.  16.  Cp. 
MDu.  errert,  to  provoke  to  anger  (VERDAM).] 

ARR,  see  Har. 

ARRAH,  int.  Irel.  Cor.  Also  written  araa  Cor.1; 
yarrah  Irel.  [a'ra,  ya'ra.]  An  exclamation  of  surprise  ; 
freq.  used  in  accosting  a  person,  or  in  calling  attention. 
See  Arear. 

Ir.  Miss  Betty,  arrah,  Miss  Betty,  LEVER  H.  Lor.  (1839)  iii ; 
Arrah,  an'  the  devil  a  taste  I'll  be  drowned  for  your  divarsion,  ib. 
Ch.  O'Malley  (1841)  viii  ;  Yarrah,  didn't  I  spake  that  speech  before, 
CARLETON  Traits  (1843)  I.  315.  w.Ir.  Arrah  !  what  brings  you 
here  at  all?  LOVER  Leg.  (1848)  I.  50.  Qco.  Arrah!  run  for 
the  priest,  BARRINGTON  S/Wcfe  (1827-32)  I.  ii.  s.Ir.  Arrah  !  what 
souls,  sir?  CROKER  Leg.  (1862)  202.  Wxf.  Arrah,  Puekawn,  me 
boy,  KENNEDY  Evenings  Duffrey  (1869)  57.  Tip.  '  Arrah,  sweet 
myself! '  said  a  youth  after  making  a  good  hit  at  cricket,  as  he 
thought,  unheard  (G.M.H.).  Cor.1 

ARRALS,  sb.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Also  written 
arles  Wm.  w.Yks.  [a'ralz,  alz.]  Pimples ;  a  rash  or 
eruption  on  the  skin ;  esp.  applied  to  ringworm. 

n.Cy.  GROSE  (1790).  Cum.  HOLLOWAY.  Wm.  He  has  the  arles 
on  his  hand,  copperas  will  poison  it.  The  complaint  is  frequently 
met  with  in  the  North,  and  is  probably  due  to  the  work  of  tending 
cattle  (B.K.);  Wm.1  Used  in  Ambleside  for  nettle-rash,  and  in 
Appleby  for  any  kind  of  ringworm,  perhaps  especially  that  which 
appears  in  young  cattle.  w.Yks.(B.K.) ;  WILLANZ.IS*  Wds.  (1811) ; 
HUTTON  Tour  to  Caves  (1781).  ne.Lan.1 

ARRALS,  see  Aries. 

ARRAN-AKE,  sb.  Sc.  The  red-throated  Diver,  Cofym- 
bus  septentnonalis. 

Dmb.  SWAINSON  Birds  (1885^  214. 

ARRAND,  see  Arain. 

ARRANT,  adj.    Dur.  Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Der.     [a'rant.] 

1.  Downright,  usually  in  a  bad  sense. 

Dur.1  Arrantest.  Wm.  Thae  wer  arrant  lagets  and  tastrils, 
CLARKE  Spec.  Dial.  (1865)  15.  n.Yks.  She  wor  t'arrantest  scahd, 
Broad  Yks.  (1885)  ai.  w.Yks.  Her  sister  gat  wed  to  an  arrant 
neer-due-weel,  PRESTON  in  Yksman.  (1881)  122.  Lan.  Arron  owd 
lant.  TIM  BOBBIN  Turn,  and  Meaty  (1740)  16;  Lan.1  He'sanarran' 
thief,  and  as  big  a  rogue.  e.Lan.1,  nw.Der.1 

2.  Comp.    Arrand-poison,  -smittle,  exceedingly  poison- 
ous, or  infectious. 

w.Yks.3  It  is  foolish  to  let  the  children  go  there,  for  it  is  arrand- 
smittle.  Common  in  w.Yks. 

Hence  Arrantly,  entirely,  thoroughly. 

Lan.1 1're  arronly  moydert,  TIM  BOBBIN  Wks.  (1750)  58. 

[The  moon's  an  arrant  thief,  SHAKS.  Timon,  iv.  iii.  440 ; 
We  are  arrant  knaves,  all,  ib.  Hamlet,  in.  i.  131 ;  A  errant 
traytoure,  FABYAN,  v.  Ixxx.  58  (N.E.D.).  The  orig.  mg.  of 
the  word  was  wandering,  vagabond.  Fr.  errant  (cp.  juif 
errant),  prp.  of  errer,  see  HATZFELD.] 

ARRA WIGGLE,  see  Erriwiggle. 

ARREARAGE,  sb.    Sc.  Lin.    Arrears  of  payment. 

Sc.  Ah  !  these  arrearages !  .  .  .  that  are  always  promised,  and 
always  go  for  nothing  !  Scorr  Leg.  Montr.  (1830)  vi.  n-Lin.1  He's 
gotten  fower  years  arrearages  o'  his  highwaay  raate  on,  an'  I  can't 
get  noa  sattlement. 

[Arrierage,  an  arrearage,  . .  .  that  which  was  unpaid,  or 
behind,  COTGR.  ;  An  arrerage,  erreragia,  Cath.  Angl.} 

ARREDGE,  see  Arris. 

ARRIMAN,  sb.  Shr.  [a'riman.]  The  newt,  Triton 


ARRIS,  sb.  Sc.  n.Irel.  and  all  the  n.  counties  to  Chs. 
Der.  Lin. ;  also  in  War.  and  Hmp.  and  in  tech.  use.  Also, 
with  various  forms,  arras,  arress  Sc. ;  arish  Dur. ;  orris 
Chs1  s-Chs.1  nw.Der.1;  horris  nw.Der.1;  arrage  Nhb.1; 
arridge  Cum.1  Wm.1  n.Yks.12  ne.Yks.1  e.Yks.  w.Yks.12 
ne.Lan.1  n.Lin.1  ;  arredge  Wm.  w.Yks. ;  harridge  e.Yks.1 
w.Yks. ;  adidge  Yks. ;  awrige  (JAM.),  [a-ris,  a-rij,  a'ridg, 




The  angular  edge  of  a  block  of  stone,  wood,  &c. ;  hence, 
the  edge  of  anything. 

Sc.  The  rebbets  [jambs]  of  that  window  would  hae  look't  better 
gin  the  mason  had  ta'en  off  the  arras  (JAM.),  w.  and  s.Sc.  The  tips 
of  the  little  ridges  laid  by  the  plough  are  called  the  awrige  of  the 
field  (»».).  Ir.  The  arris  of  a  dyke,  or  of  a  furrow  (J.W.  ff.). 
N.I.1  Arris,  the  sharp  edge  of  a  freshly-planed  piece  of  wood,  or 
of  cement,  or  stone-work.  Nhb.1  Arrage,  a  sharp  point  or  corner, 
Mining  Gl.  (1852).  Dur.  ATKINSON  Clevel.  Gl,  Cum.  T'toon 
geaat  was  oa  peaavt  wih  wood  peaavin  steaans  ...  an  t'arridges 
was  haggt  off,  SARGISSON  Joe  Scoap  (1881)  93  ;  Cum.1  Arridge,  an 
angular  edge,  arris  in  architecture.  Wm.  Guide  to  the  Lakes  (1780) 
288  ;  Wm.1  Et  left  an  arridge  reel  alang.  n.Yks.  Arridge,  the  cut 
edge  of  cloth  in  distinction  from  the  selvedge  or  woven  edge  (J.T.) ; 
n.Yks.1  Arridge,  the  edge  or  selvedge  of  a  piece  of  cloth  or  cotton  ; 
n.Yks.2  Arridges,  the  edges  or  ridges  of  stone  or  furniture. 
ne.Yks.1,  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.  A  '  sharp  arridge  '  on  a  horse-shoe  is 
the  projection  in  front  to  enable  the  horse  to  keep  on  his  feet 
when  drawing,  BANKS  Wkfld.  Wds.  (1865)  ;  '  Tak  th'  arredge  off 
this  stone  ;  you  need  not  polish  it  quite  smooth  ;  only  tak  th' 
arredge  off  it.'  A  knife,  not  smooth-edged,  is  said  to  have  an 
arredge,  Hlfx.  Wds.  ;  w.Yks.1  This  staan  tacks  a  fine  arridge  ; 
w.Yks.2  Harris,  a  swage  or  bevel  at  the  back  of  a  razor-blade. 
It  also  means  roughness.  ne.Lan.1  Chs.1  A  joiner  who  planes 
off  the  angles  of  a  square  pole  to  make  it  octagon  is  said  to 
'  take  off  the  orris.'  s.Chs.1  When  a  furrow  is  made  too  flat,  it 
is  said  '  there's  noo  orris  on  it'  nw.Der.1  Th'  orris  is  welly  worn 
off.  n-Lin.1,  War.  (J.R.W.)  Hmp.1  I'd  better  take  the  arris  off 
ut  [i.e.  a  piece  of  stone,  &c.].  Tech.  Arris,  in  joinery  and  masonry, 
the  line  of  concourse,  edge,  or  meeting  of  two  surfaces,  WEALE 
Did.  Terms  (1873). 

[Fr.  areste  (mod.  arete),  cp.  COTGR.  :  Areste,  the  small 
bone  of  a  fish  ;  also,  the  eyle,  awne,  or  beard  of  an  ear  of 
corn  ;  also,  the  edge  or  outstanding  ridge  of  a  stone,  or 
stone-wall. — The  forms  arridge,  arredge,  &c.,  may  be  due 
to  a  popular  association  with  ridge,  edge.] 

ARRIS,  v.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  War.  [a-ridg,  Chs.  a-ris.] 
To  take  or  plane  off  the  arris,  to  make  flat. 

e.Yks.1,  w.Yks.2,  ne-Lan.1  Chs.1  'John,  orris  them  jeists.' 
War.  (J.R.W.) 

ARRISH,  sb.  e.Yks.  Also  Ken.  Sur.  Sus.  Hmp.  I.W. 
Dor.  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  written  aish  Hmp.1;  arish 
Dev.  Cor.1 ;  ash  Sur.1  I.W.1 ;  airish  Dev. ;  errish  Som. 
Dev.  Cor.12;  ersh(e  Ken.12  Sus.  Hmp.1  Dev.;  hayrish 
Cor.1 ;  herrish  Som.  See  also  Eddish,  [a  f,  aTif,  Sur.  a  f, 
e.Yks.  a-rij  (a'varij?).] 

1.  A  stubble  field  ;  stubble  of  any  kind  after  the  crop  has 
been  cut. 

e.Yks.  He's  tentin'  pigs  i'  averish.  Near  Beverley  they  would 
say  '  Ah've  a  bit  o'  arrish  Ah  sail  ton  them  few  geese  inti '  (R.S.)  ; 
e.Yks.1  Haverish.  Ken.12  s.Sur.  Farmers  would  leave  one 
shock  of  corn  in  the  harvest  field  ;  as  long  as  it  stood  no  outsiders 
might  enter,  but  on  its  removal  the  field  was  called  '  ersh '  and 
any  one  might  lease,  the  corn  gathered  being  called  '  leasing  grist ' 
(T.T.C.) ;  Sur.1  Ash  is  not  so  commonly  used  as  '  gratten.'  Sus. 
Ersh,  stubble ;  applied  also  to  the  after-mowings  of  grass,  GROSE 
(1790)  MS.  add.  (P.)  ;  Sus.1  A  wheat  earsh  ;  a  barley  earsh.  Hmp. 
Wheat  or  oat  aish,  GROSE  (1790);  Earsh,  HOLLOWAY  ;  Hmp.1 
I.W.1 ;  I.W.2  Bwoy,  drave  the  cows  out  into  the  wheat  ash.  Dor. 
Errish,  N.  &  Q.  (1883)  6th  S.  vii.  366 ;  Now  obs.  (H.J.M.)  Som. 
W.  &  J.  Gl. ;  [Pheasants]  wander  . . .  especially  towards  barley  and 
barley  stubble,  called  barley  harrish  in  Red  Deer  land,  JEFFERIES 
Red  Deer  (1884)  x.  w.Som.1  Bee'un,  woet,  tloa'vur  uureesh 
[bean,  oat,  clover  stubble].  Not  applied  to  any  grass  except  clover, 
and  then  only  when  the  clover  has  been  mown  for  seed,  so  as  to 
leave  a  real  stubble.  Purty  arternoon  farmer,  sure  'nough— why ,  he 
'ant  a  ploughed  his  arrishes  not  eet  Auctioneers  and  other 
genteel  people  usually  write  this  '  eddish.'  Dev.  Amongst  the 
harrishes  in  September,  O'NEILL  Told  in  Dimpses  (1893)  151  ; 
The  geese  .  . .  found  their  own  way  in  the  golden  earidges,  ib.  Idylls 
1,1892)  97  ;  To  bid  the  skylark  o'er  the  arrish  roam,  CAPERN  Poems 
(1856)  72;  They've  agived  tha  chillern  holiday  tii-day,  to  go 
leasing  upen  Squire  Poland's  arrishes,  HEWETT  Peas.  Sp.  (1892) 
96  ;  The  fezens  be  out  in  tha  errishes  feeding ;  there'll  be  rare 
gilde  sport  vur  squire  in  October,  ib.  76.  n.Dev.  We've  .  .  .  torned 
pegs  ta  arish,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  3.  Dev.1,  nw.Dev.1  Cor. 
An  old  rhyme  in  reference  to  the  clergy  of  the  past  generation 
begins :  '  Here  comes  the  passon  of  Philleigh  Parish,  He's  got 
his  rake  to  rake  his  arish,'  Dy.  Chron.  (June  18,  1895)  3,  col.  6 ; 
farmers  are  very  busy  ploughing  the  arishes  by  this  time,  Mark 

Lane  Express  (Feb.  2,  1880  .  w.Cor.  When  I  took  en  aw  was  in 
barley  arish,  THOMAS  Randigal  Rhymes  (1895)  6  ;  Cor.1  Turn  them 
into  the  arishes ;  Cor.2 

2.  Comp.  (i)  Arrish-field,  a  stubble  field  ;  (2) -goose,  one 
fed  in  stubble  fields  ;  (3)  -mow,  a  small  rick  of  corn  set 
up  in  a  field  from  which  the  crop  has  been  cut ;  (4)  -rake, 
(5)  -turnip,  see  below. 

(i)  Cor.  Ricks  of  corn  left  to  stand  in  the  '  arrish  fields,'  Flk-Lore 
Jrn.  (1886)  IV.  248;  Cor.1  (2)  Dev.  Arrish  geese  feed  into  plump 
condition  for  Michaelmas  by  picking  up,  from  between  the  stubble, 
the  corns  which  fell  from  the  ears  during  reaping  and  sheaving, 
./V.  &Q.  (1851)  ist  S.  iii.  252.  Cor.12  (3)  w.Som.1  In  a  showery 
harvest  the  plan  is  often  adopted  of  making  a  number  of  small 
stacks  on  the  spot,  so  that  the  imperfectly  dried  corn  may  not  be 
in  sufficient  bulk  to  cause  heating,  while  at  the  same  time  the  air 
may  circulate  and  improve  the  condition  of  the  grain.  Called 
also  wind-mow.  Dev.  Arrish-mows,  [or]  field  stacklets.  The 
arrangement  of  the  sheaves  of  corn  as  a  square  pyramid,  during 
a  wet  harvest,  MARSHALL  Rut:  Econ.  (1796)  ;  One  of  the  most 
remarkable  singularities  of  harvest  in  the  West,  is  the  '  arish-mow,' 
MOORE  Hist.  Dev.  (1829)  I.  299  ;  Dev.1  Cor.  Arrish-mows,  from 
their  different  shapes,  are  also  [called]  '  hummel-mows '  and 
'  ped-rack-mows,'  Flk-Lore  Jrn.  (1886)  IV.  248  ;  Arish-mow,  200 
sheaves  in  a  circular  rick,  MORTON  Cycl.  Agric.  (1863)  ;  They  were 
building  up  the  '  arish  mows,'  where  the  difficulty  of  carting  away 
the  harvest  had  yet  to  be  faced  and  overcome,  PEARCE  Esther 
Pentreath  (1891)  bk.  n.  vi ;  Cor.1 2  (4)  w.Som.1  Errish  rake,  a  very 
large  and  peculiarly  shaped  rake,  used  for  gathering  up  the  stray  corn 
missed  by  the  binders  ;  now  nearly  supplanted  by  the  horse-rake. 
Dev.1,  nw-Dev.1  (5)  w.Som.1  Errish-turnips,  a  late  crop  of  turnips 
sown  after  the  corn  has  been  taken.  After  an  early  harvest  good 
crops  of  roots  are  frequently  grown.  Aay  aa'n  u  zee'd  noa  jis 
wai-t  uureesh  tuurmuts,  naut-s  yuurz  [I  have  not  seen  any  such 
wheat  errish  turnips  not's  (these)  years]  (s.  v.  Es). 

Hence  Arrishers,  the  second  set  of  gleaners. 

Dor.  It  is  customary,  after  carrying  a  field  of  corn,  to  leave 
behind  a  sheaf,  to  intimate  that  the  families  of  those  who  reaped 
the  field  are  to  have  the  first  lease.  After  these  have  finished,  the 
sheaf  is  removed,  and  harissers  are  admitted,  ./V.  &  Q.  (1850) 
ist  S.  ii.  376. 

[Ersh,  stubble,  KERSEY  ;  Ersk,  stubble  after  corn  is  cut, 
BAILEY  (1721).  OE.  ersc  (in  ersc-hen),  a  stubble  field.] 

ARRIVANCE,  sb.    Shr.  Ken.    [arai'vans.] 

1.  Origin,  birthplace. 

Ken.  A  guardian  of  the  poor  informs  me  it  is  often  used  to  signify 
settlement  by  birth  (P.M.)  ;  I  say,  mate,  which  parish  do  you  belong 
to  ? — I  can't  justly  say,  but  father's  arrivance  was  fram  Shepherd's- 
well  [Sibbertswold],  WRIGHT  ;  Ken.1  He  lives  in  Faversham  town 
now,  but  he's  a  low-hill  [below-hill]  man  by  arrivance. 

2.  Arrival,  arrival  of  company. 

Shr. '  There  has  been  an  arrivance,'  said  occasionally  when  a  baby 
is  born  or  company  comes  unexpectedly  (J.B.) ;  Shr.1  I  spec' 
they'n  be  wantin'  yo',  Betty,  to  'elp  'em  a  bit  at  the  owd  Maister's, 
I  sid  an  arrivance  theer  as  I  wuz  gwei'n  to  'unt  some  barm. 

ARROW,  see  Argh,  Yarrow. 

ARROWLEDE,  sb.    Yks.    [aTalld.] 

n.Yks.2  Arrowlede,  the  path  of  the  shot  arrow. 

ARROW-ROOT,  sb.    Dor.    Arum  tnaculatum. 

Dor.  The  starch  prepared  from  its  tubers  is  known  in  I.  of  Port- 
land as  '  Portland  Arrow-root,'  from  its  resemblance  to  the  arrow- 
root of  commerce. 

ARROY,  sb.  Pern,  [aroi1.]  Disorder,  confusion ;  also 
used  with  an  advb.  force. 

s.Pem.  One  pickt  upon  t'other,  an  things  went  oorser  and  oorser — 
my  dear  man  !  there  was  an  arroy.  They  be  in  a  big  arroy  there 
[a  confusion  in  a  crowded  meeting].  These  'ere  bags  be  shifted 
since  I  put  am  'ere,  they  be  all  arroy  naw  (W.M.M.). 

ARSCOCKLE,  see  Esscock  QAM.). 

ARSE,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf. 
Der.  Lin.  War.  Wor.  e.An.  Hit.  Ess.  Ken.  Hmp.  Som. 
Dev.  Also  written  ass  Ken.  Som. ;  erse  Sc. ;  yess  Dev. 
[ers,  ars,  as.] 

1.  The  buttocks,  fundament  of  a  person,  rump  of  an 
animal ;  hence,  the  bottom  or  hinder  part  of  anything,  as 
a  sheaf,  cart,  &c. 

Sc.  A  sack-arse,  the  bottom  of  a  sack  QAM.)  ;  The  erse  of  the 
plough  or  the  plough-erse  (ib.  Suppl.}.  n.Cy.  Have  one  of  these 
pears — they  are  all  ripe  ;  I  have  just  been  pinching  their  arses 
(C.G.B.).  Nhb.  Set  the  poke  down  on  its  arse.  Cairt-arse.  The 




Cat's  Arse,  the  name  of  a  small  bay  on  the  shore  of  the  river  Tyne 
(R.O.H.).  Yks.  Ahse(W.H-).  ne.Yks.1  T'shaff  arses  is  as  wet 
as  sump.  Stop,  mun  ;  t'cart  arse  has  tumml'd  oot.  e.Yks.  To 
set  nine  of  the  sheaves  with  their  arses  downe  to  the  grounde, 
BEST  Rur.  Econ.  (1641)  45;  The  arse  of  a  cart  or  a  plough, 
NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  50.  nw.Der.1  n.Lin.1  Billy  Ration  puts 
o'must  as  many  heads  in  his  sheaf  arses  as  he  duz  e'  th'  top  end. 
War.3  Arse,  the  tail  of  a  cart ;  also  applied  to  shocks  on  which 
'  caps '  are  placed,  i.e.  covered  by  two  sheaves  with  the  straw  end 
upwards.  Wor.  Go  round  totheerseof  the  mill  (E.S.) ;  se.Wor.1 
Arse  of  a  waggon.  Hrt.  The  arse  or  tail  of  the  plough,  ELLIS  Mod. 
Hush.  (17501  II.  i.  44.  e.An.2  Arse,  part  of  atree,  opp.  to  the  Tod. 
Suf.  The  arse  of  a  tree  is  the  rough  root-end  after  the  roots  have 
been  chopped  off  (F.H.).  Ess.  Cast  dust  in  his  [a  sheep's]  arse, 
thou  hast  finisht  thy  cure,  TUSSER  Husbandrie  (1580)  in,  St.  4. 
Ken.  The  ass,  the  butt-end  of  a  sheaf  (P.M.).  Hmp.  The  arse  of 
a  door  (H.C.M.B.)  ;  Hmp.1  The  bottom  of  a  post ;  the  part  which 
is  fixed  in  the  ground.  The  upward  part  of  a  field  gate  to  which 
the  eyes  of  the  hinge  are  fixed.  w.Som.1  Puut'n  uup  pun  dh-aas 
u  dhu  wageen.  The  ass  of  the  sull.  The  ass  of  the  waterwheel. 
The  ass  of  the  barn's  door. 

2.  Phr.  (i)  arse  over  head,  head  over  heels,  topsy-turvy  ; 

(2)  to  go  arse  first,  to  have  bad  luck ;  (3)  to  hang  an  arse, 
to  hang  back,  be  cowardly. 

(i)w.Som.lA  timid  old  workman  said  of  a  rickety  scaffold  :  I  baint 
gwain  up  pon  thick  there  till-trap  vor  to  tread  pon  nothin,  and  vail 
down  ass  over  head.  What's  the  matter,  William  ? — Brokt  my 
arm,  sir.  Up  loadin  hay,  and  the  darned  old  mare,  that  ever  I 
should  zayso,  muv'd  on,  and  down  I  vails  ass  over  head.  (2)  Wm. 
I've  always  gone  arce  first.  A  confession  of  one  who  failed  in  life 
through  his  own  habits  (B.  K.).  (3)  n.Lin.  To  hang  an  arse  ;  lobsol., 
but  used  by  a  native  of  the  Isle  of  Axholme  who  died  in  or  about 
1826  (E.P.) ;  nXin.1 

3.  Comp.  (i)  Arse-band,the crupper  5(2) -bawst (-burst); 

(3)  -board ;  (4)  -bond ;   (5)  -breed  (-breadth),  the  breadth 
of  an  arse,  i.e.  of  contemptibly  small  extent ;  (6)  -end,  the 
bottom  or  tail-end  of  a  tree,  the  butt;  alsoyjg-.  ;  (7)  -end- 
up; (8)  -first;  (9)  -jump;  (10)  -loop;  (n)  -up;  (12)  -up- 

(i)  nXln.i  (2)  Stf.1  Ars-bawst,  a  fall  on  the  back.  (3)  Sc.  Arse- 
burd  of  a  cart,  the  board  which  goes  behind  and  shuts  it  in  (JAM.). 
Cum.1,  ne.Lan.1,  Chs.1,  s.Chs.1,  Stf.1 2,  nw.Der.1,  n-Lin.1  War.  Ars- 
boord  (J.R.W.).  (4)  s.Chs.1  Arse-bond,  a  strong  piece  of  oak 
forming  the  hinder  extremity  of  the  foundation  or  bed  of  a  cart. 
(5)  Cum.1  His  heall  land's  nobbet  a  arse-breed.  (6)  n.Yks.1  Pick 
thae  stocks  adoon,  and  let  t'arsends  o'  t'shaffs  lig  i'  t'sun  a  bit 
Chs.1  The  ars-eend  of  a  '  later '  is  the  end  by  which  it  is  attached 
to  the  stalk  or  thread.  s.Chs.1,  War.  (J.R.W.)  Suf.  A  house, 
barn,  hamlet,  &c. ,  if  in  a  very  sequestered  spot,  is  said  to  be  at  the 
arse-end  of  the  world  (F.H.) ;  A  labourer  never  speaks  of  the  '  butt' 
of  a  tree,  but  always  of  the  'arse-end.'  The  arse-end  of  a  cannon 
gave  nomore  offence  than  breech  doesnow(C.G.B-).  (7)  Nhb.  Arse- 
end-up,  upside  down.  (8)  Arse-first,  backside  foremost  (R.O.  H.). 
(9)  n.Lan.  It  was  the  custom  in  the  Furness  district  in  harvest 
time  to  place  on  the  breakfast  table  a  little  round  of  butter,  about 
a  quarter  of  a  pound  in  weight,  to  each  person.  It  was  a  difficult 
matter  for  those  unused  to  this  luxury  to  take  it.  If  however 
any  man  or  boy  failed  to  eat  his  share  he  was  taken  by  the  arms 
and  legs,  and  the  lower  part  of  his  body  was  banged  against 
a  wall.  This  was  called  arse-jumping  (J.A.).  (10)  Nhb.1  Arse- 
loop,  a  seat  or  wide  loop  in  a  rope  or  chain  in  which  a  man  is 
slung  when  repairing  or  working  in  a  pit-shaft,  (n)  e.An.1  Ass- 
upping,  hand-hoeing,  to  turn  the  docks  and  thistles  end  upwards,  or 
to  cause  the  posterior  to  be  the  superior  part  of  the  body  whilst 
stooping  in  the  act  of  hoeing.  (12)  Nhb.  Arse-upwards,  upside 
down  (R.O.H.).  Snf.  '  Arse-uppards '  is  a  usual  term  for  many 
things  lying  bottom  up  (C.G.B.). 

[An  Arse,  podex,  anus,  LEVINS  Manip. ;  Ars  or  arce, 
anus,  culus,  podex,  Prompt.  CHAUCER  has  the  form  ers, 
C.  T.  A.  3755.  OE.  ears;  cp.  G.  arsch.} 

ARSE,  v.    Sc.  Lin. 

1.  To  kick  upon  the  seat. 

n.Lin.1  If  thoo  cums  here  agean  loongin'  aboot,  I'll  arse  th£  wi' 
my  foot. 

2.  To  move  backwards,  to  push  back  ;  cf.  arsle,  1 ;  fig. 
to  balk,  defeat. 

Abd.  Arse  back  yer   horse   a   little.     I  was  completely  arsed 
(G.W.).     Gall.  Arset  (JAM.  Suppl.}. 
Hence  Arsing,  vbl.  sb.    Shuffling,  evading. 
Abd.  Nane  of  that  arsin"  noo  'G.W.\ 

3.  To  back  out  of  fulfilling  a  promise,  &c.,  to  shuffle ;  cf. 
arsle,  2. 

Abd.  He  arsed  a  bit.  I  heard  he  meant  to  arse  oot  o'  his  promises 

ARSE-FOOT,  sb.  Obs.  Colloq.  (i)  The  great  crested 
Grebe,  Podiceps  cristatus ;  (2)  the  little  Grebe,  Tachybaptes 
fluviatilis ;  so  called  from  the  backward  position  of  the  legs. 

SWAINSON  Birds  (1885)  215,  6. 

ARSELING(S,arfv.  Sc.e.An.  [e'rslins,  a-slins.]  Back- 
wards, also  attrib. 

Abd.  Sik  a  dird  As  laid  him  arselins  on  his  back,  FORBES  Ajax 
(17431  9.  Per.  We  always  use  (not  arset,  but)  arselins  (G.W.). 
Cld.  (JAM.)  Rxb.  Arselins  coup,  the  act  of  falling  backwards  on  the 
hams  (»'*.).  e.An.'  Nrf.  Trans.  Phil.  Soc.  (1858)146.  Suf.Arseling 

[Arse  + -ling  (-s).  OE.  earsling:  Syn  hi  gecyrde  on 
earsling  (  =  avertantur  retrorsum,)  Ps.  xxxiv.  5  (c.  1000). 
Cp.  Du.  aarzeling  (-s),  G.  drschling  (-s) ;  see  DE  VRIES.] 

ARSERD,  ARSEUD,  see  Arseward. 

ARSESMART,  sb.  Also  written  ass-smart.  A  plant- 
name  applied  to  (i)  Pofygonum  amphibium  (Hrt.) ;  (2)  P, 
hydropiper  (Cum.  Chs.  Lm.  War.  I.W.  Wil.  Som.  Dev.) ; 
(3)  f-  persicaria  (Lin.  Wil.) ;  (4)  Pyrethrum  parthenium, 
or  fever-few  (w.Yks.). 

(i)  Hrt.  Arsmart,  ELLIS  Mod.  flush.  (1750)  III.  i.  47.  (2)  Cum.1 
Arse-smart,  the  pepperwort.  Chs.1 ;  Chs.3  Also  called  Knot-grass, 
Lake-weed.  n.Lin.1,  War.  (J.R.W.),  I.W.1,  Wil.1  w.Som.1 
Aa 'smart,  water-pepper.  Dev.4;  nw.Dev.1  Yes-smert  (3)  nXin.1, 

6(2)  Curage  (Outrage),  the  herb  water-pepper,  arse  smart, 
ridge  or  culerage,  COTGR.  ;  Arse-smart,  or  water- 
pepper,  an  herb,  KERSEY  ;  Arsmart,  Hydropiper,  GERARDE, 
445-  (3)  Arsesmart,  Persicaria,  COLES  (1679) ;  Dead  or 
spotted  arsmart,  Persicaria  maculosa  GERARDE,  445.] 

ARSE- VERSE,  sb.  Obs.  or  obsol.  Sc.  Yks.  A  spell 
written  on  the  side  of  a  house  to  ward  off  fire. 

s.Sc.  Known  by  old  persons  some  years  ago  (G.W.M.).  Rxb. 
Arse'-verse',  most  probably  borrowed  from  England  (JAM.).  w.Yks. 
Aase-verse,  a  spell  on  a  house  to  avert  fire  or  witchcraft,  Yks.  N. 
&Q.  (1888)  II.  13. 

[Arse-verse,  a  spell  written  on  an  house  to  prevent  it 
from  burning,  BAILEY  (1721).  Arse,  fr.  Lat.  ars-,  pp.  stem 
of  ardere,  to  burn  ;  cp.  Fr.  arson,  arson,  wilful  burning.] 

ARSEWARD(S,  adv.  and  adj.  Cum.  Yks.  Der.  Lin. 
War.  Wor.  Also  in  Dev.  Also  written  arserd  w.Yks.1 ; 
ars'erd,  ars' erds  n.Lin.1;  assud  War.2  se.Wor.1;  arseud 
se.Wor.1 ;  ass'ard  Dev. ;_  arset  Sc.  nw.Der.1 ;  arsed, 
arsard  nw.Der.1  [a-sad,  a'sadz.] 

1.  adv.  Backwards  ;  hind-before. 

Cum.  GROSE  (1790) ;  Brekbackan  a — ewards  hurry,  STAGG  Misc. 
Poems  (1805)  Bridewain  ;  Cum.1  An  early  Methodist  preacher  in 
Workington  used  to  enlighten  his  hearers  with  '  Aa  wad  as  seiin 
expect  a  swine  to  gang  arsewurts  up  a  tree  and  whissle  like  a 
throssle,  as  a  rich  man  git  to  heaven.'  n.Yks.1  m.Yks.  A  cask 
or  other  package  in  the  forepart  of  a  cart,  required  to  be  moved 
to  the  afterpart,  would  be  said  to  be  moved  arseward,  as  that  latter 
part  is  termed  the  '  cart  arse.'  A  horse  is  said  to  come  arseward 
when  it  backs  (G.W.W.).  w.Yks.1  His  skaddle  tit— ran  arser'd 
'geeant  mistow  nookin  [against  the  corner  of  the  cow-house],  ii. 
303.  Der.  The  landlord  put  him  out  arsuds  first  (H.R.).  n-Lin.1 
Go  ars'erds,  cousin  Edward,  go  ars'erds.  Dev.  At  Okehampton 
Station  a  horse  was  rather  frightened  at  entering  a  horse-box ;  a 
porter  who  was  assisting  said,  '  You  'ont  get'n  in,  I  tell  'ee,  vore 
you've  a-turn  un  roun'  and  a-shut'n  in  ass'ard.'  Joe,  I  zim  you 
d'an'le  things  all  ass'ard-like,  jis  the  very  same's  off  all  your  vingers 
was  thumbs,  Reports  Provinc.  (1889). 

2.  adj.   Perverse,  obstinate  ;  unwilling. 

N.Cy.1  Nhb;  Sae  take  some  pity  on  your  love  And  do  not  still 
so  arseward  prove,  STUART^  Joco-Serious  Discourse ( 1686 130.  Now 
probably  obs.  (R.O.H.)  n.Yks.2  Der.  Don't  be  arseward  (H.R.). 
nw.Der.1,  se.Wor.1 

3.  Comp.  Arseward-backwards,  hind-before  ;  also  attrib. 
War.2  He  went  out  assud-backuds.      That's  an  assud-backuds 

form  o'  diggin'  taters.     se.Wor.1 

[Rebours,  a  rebours,  arseward,  backward,  COTGR.  ;  Bot 
if  je  taken  as  se  usen  arseworde  this  gospel,  Pol.  Poems 
(Rolls  Ser.)  II.  64.  Arse  +  -ward.] 

AR-SHORN,  see  Hare-shorn. 




ARSLE,  v.    Cum.  Yks.  Lan.    Also  in  e.An.    [a'sl.] 

1.  To  move  backwards. 

Cum.  (E.W.P.1  e.An.2  He  [a  timid  boxer]  kept  arseling  back- 
wards, and  durst  not  meet  his  man.  Nrf.1 

2.  To  move  when  in  a  sitting  posture  ;  hence,  to  shuffle, 
fidget ;  alsoyfj-. 

n.Yks.2  They  arsl'd  out  on't  [they  backed  out],  n  Lan. l  e.An.1 
Come,  arsle  up  there.  Nrf.1  Suf.  To  keep  arseling  about  (F.H.). 

[MDu.  erselen  (arselen),  Du.  aarzelen,  to  move  backward 
(DE  VRIES).] 

ARSLING-POLE,  sb.    e.An.    [S'slin-pol.] 

Nrf.1  Arseling-pole,  the  pole  bakers  use  to  spread  the  hot  embers 
to  all  parts  of  the  oven. 

[From  arsle,  vb.,  to  move  backwards,  used  in  trans, 

ARSY-VERSY,  adv.,  adj.  and  sb.    Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 

Stf.  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  War.  e.An.    Also  in  Som.  Dev.    Also 

written  arsey-warsey  N.Cy.1 ;  arsy-farcy  w. Yks.3  e.An.1 ; 

arse-versy  Lin.  SKINNER  ;  and  freq.  arsy-varsy. 

L  adv.  Upside-down,  head  over  heels  ;  fig.  in  confusion. 

n.Cy.  GROSE  (1790);  N.Cy.1,  Nhb.  (R.O.H.),  n.Yks.12,  ne.Yks.', 
e.Yks.1,  w.Yks.1  Lan.  Deawn  coom  I  arsy-varsy  intoth  wetur, 
TIM  BOBBIN  Turn,  and  Meary  (1740)  21.  Chs.12,  Stf.1  Der.  Down 
came  Tit,  and  away  tumbled  she  arsy-varsy,  RAY  Prov.  (1678)  225. 
ed.  1860.  Der.12,  nw.Der.1,  n-Lln.1,  Lei.1,  War.12,  e.An/  w.Som.1 
Hon  I  com'd  along,  there  was  th'  old  cart  a-turned  arsy-varsy  right 
into  the  ditch,  an'  the  poor  old  mare  right  'pon  her  back  way,  her 
legs  up'n  in  [up  on  end].  Dev.3  Ivvery  theng  es  arsyvarsy. 

2.  adj.  Fanciful,  preposterous  ;  contrary,  disobedient. 
w.Yks.3  Of  a  woman  dressed  peculiarly,  '  Sho  dresses  in  an 

arsy-farcy  way.'      To  a  disobedient  child,  '  Tha  a't  varry  arsy- 

3.  sb.  Deceit,  flattery. 

n.Yks.  Old  wives  have  a  lot  of  arsy-farsy  about  them,  saying  'at 
t'bairn  is  so  like  its  father  (I.W.) ;  (R.H.H.) 

[Stand  to  't,  quoth  she,  or  yield  to  mercy,  It  is  not 
fighting  arsie-versie  Shall  serve  thy  turn,  BUTLER  Hudi- 
bras,  i.  iii.  827  ;  Cul  sur  pointe,  topsie-turvy,  arsie-varsie, 
upside  down,  COTGR.  A  rhyming  comp.  from  arse  +  Lat. 
versus,  pp.  ofvertere,  to  turn.] 

ART,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks.  Also 
written  airt  Sc.  Nhb.1  Dur.1  Cum.  Yks. ;  airth,  aith 
Sc.  e.Yks. ;  ete  Wxf.1  [ert,  eart] 

1.  The  quarter  of  the  heavens,  point  of  the  compass ; 
esp.  of  the  direction  of  the  wind. 

Abd.  That  gate  I'll  hald,  gin  I  the  airths  can  keep,  Ross  Helenore 
(1768) 59, ed.  1812.  Fif.Thewind  isaffadryairt, ROBERTSON  Provost 
(1894)  19.  Ayr.  Of  a'  the  airts  the  wind  can  blaw,  I  dearly  like  the 
west,  BURNS  Jean  1^1788)  ;  My  plaidie  to  the  angry  airt,  I'd  shelter 
thee,  it.  Cauld  Blast.  Lnk.  [Trees  that]  stand  single  Beneath  ilk 
storm,  frae  every  airth,  maun  bow,  RAMSAY  Gentle  Shep.  (.1725)37, 
ed.  1783.  Slk.  Let  them  blawa'  at  ance  fraea'  the  airts,  CHR.  NORTH 
Nodes  Ambros.  (1856)  III.  3.  Gall.  Frae  every  airt  the  wind  can 
steer,  NICHOLSON  Hist,  and  Trad.  Tales  (1843)  235.  NJ.1  What 
art  is  the  win  in  the  day  ?  Down.  The  wind's  in  a  thawy  art 
(C.H.W.).  Wxf.1  What  ete  does  the  wind  blow  from!  Nhb.1 
What  airt's  the  wind  in  thi  day  ?  Dur.1  Cum.  T'wind's  cauld  this 
spring  whativer  art  it  blaws  fra  (E.W.P.) ;  T'wind's  iv  a  bad  art, 
I  doubt  we'll  hae  rain  (M.P.).  Yks.  The  wind  is  in  a  cold  airt 
(K.).  n.Yks.2  The  wind's  frev  an  easterly  airt.  ne.Yks.1  T'wind's 
gotten  intiv  a  cau'd  airt.  e.Yks.  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  (1788  . 

2.  A  direction,  way  ;  locality,  district. 

Sc.  She  so  speers  and  backspeers  me  ...  that  I  darena  look  the 
airt  a  single  woman's  on,  WHITEHEAD  DaftDavie  (1876)  130.  Ayr. 
If  that  he  want  the  yellow  dirt,  Ye'll  cast  your  head  anither  airt, 
BURNS  Tibbie.  Lth.  He'll  never  look  the  airt  ye're  on,  STRATHESK 
More  Bits  1885)  249.  e.Lth.  Just  you  pit  the  maitter  fair  afore  them, 
an'  showthem  the  richt  airt,  HUNTER  J.  Intvick  1,1895)  22.  Dmf.  Fowk 
stoiter'd  frae  a'  airths  bedeen,  MAYNE  Siller  Gun  (1808)  70.  N.I.1 
It's  a  bare  art  o'  the  country.  n.Cy.  Border  Gl.  (Coll.  L.L.B.)  ; 
N.Cy.1  Nhb.  Wooers  cam'  frae  ilka  airt,  RICHARDSON  Borderer's 
Table-bk.  (1846)  VIII.  161  ;  Nhb.1  What  airt  ar'  ye  gan  thi  day  ? 
A  stranger  who  cannot  very  well  comprehend  the  country  people 
when  directing  him  what  airts  to  observe,  will  be  very  liable  to 
lose  his  road,  OLIVER  Rambles  (.1835)  9.  Cum.  Frae  ivry  art  the 
young  fwolk  droove,  STAGG  Misc.  Poems  (1805)  119.  Wm.  Bet 
theear  wes  leets  frae  beeath  arts,  Spec.  Dial.  (,1885)  8.  n.Yks.1 

Did  ye  hear  t'guns  at  Hartlepool,  John  ?— Ay,  I  heerd  a  strange 
lummering  noise.  I  aimed  it  cam'  fra  that  airt ;  n.Yks.2  They 
come  frev  a  bad  airt  [place  of  ill-repute]  ;  m.Yks.1,  w.Yks.1 

[Angellis  sail  passe  in  the  four  airtis,  LYNDESAY 
Monarche,  5600  (N.E.D.).  Gael,  aird,  a  point,  also  a 
quarter  of  the  compass.] 

ART,  v.  Sc.  Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Written  airt  Sc.  Nhb.1 
n.Yks.2  ;  ert  Sc. 

1.  Of  the  wind  :  to  blow  from  a  certain  quarter. 

Sc.  What  course  ships  or  boats'  would  take  .  .  .  would  depend 
upon  the  mode  by  which  their  progress  was  actuated  .  .  .  and  as 
the  wind  was  airted,  STATE  Eraser  of  Fraserfield  (1805)  192.  Bnff.1 
The  ween's  gain'  t'airt  frae  the  east. 

2.  To  incite,  egg  on. 

Lan.  He  arted  me  on  or  I  shouldn't  have  done  it  (S.W.\ 

3.  To  point  put  the  way  to  any  place  ;  to  direct ;  to  turn 
in  a  certain  direction. 

Sc.  I  may  think  of  airting  them  your  way,  SCOTT  Redg.  (1824 
xiii ;  To  permit  me  to  keep  sight  of  my  ain  duty,  or  to  airt  you  to 
yours,  it.  Midlothian  (,1818  )xviii ;  He  erted  Colin  down  the  brae, 
DAVIDSON  Seasons  (1789)  51  ;  Lay  them  open,  an'  airt  them  east 
an'  west  (JAM.  Sttppt.).  Bnff.1  See,  lads,  it  ye  airt  the  stocks  richt. 
Rnf.  Ah,  gentle  lady,  airt  my  way,  TANNAHILL  Poems  (1807)  147. 
Ayr.  An'  her  kind  stars  hae  airted  till  her  A  good  chiel  wi'  a  pickle 
siller,  BURNS  Lett,  to  J.  Tennant ;  But  yon  green  graff  now,  Luckie 
Laing,  Wad  airt  me  to  my  treasure,  ib.  Lass  of  Ecclefechan.  e.Lth. 
What  a  skill  he  had  o'  liftin'  ye  aff  your  feet  an'  airtin'  ye  roun'  frae 
north  to  sooth  afore  ye  kent  whaur  ye  were,  HUNTER  J.  Inwick 
(1895)  118.  n.Yks.2  Sic  mak  o'  luck  was  nivver  airted  mah  geeat. 

4.  To  tend  towards,  aim  at. 

Sc.  He's  dune  weel,  an's  airtin  to  the  en"  o'  his  wark.  I  airtit 
hard  to  get  awa  wi'  the  laird  (JAM.  Suppl.).     n.Yks.2  What's  thoo 
airting  at  • 
6.  To  find  out,  discover. 

Rxb.  I  airted  him  out  (JAM.).     Nhb.1  I'll  airt  it  oot. 

ARTAN,  vbl.  sb.  Sc.  fe'rtan.]  Direction ;  placing 
towards  a  certain  quarter  of  the  heavens. 

Bnff.  Hoot-toot,  ye  gummeril,  the  airtan  o'  the  stocks  is  a' 
vrang.  Set  them  aye  t'  tual  o'clock  (^W.G.)  ;  Bnff.1 

[Vbl.  sb.  otarf,  vb.] 

ART  AND  PART,  phr.  Sc.  Irel.  Dur.  (i)  As  obj.  of 
v. :  share,  portion.  (2)  To  be,  become,  art  or  part  in,  with, 
to  be  concerned  in,  be  accessory  to. 

(i)  NJ.1  I  had  neither  art  nor  part  in  the  affair.  Ant.  I  know 
neither  art  nor  part  of  it,  GROSE  (1790  MS.  add.  (C.)  (a)  Sc. 
Whan  thou  sawist  ane  reyffar,  than  thou  becamist  airt  an  part  wi' 
him,  RIDDELL  Ps.  (1857)  1.  18.  Gall.  For  aught  I  know  they  may 
be  art  and  part  in  supplying  undutied  stuff  to  various  law-breaking, 
king-contemning  grocers,  CROCKETT  Raiders  (1894)  v.  Wxf.  I'll 
be  neither  art  nor  part  in  their  doings,  KENNEDY  Banks  Bow  (1867) 
295.  Dur.1 

[(i)  The  old  man  which  is  corrupt  .  .  .  who  had  art 
and  part ...  in  all  our  Bishops'  persecutions,  RACKET 
Abp.  Williams  (c.  1670)  II.  86  (N.E.D.).  (2)  Gif  evir  I  wes 
othir  art  or  part  of  Alarudis  slauchter,  BELLENDEN  Crott. 
Scot.  (1536)  xn.  viii  (JAM.).  The  jingling  phr.  art  and  part 
arose  fr.  such  an  expression  as  '  to  be  concerned  in  either 
by  art  or  part'  (by  contrivance  or  participation).] 

ARTFUL,  adj.    e.An.    [a'tful.]    Clever,  intelligent. 

e.An.1  Of  our  Lord  in  His  mother's  arms :  '  How  artful  He  do 
look.'  Suf.  (F.H.)  Ess.  I  have  a  strong  impression  that  I  have 
heard  a  cottager  say  of  her  little  boy  :  '  Yes,  he's  an  artful  little 
fellow  for  his  age '  ^A.S.P.). 

ARTH,  see  Argh. 

ARTICLE,  sb.  Yks.  Der.  Lin.  Lei.  Nhp.  War.  e.An. 
Sus.  Hmp.  Som.  |a-tikl.|  A  term  of  contempt  for  an 
inferior  or  worthless  person  or  thing. 

n.Yks.  He's  a  bare  article  (,I.W.).  w.Yks.  He's  a  bonny  article 
[spoken  of  a  person  exhibiting  eccentricities  of  conduct  of  any  kind] 
(J.R.).  nw.Der.1  nXin.1  He's  a  sore  article  to  be  a  parson  ; 
he's  nobud  fit  to  eat  pie  oot  o'  th'  road  an'  scar  bo'ds  fra  berry- 
trees.  Lei.1  A's  a  noist  airticle,  a  is !  Nhp.1  A  pretty  article  he 
is  !  War.23,  e-An.1  e.An.2  He  is  a  poor  article.  Sus.,  Hmp. 
Generally  used  with  the  adjunct '  poor.'  That  is  a  poor  article, 
HOLLOWAY.  w.Som.1  More  commonly  used  of  things.  Of  a  bad 
tool  a  man  would  say  :  Dhush  yuurz  u  purtee  haartikul  shoa-ur 
nuuf  [this  is  a  pretty  article  sure  enough]. 

[The    contemptuous  use    of  the  word  is  due  to  its 




common  use  in  trade  for  an  item  of  commodity,  as  in  the 
phr.  '  What's  the  next  article  ?'  of  the  mod.  shopkeeper.] 
ARTIFICIAL,  adj.    Lei.  Som.    [atifi-Jl.] 

1.  Used  as  sb.   Artificial  or  chemical  manure  of  any  kind. 
w.Sora.1  Tidn  a  bit  same's  use  to,  way  farmerin,  they  be  come 

now  vor  to  use  such  a  sight  o'  this  here  hartificial.  Darn'd  if  I 
don't  think  the  ground's  a-pwoisoned  way  ut.  We  never  didn 
hear  nort  about  no  cattle  plaayg  nor  neet  no  voot-an-mouth  avore 
they  brought  over  such  a  lot  o'  this  here  hartificial  Goa'an-ur 
[Guano]  or  hot  ee  caal  ut. 

2.  Artistic  ;    having  the  appearance  of  being  produced 
by  art. 

Lei.1  The  word  artificial  is  rather  eulogistic. 

[2.  Artificial,  elaborates,  technicus,  affabre  facias,  COLES 
(1670) ;  Artificial,  artful,  done  according  to  the  rules  of 
art,  BAILEY  (1770).] 

ARTISHREW,  see  Harvest-row. 

ARTIST,  v.    Sur.    [a'tist]    To  paint. 

Sur.  I  never  could  artist  a  bit  mysen,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890) 
I.  xiii. 

Hence  Artisting,  vbl.  sb. 

Sur.  1  dunno'  approve  o'  this  artistin' .  . .  it's  only  another  naSme 
for  idling  abouilt,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  I.  xiii. 

[From  lit.  E.  artist,  sb.  a  painter.] 

ARVAL,  sb.  Sc.  Cum.  Win.  Yks.  Lan.  Obsol.  Also 
written  arfal  KENNETT;  arvel  N.Cy.1  w.Yks.14;  arvil(l 
n.Yks.2  w.Yks.  m.Yks.1 ;  averill  n.Yks.2  w.Yks. 

1.  A  funeral  repast,  usually  consisting  of  bread  or  cakes 
with  ale.    Also  applied  to  funeral  ceremonies  in  general. 

Rxb.  Arval,  arvil-supper,  the  name  given  to  the  supper  or  enter- 
tainment after  a  funeral  (JAM.).  n.Cy.  GROSE  (1790)  ;  N.Cy.1, 
Cnm.12  Wm.1  Is  ta  ter  be  arvel  at  t' funeral?  The  custom  is  still 
observed.  n.Yks.  Come  bring  my  jerkin,  Tibb ;  He  to'th  arvill, 
MERITON  Praise  Ale  (1684)  1.  419  ;  n.Yks.1  The  company  assembled 
— and  the  bidding  is  usually  for  an  hour  preceding  midday — the 
hospitalities  of  the  day  proceed,  and  after  all  have  partaken  of  a 
solid  meal,  and  before  the  coffin  is  lifted  for  removal  to  the  church- 
yard, cake,  or  biscuits,  and  wine  are  handed  round  by  two  females 
whose  office  is  specially  designated  by  the  term  '  servers ' ;  n.Yks.2 
Heard  thirty  years  ago,  but  now  obs.  ne.Yks.1  Obs.  w.Yks.  HUTTON 
Tour  to  Caves  (1781)  ;  Now  heard  only  in  remote  places  like  the 
Haworth  valley  (S.P.U.)  ;  T'avole  will  be  at  t'Ling  Bob  (C.F.) ; 
w.Yks.14  Lan.  After  the  rites  at  the  grave,  the  company  adjourned 
to  a  public-house,  where  they  were  presented  with  a  cake  and 
ale,  called  an  arval,  HARLAND  &  WILKINSON  Flk-Lore  (1867)  270 ; 
Lan.1,  ne.Lan.' 

2.  Money  given  to  hunters,  at  the  death  of  a  fox,  in 
order  to  buy  ale. 


3.  Comp.   Arval-bread,   -cake,  the  bread  or  cake  pre- 
sented   to  guests  at  a   funeral ;    -dinner,  -supper,  the 
funeral  entertainment. 

n.Cy.  GROSE  Sufpl.  (1790)  •  N.Cy.2  Cum.  The  Dale  Head  stores 
of  small  cake-loaves  or  arval-bread,  and  the  like,  had  been  generous, 
LINTON  Lizzie  Lotion  (i867)xxix;  Cum.1  Wm.Everypersoninvited 
to  a  funeral  receives  a  small  loaf  at  the  door  of  the  deceased  .  .  . 
the  people  call  it  arval-bread,  GOUGH  Manners  (,1847)  23 ; 
Small  loaves  of  fine  wheaten  bread  were  distributed  amongst  the 
persons  attending  a  funeral ;  they  were  expected  to  eat  them  at 
home  in  religious  remembrance  of  their  deceased  neighbour  (J.H.) ; 
Wm.1  n.Yks.  He  called  them,  not  funeral  biscuits,  but  averil 
breead,  ATKINSON  Maori.  Parish  ^1891)  228 ;  n.Yks.1  Confectioners 
at  Whitby  still  prepare  a  species  of  thin,  light,  sweet  cake  for  such 
occasions ;  n.Yks.2  Averill-breead,  funeral  loaves,  spiced  with 
cinnamon,  nutmeg,  sugar,  and  raisins.  Lan.1,  n.Lan.1  Wm.  Pre- 
senting each  relative  and  friend  of  the  deceased  with  an  arvel  cake, 
Denham  Tracts  (ed.  1895)  II.  55  ;  Wm.1,  m.Yks.1  n.Lan.  The  arvel 
cake  is  still  handed  round  on  funeral  occasions,  N.  &  Q.  (1858)  2nd 
S.  vi.  468.  Wm.  Among  the  rich,  the  custom  of  distributing  arvel 
bread  gradually  yielded  to  a  sumptuous  arvel-dinner,  Lonsdale 
Mag.  18221  III.  377.  ne.Lan.1  Arval-dinners,  given  to  friends  who 
attend  a  funeral  from  a  distance ;  common  in  Cartmel.  n.Cy. 
Arvill-supper,  a  feast  made  at  funerals,  GROSE  (1790) ;  (,K.) ;  N.Cy.2 

[Arval,  or  Arvil,  burial  or  funeral  solemnity,  hence 
arvil-bread,  loaves  distributed  to  the  poor  at  funerals, 
BAILEY  (1755).  Dan.  arve-ol,  ON.  erfi-6l,  a  wake,  funeral 
feast,  comp.  of  erfi,  a  funeral  feast,  and  67,  an  '  ale,'  a  ban- 
quet, feast  (see  Ale).  ON.  erfi  is  cogn.  with  erfd, 

ARVIE,  sb.  Sh.I.  The  common  chickweed,  Stellaria 

Sh.  (K.I.),  S.  &  Ork.i 

[Dan.  arve,  chickweed  ;  cp.  OE.  earfe,  a  tare.] 

AR-WO-HAY,  int.     Nhb. 

Nhb.1  Ar-wo-hay,  a  cartman's  term  to  his  horse  to  steady. 

ARY,  see  Harry. 

AS,  rel.  pron.  Var.  dial,  of  Eng.  Not  in  Sc.  Nhb. 
Cum.  n.  and  e.Yks.  (see  At)  w.Sorrt.  Dev.  Occas.  in  Dur. 
Wm.  w.Yks.,  where  the  usual  rel.  is  at,  q.v.  [az.] 

1.  Used  as  rel.  pron.  in  all  genders,  sing,  and  pi. 

Dur.  You  mean  him  as  Miss  T.  is  going  to  marry  (A.B.).  Wm. 
A  par  o'  shoes  as  he'd  been  makkin,  Spec.  Dial.  (1880  pt  ii.  33  ; 
Wm.1  Nowt  as  I  knaa  on.  w.Yks.  Her  as  ah  once  hed  call'd  mi 
queen,  BINNS  Yksman.  Xmas,  No.  (1888)  23  ;  w.Yks.1  Whea's 
sheep's  them,  as  I  sa  yusterneet  ?  Lan.  Every  lad  and  every  wench 
as  went,  HARLAND  &  WILKINSON  Flk-Lore  (1867)  270.  n.Lan. 
I  luk't  for  him  as  me  sowl  lovs,  PHIZACKERLEY  Sng.  Sol.  (1860) 
iii.  i.  e.Lan.1  He  as  buys  stuff  as  is  wanted.  Chs.1  He's  the  chap 
as  did  it;  s.Chs.1  Wen-shiz  fiz  ktin  mil-k  [wenches  as  can  milk], 
Introd.  70.  s.Stf.  The  mon  as  did  that  disappeared,  PINNOCK  Blk. 
Cy.  Ann.  (1895)  ;  Stf.2  Der.  Them  two  sheep  as  is  in  the  croft, 
VERNEY  Stone  Edge  (1868)  ii.  n.Der.  Let  a  mon  stick  to  his  station 
as  is  his  station,  HALL  Hathersage  (1896)  vii.  Lin.  Proputty's 
ivrything  'ere . . .  fur  them  as  'as  it's  the  best,  TENNYSON  N.  Farmer, 
New  Style  (1870)  st.  n  :  Lin.1 ;  n.Lin.1  Whose  cauves  was  them 
as  I  seed  i'  Messingham  toon  streat  ?  Lei.  Itz  won  az  wuz  gev 
[given]  mi  (C.E.1.  Nhp.1  War.  Ready  to  kiss  the  ground  as  the 
missis  trod  on,  GEO.  ELIOT  Amos  Barton  (1858)  vii ;  War.2  A  lad 
as  could  kill  a  robin  'd  doanythink  ;  War.3  w.Wor.  His  butty,  as, 
he  said,  had  fettled  his  osses,  S.  BEAUCHAMP  Grantley  Grange  1 18741 
1. 30.  Shr.1  I'm  sartin  it  wuz  'im  as  I  sid  comin'  out  o'  the '  George ' ; 
Shr.2  Those  as  liken.  Hrf.1 ;  Hrf.2  The  man  as  told  me.  Glo.1  In 
gen.  use.  Oxf.1  The  mummers  say, '  Yer  comes  I  as  ant  bin  it  [yet], 
Wi'  my  gret  yed,  an'  little  wit  [Yuur  kuumz  uuy  uz  aa'nt  bin  it, 
Wi  muuy  gret  yed,  un  lifl  wit].  Brks.1  It  was  he  as  tawld  I. 
Bdf.  Field's  cart  as  takes  Louisa's  things  to-morrer,  WARD  B. 
Costrell  (1895)  21.  e-An.1,  Hnt.  (T.P.F.)  Nrf.  The  song  o' songs, 
as  is  Sorlomun's,  GILLETT  Sng.  Sol.  (1860)  i.  i.  Ess.  Buie  that  as 
is  needful,  thy  house  to  repaire,  TUSSER  Husbandrie  (1580)  57,  st. 
47.  Sur.  They  pore  crethurs  as  has  to  moil,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills 
(1890)  I.  i  ;  Sur.1  Som.  Doant  put  a  muzzle  on  tha  ox  as  draishes 
out  the  corn,  'AGRIKLER'  Rhymes  (1872)  75;  In  e.Som.  'as' 
is  used  for  the  relative,  but  in  w.  we  should  say 'dhu  mae'tin  waut 
[what]dued  ut,'  ELWORTHY  Gram.  (1877)  41.  n.Wil.  TeSke  us  th' 
voxes,  th'  leetle  voxes,  as  spwiles  th'  vines,  KITE  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  1860) 
ii.  15;  Wil.1  Dor.  (H.J.M.)  Cor.3  He's  the  man  as  did  it  (in  common 
use).  [Amer.  Nobody  as  I  ever  heard  on,  BARTLETT.] 

2.  As  +poss.  pron.  used  for  gen.  case  of  rel. 

s.Chs.1  That's  th'  chap  as  his  uncle  was  hanged,  Introd.  70. 
Sur.  A  gentleman  from  India,  as  you  see  his  name  writ  up, 
JENNINGS  Field  Paths  (1884)  22;  Sur.1  That  shepherd  we  had  as 
his  native  were  Lewes. 

3.  In  phr.  (i)  as  ever  is;  (2)  as  was  (in  gen.  colloq.  use), 
formerly,  ne'e ;  also  used  redundantly ;  (3)  all  as  is,  the 
whole  matter,  the  whole. 

(i)  Dor.  Last  Monday  as  ever  wur  (H.J.M.).  Dev.3  I'll  come  an" 
zee  'e  the  next  Monday  as-ivver-is.  (2)  s.Not.  Ahve  just  seed  Miss 
Wright.  Miss  Wright  as  was,  ah  should  say— Mrs.  Smith.  Iwor 
coming  across  Tomkins'  orchard  as  was  i  J.P.K.).  Lin.  Only  last 
Soondayas  was,  FENN  Cure  of  Souls  (1889)  7.  (3)  Lei.1  Oi'll  tell 
yer  missus  on  yer,  an'  that's  all  as  is.  War.2  All  as  is,  is  this,  I  sid 
'im  tek  th'  opple  myself.  w.Wor.1  I'll  give  'ee  ahl-as-is.  Shr.1 
All  as  is  is  this  ...  so  now  yo'  knowen.  Wil.1 

[Nor  will  he  ...  wish  his  mistress  were  that  kind  of 
fruit  As  maids  call  medlars,  SHAKS.  R.  &•  J.  n.  i.  34 ;  Those 
as  sleep  and  think  not  on  their  sins,  ib.  Merry  w.  v.  v.  57.] 

AS,  adv.    In  var.  dial,  uses  in  n.  and  midl.  counties  ; 
also  Sc.  Irel.  e.An.  Ken.  Sus.  Som.    [az.] 
L  Used  redundantly. 

e.Yks.1  Ah  can't  think  as  hoo  it's  deean,  MS.  add.  (T.H.)  w.Yks. 
We  stopt  wi'  Jane  Ann  as  nearly  an  hahr  (^E.B.).  Lan.  I  hope 
as  that  ye'll  nut  be  vext,  HARLAND  &  WILKINSON  Fit-Lore  (1867) 
60  ;  We  hannot  had  a  battle  i'  this  heawse  as  three  year  an'  moor, 
WAUGH  Owd  Bodle,  253.  Stf.2  My  feyther  died  as  twel'  months 
come  Monday.  nw.Der.1  Not.  It'll  be  Goose  Fair  a  fortnight  as 
yesterday  (L.C.M.).  nXin.1  He  hesn't  been  here  sin  a  munth  as 
last  Bottesworth  feast.  awXin.1  A  week  as  last  Monday.  Nhp.1 
I  expect  him  as  next  week.  War.2  I'm  gooin'  to  my  uncle's  as  next 




Sunday.  Shr.1  'E  toud  me  they  wun  gwei'n  theer  as nex"  Saturday ; 
Shr.2  Glo.  We  expected  him  as  yesterday,  N.  &•  Q.  (1878)  5th  S. 
ix.  256.  s.Oxf.  Wot  might  you  be  thinkin'  o'  doin'  about  that  now  ? 
— As  how?  [in  what  way  ?]  ROSEMARY  Chiitems  :  18951  168.  Mid. 
Don't  you  remember  me,  as  how  I  was  squeezed  and  scrouged 
into  your  little  back  room,  GROSE  Olio  (1796)  105-6.  e.An.1  He 
will  come  as  to-morrow.  Ken.1  I  reckon  you'll  find  it's  as  how  it 
is.  Sus.  I  can  only  say  as  this,  I  done  the  best  I  could,  N.  (f  Q. 
(1878)  sth  S.  xi.  288.  w.Som.1  He  promised  to  doun  as  to-morrow. 
You  zee,  sir,  'tis  like  as  this  here. 

2.  In  phr.  (i)  as  how,  however;  (2)  as  to,  towards,  with 
regard  to  ;  (3)  as  what,  as  where,  whatever,  wherever. 

(i)  w.Yks.  He  couldn't  find  a  lass  to  suit  him,  as  hah  he  lukt  aht, 
HARTLEY  Clock  Aim.  (1887)  40.  Lan.  I  mun  do  this  house  up  th' 
first,  as  how,  WAUGH  Sphinx  1,1870)  iii.  (2)  Ir.  How  the  devil  can 
a  man  be  stout  as  to  a  man,  and  afraid  of  a  ghost  ?  HARRINGTON 
Sketches  (1830)  I.  viii.  (3)  w.Yks.  Decide  at  yo'll  be  happy  as  what 
happens,  HARTLEY  Clock  Alm.(  1888)  4 ;  He'z  a  better  breed  nerthee 
ony  daay,  az  where  he  comes  thro',  ECCLES  Leeds  Olm.  (1879)  23. 

[Before  how  it  is  sometimes  redundant,  but  this  is  in 
low  language,  BAILEY  (1755),  s.v.  As  •  Whanne  thei 
hadden  rowid  as  fyue  and  twenti  furlongis,  WYCLIF  (1388) 
John\i,  19.] 

3.  How.     Obs.  ? 

Sc.  See  as  our  gudemither's  hands  and  lips  are  ganging  .  .  . 
she'll  speak  eneugh  the  night,  SCOTT  Antiquary  (1816)  xxvi. 

AS,  conj.  Sc.  Irel.  and  in  gen.  use  in  Eng.,  but  rarely 
in  sense  2  in  those  districts  where  at  (q.v.)  is  used,  [az.] 

1.  After  comparative  :  than. 

Sc.  Very  common  in  s.  counties.  Better  weir  schuin  as  sheets, 
MURRAY  Dial.  (1873)  169  ;  I  rather  like  him  as  otherwise,  SCOTT 
St.  Ronan  (1824)  xxvi ;  I  wad  rather  see  them  a'  ower  again,  as 
sic  a  fearfu"  flitting  as  hers  !  ib.  Antiquary  ( 1816)  xl ;  Nay,  more 
as  that,  they  cut  out  his  hair,  Scotic.  (1787)  119 ;  I  would  rather  go 
as  stay,  ib.  8.  N.I.1  I'd  rather  sell  as  buy.  Yks.  Better  rue  sell 
as  rue  keep,  Prov.  in  Bn'ghouse  News  (July  23,  1887) ;  Better  hev 
a  maase  i'  t'pot  as  nae  flesh,  ib,  (Aug.  10,  1889!.  n.Yks.  (I.W.1 
w.Yks.  I'd  rather  break  steeans  by  t'rooad  as  dew  so,  LUCAS  Stud. 
Nidderdale  (c.  1882)  231.  [U.S.A.  I  would  rather  see  him  as  you, 
Dial.  Notes  (iSgsl  376.] 

2.  Introducing  subord.  clause  :  that. 

Yks.  I'll  see  as  he  wants  nowt,  WESTALL  Birch  Dene  (18891  I. 
232.  w.Yks.  Tell  Jack  ah'm  bahn  to  Bradforth  to-morn,  so's  he 
can  go  wi'  mha,  Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  (May  30,  1891)  ;  Ah've  heeard 
as  Fred  Greenud  an'  Polly  Scott  wor  bahn  to  be  wed  sooin  (JE.B.}. 
Lan.  It's  nowt  o'  th'  soart ;  dunnot  yo  threep  me  doun  as  it  is, 
BURNETT  Haworths  (1887} ixvi.  ne.Lan.1  He  said  as  he  wod.  Stf.2 
Is  it  true  as  your  Bill's  bin  put  i'th  'ob  ?  [prison].  n.Der.  They 
do  say  as  his  carpenters,  havin'  built  th'  ark,  .  .  .  weren't  let  enter 
in,  HALL  Hathersage  (1896)  vii.  s.Not.  I  don't  know  as  I  can, 
PRIOR  Renie  (1895)  36.  Lei.  If  you'll  bring  me  any  proof  as  I'm 
in  the  wrong,  GEO.  ELIOT  S.  M artier  (1861)  40  ;  Lei.1  Almost  a  uni- 
versal substitute  for  '  that.'  War.2  w.Wor.1  You  don't  think  as 
I've  took  that  spoon?  (s.  v.  Hurt).  Shr.1  They  sen  as  the  cranna- 
berries  bin  despert  scase  this  time.  Glo.  I  war'n  as  th'  owld 
squire  must  a'  felt  quite  proud  o'  hisself,  BUCKMAN  Darke's  Sojourn 
(1890)  6;  Glo.2  He  took  his  woath  as  I  layed  a  drap.  s.Oxf.  I 
don't  know  as  I  can,  ROSEMARY  Chiitems  (1895)  41.  Snr.  History 
do  tell  as  a  high  tide  came  up,  JENNINGS  Field  Paths  (1884)  3. 
Hrap.1  I  don't  know  as  I  do.  Wil.  I  seed  in  the  paper  as  the  rate 
is  gone  down  a  penny,  JEFFERIES  Gt.  Estate  ( 1880)  ix.  n.Wil. 
Come  back,  as  we  med  look  upon  'ee,  KITE  Sng.  Sol.  (c.  1860) 
vi.  13.  Dev.  I  couldn't  say  as  I  knowed  the  rights  of  it,  O'NEILL 
Idylls  (1892)  22. 

3.  As  how,  as  why,  before  subord.  clause  :  that. 

Cum.1  He  said  as  how  he  wad  nivver  gang  near  them.  w.Yks. 
Ah  doan't  knaw  as  hah  Ahs'll  goa  ageean  (.lE.B.l.  Lan.  We  have 
heard  say  as  how  he's  coming  home,  FOTHERGILL  Probation  (1879)  i. 
Stf.2  I  toud  'im  as  'ow  he'd  cum  too  late.  He  said  as  why  he 
couldna  come.  There  is  even  the  construction  '  He  said  as  how 
as  why  he  couldna  come.'  Not.  He  said  as  how  the  fox  ran  clean 
past  him  (L.C.M.)  ;  Not.1  n.Lin.1  He  said  as  how  he  was  a  loongin' 
tneaf.  Lei.1  Nhp.1  He  said  as  how  he'd  come.  War."  Shr.1 

1  card  the  maister  tellin'  the  missis  as  'ow  'e  wuz  gweln  to 
Stretton  far ;  Shr.2  Saying  as  how  he  is  an  oud  mon.  Brks.1  A 

;elled  muh  as  zo  his  ship  was  sheared  las'  Tuesday.  Hnt  (T  P  F  ) 
Ess.  She  shoollymightersin  as  how  the  booy  warnt  right,  DOWNES 
Ballads  (1*95)  23.  Hmp.  I  knows  as  how  he  did  it  (H.C  M  B  1 

4.  With  or  without  anteced.  as,  and  ellipsis  of  can  be  • 
expressing  superl.  degree. 

n.Yks.  As  salt  as  salt  (I.W.).  w.Yks.  As  heait  as  heait  [hot], 
LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  18821  231  ;  Hard  as  hard,  very  hard. 
Hot  as  hot,  as  hot  as  possible,  BANKS  Wkfld.  Wds.  (1865).  Chs 
As  happyas  happy,  CLOUGHB.  Bresskittle  (1879) l6-  s-Stf.  Ashot  as 
hot,PiNNOCKB«  Cy.^««.(i895).  Lei.(C.E.);  Lei.1  One  of  the  com- 
monest descriptive  formulas.  War.  He'll  come  back  as  ill  as  ill, 
GEO.  ELIOT  Janet's  Repent.  (1858)  viii  ;  War.2;  s.War.1  As  lusty 
as  lusty  [in  excellent  health].  s.Wor.1  As  black  as  black,  and 
so  with  other  epithets.  Glo.  (A.B.)  s.Oxf.  Once  a  fortnight 
I  bakes  reglar,  an'  that  keeps  as  moist  as  moist,  ROSEMARY 
Chiitems  (1895)  98.  Oxf.1  MS.  add.  Ess.  There's  no  mistaike, 
Bill,  he's  as  owd  as  owd,  DOWNES  Ballads  (1895)  34.  Som.  His 
hair,  'twas  as  black  as  black,  LEITH  Lemon  Verbena  1,1895)  50. 
Colloq.  The  sea  was  wet  as  wet  could  be,  The  sand  was  dry  as 
dry,  CARROLL  Through  Looking-glass  (1872). 

[1.  Ther  can  nocht  be  ane  mair  vehement  perplexite  as 
qu  hen  ane  person,  &c.,  Complaynt  of  Sc.  (1549)  71.    Cp. 
(j.  mehr  als.    2.  That  the  Fop  .  .  .  should  say  as  he  would 
rather  have  such-a-one  without  a  groat  than   me  with 
the  Indies,  Sped.  No.  508.] 
A-SAM,  adv.    Obs.    Cor.    Of  a  door :  ajar. 
Cor.2  The  door's  a-sam. 
[A-,  on  +  satn  (half),  q.v.] 
ASCANT,  adv.    n.Yks.    [aska-nt]    Oblique. 

A-SCAT,  aav.    Dev.    [askas't.]     Broken  like  an  egg. 
Dev.  GROSE  (1790)  ;    Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  422  ;    HOLLOWAY. 
[A-,  on  +  scat;  see  Scat  (to  scatter).] 
A-SCRAM,    adv.      Dor.      [askrae'm.]      Of    a   limb: 
shrunken,  withered. 

Dor.  She  reluctantly  showed  the  withered  skin.     'Ah  !  'tis  all 
a-scram  ! '  said  the  hangman,  examining  it,  HARDY  Wess.   Tales 
18881  I.  117  ;  It  would  be  normal  to  say  '  His  arm  is  all  a-scram,' 
though  if  attrib.  '  He  has  a  scram  arm '  (O.P.C.). 
[A-  (pref. 10)  +  scram,  q.v.] 

ASCRIBE,  adv.  Som.  Cor.  Written  ascrode  Cor.1 

Som.  Nif  he'd  ...  a  brumstick  vor'n  to  zit  ascride,  JENNINGS 
Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825")  n8.     Cor.1  She  rode  ascrode. 
[A-,  on  +  scride  (prob.  a  pron.  of  stride).] 
ASEE,  sb.    Or.I.     The  angle  contained  between  the 
beam  and  handle  on  the  hinder  side  of  a  plough. 
S.  &  Ork.1     Or.I.  Also  called  Nick  JAM.). 
ASELF,  see  Atself. 

A-SEW,  adv.  I.W.  Dor.  Som.  Cor.  Also  written 
assue  Som. ;  azew  Cor.1 ;  azue  Cor.2  [azoV.]  Of 
cows  :  dry,  no  longer  in  milk. 

I.W.  The  cows  were  assue,  MONCRIEFF  Dream  in  Gent.  Mag. 
^863)  ;  I.W.1  The  wold  cow's  azew  ;  I.W.2  I  wants  moor  milk 
than  I  got,  ver  near  all  the  cows  be  gone  azew.  Dor.  In  common 
use  round  Dorchester  (O.P.C.);  I  don't  want  my  cows  going 
azew  at  this  time  of  year,  HARDY  Tess  (1891)  139  ;  Dor.1  Som. 
A  cow  is  said  to  have  '  gone  a-zue,'  PULMAN  Sketches  (1842)  77  ; 
I'll  zell  your  little  sparked  cow  that's  gone  a-sue,  RAYMOND  Sam 
and  Sabina  (1894;  43  ;  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873)  ;  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial. 
w.Eng.  (i825\  w.Som.1  A  cow  before  calving,  when  her  milk  is 
dried  off,  is  said  to  be  azue,  or  to  have  gone  'zue.'  Cor.12 
[A-  (pref.10)  +  sew,  q.v.] 
ASGAL,  see  Asker. 

ASH,  sb.1    In  van  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  Irel.  Eng.    Also 
written  ass,  ess  ;  see  below,    [as,  es,  aef.] 
1.  Collective  sine.,  usually  written  ass  or  ess  :  fine  ashes, 
usually  from  coal     See  Axen. 

Sc.  What  wad  ye  collect  out  of  the  sute  and  the  ass  ?  SCOTT 
B  of  Lam.  (1819)  xi ;  While  I  sithurklen  in  the  ase,  RAMSAY  Tea- 
Table  Misc.  1 1724)  I.  no,  ed.  1871.  Fif.  It'll  no  dae  to  sit  crootlin' 
i'  the  ace  a'  yer  days,  ROBERTSON  Provost  ^1894)  72.  Ayr.  In 
loving  bleeze  they  sweetly  join,  Till  white  in  ase  they're  sobbin, 
BURNS  Halloween  (1785)  st.  10.  N.I.1  Aas.  N.Cy.1,  Nhb.1,  Dur.1 
Cum.  GROSE  (1790) ;  Gl.  (1851)  ;  Meeting  a  boy  with  a  good- 
looking  ass  drawing  a  cart  laden  with  coal,  he  called  out,  '  Stop, 
you  boy.  Whose  ass  is  that  ?  '— '  It's  nut  ass  at  o',  it's  smo'  cwol,' 
DICKINSON  Cumbr.  (1876)  298.  Wm.1  n.Yks.1  Clamed  wiv  ass, 
smeared  over  with  ashes ;  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  Put  a  bit  o'  ass 
uppo  t'trod,  it's  sae  slaap.  e.Yks.  MARSHALL  Rur.  Econ.  11788) ; 
e.Yks.1  w.Yks.  Swept  all  t'ass  of  t'crust,  PRESTON  Moorside Musins 
in  Yksman.  (1878)  59  ;  w.Yks.1  I  hev  nout  to  do,  but  riddil  ass, 
»•  357  ;  w.Yks.2  Coke  ass  ;  w.Yks.3*  Lan.  Ewt  o'  th'  ass  un 
dirt  i'  th'  asshoyle,  PAUL  BOBBIN  Sequel  (1819!  41.  n.Lan.  Piat  as 




iz  nat  bad  till  [manure].  Lan.1  Come,  lass,  sweep  th'  ess  up, 
an'  let's  bi  lookin'  tidy  ;  neXan.1,  e.Lan.1  Chs.  Skeer  the  esse, 
separate  the  dead  ashes  from  the  embers,  RAY  (1691);  (K.); 
Chs.1 2  Stf.  '  Esse  '  are  only  the  ashes  of  turfs  when  burned  for 
compost  (K.\  s.Stf.  This  coal  mak's  a  nasty  white  ess,  PINNOCK 
.Blk.  Cy.  Ann.  (1895"!.  Stf.2  Oi  waz  gettinS'  es  up  Sis  mornin  loik 
an  barnt  mi  and  wi  sum  ot  sindarz  [I  was  getting  the  ess  up  this 
morning  like,  and  burnt  my  hand  with  some  hot  cinders].  Der.12, 
nw.Der.1,  War.  (J.R.W.),  War.3,  w.Wor.'  Shr.1  Yore  garden 
seems  to  be  a  very  stiff  sile,  John  ;  if  I  wuz  yo'  I'd  sprade  some 
ess  an"  sut  on  ;  Shr.2.  Hrf.2 

2.  Comp.  (i)  Ash-ball,  obs.,  see  below ;  (2)  -board, 
a  wooden  box  or  tray  to  hold  ashes  ;  (3)  -brass,  money 
obtained  by  the  sale  of  ashes  ;  (4)  -cake,  a  cake  baked  on 
the  hearth ;  (5)  -card,  a  fire-shovel ;  (6)  -cat,  (7)  -chat, 
one  who  crouches  over  the  fire  ;  (8)  -cloth,  (9)  -coup, 
see  below;  (10)  -grate,  (n)  -grid,  a  grating  over  the 
'ash-hole';  (12)  -heap-cake,  (13)  -lurdin,  (14)  -man, 
(15)  -manure,  (16)  -mixen,  (17)  -muck,  (18)  -mull,  (19) 
•padder,  (20)  -peddlar,  (21)  -pit,  (22)  -rook,  (23)  -water, 
see  below.  [See  further  s.v.  Ash-backet,  -hole,  -midden, 
•nook,  -riddle,  -trug.] 

(il  Shr.1  Balls  made  of  the  ashes  of  wood  or  fern  damped  with 
water  ;  afterwards  sun-dried  .  .  .  and  used  for  making  buck-lee. 
Put  a  couple  o'  them  ess-balls  i'  the  furnace  an'  fill  it  up  60th 
waiter  for  the  lee.  Ess-balls  were  sold  in  Shrewsbury  market  in 
1811,  and  prob.  much  later  on.  (a)  Cnm.  Asbuird,  GROSE  (1790) 
MS.  add.  (D.AO  ;  He's  but  an  as-buird  meaker,  ANDERSON  Ballads 
(1808)  Wully  Miller.  Wm.  &  Cum.1  Wi'  th'  ass-buurd  for  a  teable, 
aoi.  Wm.1,  ne.Lan.1  (3)  w.Yks.  Ony  wumman  differin  abaght 
dividin'  t'hass-brass  sal  pay  one  penny,  TOM  TREDDLEHOYLE 
Bairnsla  Ann.  (1847)  29.  (4)  Dev.3  When  the  hearthstone  is  very 
hot  the  ashes  are  swept  off  and  the  ash-cake  laid  on  it.  A  sauce- 
pan cover  is  then  set  over,  and  the  ashes  carefully  replaced  on  the 
cover.  (5)  n.Yks.1  Ass-card,  Ass-caird,  a  fire-shovel  for  cleaning  or 
carding  up  the  hearth-stone  (see  Card) ;  n.Yks.2  e.Yks.  MARSHALL 
Rur.  Econ.  (1788)  Suppl.  m.Yks.1  (6)  Lan.1  Ass-cat,  a  term  of 
contempt  applied  to  lazy  persons  who  hang  habitually  over  the  fire. 
Dev.  Why  you  be  a  reg'lar  ash-cat  sitting  over  the  fire,  Reports 
Provinc.  (1887)  3  ;  An  axen-cat  is  one  that  paddles  or  draws 
lines  in  the  ashes  with  a  stick  or  poker.  Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II. 
422.  (7")  Dev.3  Ashchat,  a  person  who  leans  over  the  fire,  with 
elbows  on  knees,  in  a  dreamy  attitude.  t,8)  Ken.  P4  for  an  Ash- 
cloth  for  the  Workhouse,  6s.  6d.,  Pluckley  Overseers'  Ace.  (1796) 
iP.M.).  Sus.1  Ash  cloth,  a  coarse  cloth  fastened  over  the  top  of  the 
wash-tub  and  covered  first  with  marsh-mallow  leaves  and  then  with 
a  layer  of  wood  ashes  [through  this  the  water  was  strained  by 
washerwomen  in  order  to  soften  it].  (9)  n.Yks.1  Ass-coup,  a  kind 
of  tub  or  pail  to  carry  ashes  in  (see  Coup1;  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1 
In  rare  use.  (10)  Cum.  Ass-grate,  the  grated  cover  over  the  hollow 
beneath  a  kitchen  fireplace  where  the  ashes  drop  (M.P.^ ;  Cum.1 
ne.Wor.  In  this  district  the  word  Ass  or  Ess  is  used  only  in  the 
comp.  Ess-grate,  the  cover  to  the  '  purgatory  '  (J.W.P.).  ( i  i'i  Chs.1 
Ess-grid.^ Stf.1,  War.  (J.R.W.)  (12)  n.Lin.1  Ash-heap  cake,  a  cake 
baked  on  the  hearth  under  hot  wood  embers.  (13)  s.Chs.1  Hoo's  a 
terrible  ess-luruin,  auvays  comin'  croodlin'  i'  th'  fire  [cf.  Ass-cat]. 
(14)  n.Yks.2  Ass-man,  the  dustman,  scavenger.  (15)  n-Yks.1  Ass- 
manner,  manure,  so  called,  of  which  the  chief  constituent  is  ashes, 
especially  peat  or  turf  ashes.  ne.Yks.1  In  common  use.  (16) 
s.Chs.1  Ess-mixen,  the  mixen  or  heap  upon  which  the  ashes  are 
thrown.  (17)  n.Yks.  '  They'll  be  all  clamed  wiv  .  .  .  ass-muck,'  in 
other  words,  smeared  over  with  peat-ashes  and  such  other  refuse 
as  is  thrown  into  an  ordinary  moorland  ash-pit,  ATKINSON  Maori. 
Parish  (1891)  120  ;  n.Yks.2  (18)  ib.  Ass-mull  or  Turf-mull  (q.  v.), 
the  ashes  from  a  turf  fire.  (19")  Dev.  Ash-padder,  or  Pedder,  also 
called  Axwaddle,  q.v.,  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (H.)  ;  Dev.3  Ash- 
padder,  a  person  who  goes  from  cottage  to  cottage  collecting  wood- 
ashes,  which  are  bought  by  farmers  to  mix  at  sowing  time  with 
seeds.  (20)  Som.  Axpeddlar,  a  dealer  in  ashes,  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873:. 
(21)  Sc.  Ane  o'  the  prentices  fell  i'  the  ase-pit,  CHAMBERS  Pop. 
Rhymes  (1870)  83.  Chs.3  Ash-pit,  the  general  receptacle  of  the 
rubbish  and  dirt  of  a  house.  [In  gen.  use.]  (22)  Chs.1  Ess-rook, 
a  dog  or  cat  that  likes  to  lie  in  the  ashes.  Shr.1  This  kitlin'  inna 
wuth  keepin', — it's  too  great  a  ess-rook.  (23)  Ken.  To  have  .  .  . 
usefull  utensils  to  wash  with,  to  make  bucking,  ash  water,  &c., 
Pluckley  Vestry  Bk.  (Feb.  1787);  Ash- water  is  hard  water  made 
soft  for  washing  clothes  by  pouring  it  through  an  ash-cloth  (q.  v.). 
The  process  is  still  in  use  (P.M.\ 

[1.  The    litle  cloude  as  aske   he  sprengeth,  WYCLIF 
(1382)  Ps.  cxlvii.  16 ;  Which  . .  .  spredith  abrood  a  cloude 

as  aische,  ib.  (1388) ;  Kloude  as  aske  he  strewis,  HAM- 
POLE  Ps.  cxlvii.  5.    OE.  asce, '  cinis.'] 

ASH,  sb."     In  var.  dial,  uses  throughout  Sc.  Irel.  Eng. 
Also  written  esh  Nhb.1  n.Yks.2  w.Yks.2  n.Lin.1;  eisch 


leaf  ash. 

1.  The  leaf  of  an  ash -tree ;  in  comb.  Even-ash,  Even- 

N.I.1  Even  ash,  an  ash-leaf  with  an  even  number  of  leaflets,  used 
in  a  kind  of  divination.  The  young  girl  who  finds  one  repeats 
the  words—'  This  even  ash  I  hold  in  my  han',  The  first  I  meet  is 
my  true  man.'  She  then  asks  the  first  male  person  she  meets  on 
the  road  what  his  Christian  name  is,  and  this  will  be  the  name 
of  her  future  husband.  Nhb.  Even-esh  is  a  lucky  find,  and  is  put 
into  the  bosom,  or  worn  in  the  hat,  or  elsewhere,  for  luck 
(R.O.H.);  Even-ash,  underthe  shoe,  will  get  you  a  sweetheart.  Itis 
placed  in  the  left  shoe,  Denham  Tracts  (ed.  1895)  I.  282  ;  Nhb.1  It 
is  considered  as  lucky  to  find  an  even-esh  as  to  find  a  four-leaved 
clover.  w.Shr.  [Used  for  divination,  as  in  Irel.]  in  agreement  with 
the  well-known  rhyme — '  Even  ash  and  four-leaved  clover,  See 
your  true-love  ere  the  day's  over,'  BURNE  Flit-Lore  (1883)  181. 
Wil.1  On  King  Charles'  day,  May  29,  children  carry  Shitsack, 
sprigs  of  young  oak,  in  the  morning,  and  Powder-monkey,  or 
Even-ash,  ash-leaves  with  an  equal  number  of  leaflets,  in  the 
afternoon  (s.v.  Shitsac).  nw.Dev.1  A  haivm  laiv  ash  An'  a  vower 
laiv  clauver,  You'll  sure  to  zee  your  true  love  Avore  the  day's 
auver,  In  trod.  20. 

2.  Comp.  (i)  Ash-candles,  (2)  -chats,  (3)  -holt,  see  below ; 
(4)  -keys,  the  seed-vessels  of  the  ash  (see  Keys) ;  (5) 
•plant,  an  ash  sapling  or  stick ;  (6)  -planting,  a  beating 
with  an  ash  stick ;  (7)  -stang,  (8)  -stob,  (9)  -stole,  (10) 
-tillow,see  below  ;  (n)  -top,a  variety  of  potato;  (i2)-weed, 
AZgopodium  podagraria,  or  goutweed. 

(,i)  Dor.  Ash-candles,  the  seed-pod  of  the  ash-tree,  Gl.  (1851)  ; 
Dor.1  (2)  n.Cy.  Ash-chats,  or  keys,  GROSE  (1790)  s.v.  Chat, 
q.v.  (3)  n.Lin.1  Esh-holt,  a  small  grove  of  ash  trees.  14)  Sc. 
I  have  seen  the  ash-keys  fall  in  a  frosty  morning  in  October, 
SCOTT  Bk.  Dwarf  (1816)  vii.  Nhb.  Ash-keys  is  the  common  term 
for  the  seed  of  the  ash  (R.O.HA  w.Yks.2  An  old  farmer  in  Full- 
wood  affirmed  that  there  were  no  ash-keys  in  the  year  in  which 
King  Charles  was  put  to  death.  Lan.1  Let's  ga  an'  gedder  some 
eisch-keys  an*  lake  at  conquerors  [i.e.  the  wings  of  the  seed  are 
interlocked  ;  each  child  then  pulls,  and  the  one  whose  '  keys '  break- 
is  conquered].  e.Lan.1,  Chs.13,  Not.1,  n-LIn.1,  Lei.1  Nhp.1  The 
failure  of  a  crop  of  ash-keys  is  said  to  portend  a  death  in  the  royal 
family.  War.3,  Sur.1  Dev.4  Also  called  locks-and-keys,  shacklers. 
[The  fruit  like  unto  cods  ...  is  termed  in  English,  Ash-keyes,  and 
of  some,  Kite-keyes,  GERARDE  (ed.  1633)  1472.]  (5)  w.Yks.2  An  ash 
stick  is  usually  called  an  esh-plant.  s.Chs.1  Tha  wants  a  good  ash- 
plant  abowt  thy  back.  Stf.2  If  the  dustna  let  them  cows  be,  I'll 
lay  this  ash-plant  about  the.  n.Lin.  Cuts  hissen  a  esh-plant  to 
notch  doon  all  the  fools  he  fin's  on,  PEACOCK  Tales  and  Rhymes 
(1886)  63 ;  n-Lin.1  There  is  a  widespread  opinion  that  if  a  man 
takes  a  newly  cut  esh-plant  not  thicker  than  his  thumb,  he  may 
lawfully  beat  his  wife  with  it.  War.3  An  ash-plant  is  an  article 
that  no  well-furnished  farm-house  and  few  schoolmasters  would  be 
without.  Dev.  On  the  leeward  side  of  a  stiff  bulwark  of  newly 
bill-hooked  ashplant,  BLACKMORE  Kit  (1890)  II.  i.  (6)  n.Lta.  I'll 
gie  ye  an  esh-plantin'  ye  weant  ferget,  PEACOCK  Taales  (.1889)  89. 
(7)  n.Yks.2  Esh-stang,  an  ash-pole.  (8)  ib.  Esh-stob,  an  ash-post. 

(9)  Wil.  Hares  .  .  .  slip  quietly  out  from  the  form  in  the  rough 
grass  under  theashstole  [stump],  JEFFERIES  Gamekeeper  (1878)  31. 

( 10)  Hmp.  Ash-tillows  are  young  ash-trees  left  growing  when  a 
wood  is  cleared,  MARSHALL  Review  (1817)  V.     (n)  Ess.  Those  on 
the  right  are  ashtops,  BARING-GOULD  Mehalah  (1885)  154.      (12) 
Shr.  Ashweed,  perhaps  from  casual  resemblance  to  the  leaf  of  the 
Ash.     Wil.1,  w.Som.1 

3.  With  adj.  used  attrib.  in  plant-names:  (i)  Blue  ash, 
Syringa  vulgaris,  lilac  (Glo.) ;    (2)   Chaney  ash,  Cyiisus 
laburnum  (Chs.) ;    (3)  French  ash,  C.  laburnum  (Der.1 ; 
(4)  Ground  ash,  JEgopodium  podagraria  (Chs.  Lin.  War.) ; 
Angelica  sylvestris  (n.Cy.) ;  (5)  Spanish  ash,  Syringa  wd- 

goutweed.     Usual  name. 

[Esch  key,  frute,  clava,  Prompt. ;  Ash-weed,  Herba 
Gerardi,  COLES  (1679) ;  Ayshwaede,  Herbe  Gerard,  or 
Goutworte,  MINSHEU  (1617).] 




ASH,  v.  Yks.  Lin.  Written  esh.  [ej.]  To  flog,  beat ; 
cf.  to  birch,  hazel. 

e.Yks.  So  called  from  the  esh  [ash]  plant  being  the  instrument 
used  by  the  castigator,  NICHOLSON  Flk-Sp.  (1889)  26  ;  e.Yks.1 
w.Yks.  (JE.B.)  nXin.1  If  we  catch  boys  gettin'  bod  nests  we 
esh  'em. 

ASH,  see  Arrish. 

ASHARD,  adv.  Glo.  Wil.  [afa'd.]  Of  a  door  :  ajar. 
See  Ashore. 

Glo.1  n.Wil.  (obsol.)  The  door's  ashard  (G.E.D.).  Wil.1  Put 
the  door  ashard  when  you  goes  out. 

[A-  (pref?)  +  shored  (propped).] 

ASH-BACKET,  sb.  Sc.  Written  ass-,  ase-backet 
(JAM.).  A  small  tub  or  square  wooden  trough  for  holding 

w.  &  s.Sc.  Dimin.  of  assback,  a  back  or  tub  for  ashes  (JAM.).  Abd. 
Aise-backet,  the  common  name  for  what  in  Per.  is  called  a  backie 
(G.  W.  V  Gall.  The  aristocratic  avenues  of  the  park,  bordered  with 
frugal  lines  of  'ash  backets'  for  all  ornament,  CROCKETT  Stickil 
Min.  (1893)  155. 

ASH-COLOURED  LOON,  sb.  The  great  crested  Glebe, 
Podiceps  cristatus.  Also  called  Ash-coloured  Swan. 

SWAINSON  Birds  (1885)  215. 

ASH-COLOURED  SAND-PIPER,  sb.  Irel.  The  Knot, 
Tringa  canutus. 

IT.  So  called  from  the  sober  tints  of  its  feathers  in  winter, 
SWAINSON  Birds  (1885)  195. 

ASHELT,  advb.  phr.  Obs.  Yks.  Lan.  Perhaps, 

w.Yks.  WATSON  Hist.Hlfx  (1775)531 ;  CuDWORTH//otfo«(i886); 
w.Yks.4  Lan.  Cou'd  ashelt  sell  hur  eh  this  tother  pleck,  TIM 
BOBBIN  View  Dial.  (1746)  29.  ed.  1806  ;  DAVIES  Races  (1856)  270; 

[As  +  helt  (likely),  q.v.] 

ASHEN,  sb.  Lan.  Chs.  Der.  Obsol.  Written  eshin. 
A  kind  of  pail,  used  for  carrying  milk. 

n.Cy.  (K.) ;  Eskin  [sic],  GROSE  (1790);  N.Cy.2  w.Lan.  Bring 
th'  eshin  here  (H.M.).  Chs.1  Wooden  milkpails  are  still  in  occas. 
use.  Often  pronounced  Heshin,  and  [sometimes]  so  spelt  in 
auctioneers'  catalogues  ;  Chs.2  These  pails  are,  I  believe,  always 
made  of  ash  wood.  Der.1  Obs. 

Hence  Eshintle,  an  '  ashen  '  or  '  eshin  '  full. 

Chs.  Get  a  eshintle  o'  th'  best  Jock  Barleycorn,  CLOUGH  B. 
Bresskittle  (1879)  16;  Chs.12 

[See  Ashen,  adj.] 

ASHEN,  adj.  Lei.  War.  Shr.  Glo.  e.An.  Ken.  Sus.  Wil. 
Dor.  Som.  Cor.  [a'Jan,  ae'Jan.] 

1.  Made  of  the  wood  of  the  ash  ;  belonging  to  the  ash. 
Sus.1     Wil.  SLOW  Gl.  (1892).     n.Wil.  I  wants  a  aishen  stake 

(E.H.G.).  Dor.  The  moss,  a-beat  vrom  trees,  did  lie  Upon  the 
ground  in  ashen  droves,  BARNES  Poems  (1869)  87.  w.Som.1  Su 
geod  u  aa-rshn  tae'ubl-z  uvur  yiie  zeed  [as  good  an  ash  table  as 
you  ever  saw].  Cor.  Charm  for  the  bite  of  an  adder — '  Bradgty, 
bradgty,  bradgty,  under  the  ashing  leaf,'  QUILLER-COUCH  Hist. 
Polperro  (1871)  148. 

2.  Comp.  (i)  Ashen-faggot,  a  faggot  of  ash-wood ;  (2) 
•keys,  the  fruit  of  the  ash  ;  (3)  -plant,  an  ash  sapling ; 
(4)  -tree,  the  ash. 

(i)  w.Som.1  Aa-rshn  faak'ut,  the  large  faggot  which  is  always 
made  of  ash  to  burn  at  the  merry-making  on  Christmas  Eve— both 
Old  and  New.  We  know  nothing  of  a  yule-log  in  the  West.  It 
is  from  the  carouse  over  the  ashen-faggot  that  farmers  with  their 
men  and  guests  go  out  to  wassail  the  apple-trees  on  old  Christmas 
Eve  (Jan.  5).  The  faggot  is  always  specially  made  with  a  number 
of  the  ordinary  halse  binds,  or  hazel  withes.  (2)  Ken.1  Ashen- 
keys,  so  called  from  their  resemblance  to  a  bunch  of  keys.  (3)  War.2 
Ashen-plant,  an  ash  sapling  cut  to  serve  as  a  light  walking-stick 
or  cane.  Shr.1  Whad  a  despert  srode  lad  that  Turn  Rowley  is, 
'e  wants  a  good  ashen-plant  about  'is  'ide  ;  Shr.2  Lay  a  good 
eschen  plant  across  his  shouthers.  (4)  Lei. '  Ashentree,  Ashentree, 
Pray  buy  these  warts  of  me.'  A  wart-charm.  A  pin  is  stuck  into 
the  tree,  and  afterwards  into  a  wart,  and  then  into  the  tree  again, 
where  it  remains  a  monument  of  the  wart  which  is  sure  to  perish, 
NORTHALL  Gl.  (1896).  War.2  Glo.1,  e-An.1,  Snff.  (C.T.)  Dor. 

[By  ashen  roots  the  violets  blow,  TENNYSON  In  Mem. 
cxv;  At  once  he  said,  and  threw  His  ashen  spear, 
DRYDEN  (JOHNSON)  ;  Ashen  keys,  Fmctus  fraxineus, 
lingua  avtculae,  COLES  (1679).  Ash,  sb.2+  -en,  adj.  suff.] 

ASHER,  adj.  Yks.  [e-Jar.]  Made  of  ash  wood.  Also 
used  as  sb. 

n.Yks.  Ah  teeak  a  esher,  an'gav  t'dog  a  good  threshing  (I.W.) ; 
mYks.1  An  asher  pail.  An  asher  broom. 

[Ash  (the  tree)  +  -er,  of  doubtful  origin.] 

ASHET,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  [a'Jet]  A  dish  on  which  a 
joint  is  served  ;  also  used  for  a  pie-dish. 

Sc.  Scotic.  (17871  9 ;  GROSE  (1790)  MS.  add.  (C.) ;  Gie  me  here 
John  Baptist's  head  in  an  aschet,  HENDERSON  St.  Matt.  (1862  xiv.  8. 
S.  &  Ork.1  MS.  add.  Inv.  (H.E.F  )  Bwk.  What  sort  of  a  plate, 
or  ashet,  or  server  it  was  placed  upon,  HENDERSON  Pop. 
Rhymes  (1856)  24.  Slk.  You're  a  dextrous  cretur,  wi'  yourashets 
o'  wat  and  dry  toast,  CHR.  NORTH  Nodes  Ambros.  (,ed.  1856)  III. 
95.  Nhb.  Heard  on  the  n.  borders,  but  not  in  gen.  use,  and  prob. 
introduced  by  immigrants  from  Scotland  (R.O.H.). 

[Fr.  assiette,  a  trencher-plate  (COTGR.).] 

ASH-HOLE,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Lin. 
War.  Wor.  Shr.  Dor.  Also  written  ass-,  ais(s-  Sc. ;  ass- 
hooal  n.Yks.2  ne.Yks.1  e.Yks.1;  -hwole  Nhb.1;  -hoil 
w.Yks.8  ;  ess-  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  War.  Wor.  Shr. ;  ess- 
hwole  Nhb.1 ;  axen-  Dor.1  [a-s-,  e's-51,  -oal,  -oil.] 

1.  A  hole  to  receive  ashes,  beneath  or  in  front  of  the 
grate.    Also  called  Purgatory,  q.v. 

Sc.  The  cat  [was]  in  the  ass-hole,  makin  at  the  brose,  Down  fell 
a  cinder  and  burnt  the  cat's  nose,  CHAMBERS  Pop.  Rhymes  (1870) 
27.  Per.  Ais-hole  (G.W.).  e.Lth.  The  wumman  that  tint  the  sax- 
pence,  an'  soopit  oot  her  hoose  but  an'  ben,  an'  rakit  oot  the  aiss- 
hole,  HUNTER  J.  Inuiick  (1895)  21.  Edb.  Throwing  the  razor  into 
the  ass-hole,  WlomMansieWauch  (1828)  42.  Nhb.1, n.Yks.1,  ne.Yks.1, 
e.Yks.1  w.Yks.  He  threw  it  into  t'ass-hooal,  'EAVESDROPPER'  Vitt. 
Life  (1869)  7 ;  w.Yks.1 ;  w.Yks.8  Tell'd  her  a  hunderd  times  niwer 
to  put  t'poaker  i'  t'ass-hoil.  Lan.  Deawn  he  coom  o'  th'  harstone, 
on  his  heeod  i'  th'  esshole,  TIM  BOBBIN  View  Dial.  (1746)  52,  ed. 
1819;  Thou'd  rayther  sit  i'  th'  hesshole,  brunnin"  thy  shins  i' 
th'  fire,  than  stick  to  thy  loom,  BRIERLEY  Cast  upon  World  (1886) 
25  ;  Lan.1  m.Lan.'  '  Dusta  think  as  a  ass-hoyle  is  a  place  to  put  a 
jackass  in  ? '  aw  axt  him.  He  dud  !  Chs.1  Often  used  metaphorically 
for  the  fire  itself.  Ah  set  wi'  my  knees  i'  th'  ess-hole  aw  day  long  ; 
Chs.3  Oo's  rootin  in  the  esse  hole,  aw  dee.  s.Chs.1  To  '  root  i' 
the  ess-hole  '  is  a  common  expression  for  staying  constantly  by  the 
fire.  s.Stf.  We  roasted  tayturs  in  the  ess-hole,  PINNOCK  Blk.  Cy. 
Ann.  (1895).  Stf.2,  nw-Der.1,  n.Lin.',  War.  (J.R.W.),  w.Wor.1 
Shr.1  Common  ;  Shr.2  Also  called  the  Purgatory.  Dor.1 

2.  An  outdoor  ash-heap  or  dust-hole. 

Sc.  A  round  excavation  in  the  ground  out  of  doors,  into  which 
the  ashes  are  carried  from  the  hearth  (JAM.  .  n.Yks.1  2  w.Yks. 
Leeds  Merc.  Suppl.  'May  30,  1891).  n.Lin.' 

ASHIEPATTLE,  sb.  Sc.  Irel.  Also  written  aessie- 
pattle  S.  &  Ork.1 ;  ashiepelt  Irel.  [e'si-patl,  aji-pelt] 
A  dirty  child,  that  lounges  about  the  hearth;  also  applied 
to  animals.  Sometimes  used  adjectivally.  Cf.  ashcat. 

Sh.I.  Still  in  common  use ;  applied  occasionally  as  a  term  of 
contempt  to  any  of  the  young  domestic  animals,  such  as  pigs, 
kittens,  &c.,  which  are  often  found  lying  at  the  fireside  in  a  country 
house  (K.1.1.  S.  &  Ork.1  Sc.  (JAM.)  n.Ir.  Obsol.  (M.B.-S.) 
Ant.  Ashipelt,  Ballymena  Obs.  (1892).  Dnb.,  Dr.  Common  here, 
but  seldom  heard  n.  of  the  Boyne  (M.B.-S.). 

[Prob.  a  der.  of  ash-pit.  See  Ash,  sb.1  2.  Cp.  G.  aschen- 
puttel;  see  GRIMM  Myth.  107  (SANDERS).] 

ASH-MIDDEN,  sb.  Sc.  Nhb.  Dur.  Cum.  Wm.  Yks. 
Lan.  Chs.  Der.  Written  ess-  Chs.  Der. ;  ass-,  ais-  Sc. 
[a-s-,  e's-midan.]  An  ash- heap. 

Per.  (G.W.),  N.Cy.1,  Nhb.1,  Dnr.1  Cum.  &  Wm.  Thou's  niver 
been  five  mile  frae  an  ass-midden  [a  comic  banter]  (M.P.).  n.Yks.12, 
ne.Yks.1,  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.  When  t'ship  lands  on  t'ass-midden 
[referring  to  an  unlikely  contingency],  Prov.  in  Brighouse  News  (July 
23,  1887) ;  Fotch  a  soop  up,  for  we're  all  three  as  dry  as  a  ass- 
midden,  HARTLEY  Puddin'  (1876)  46;  w.Yks.1  He  then  com  ower 
t'ass-midden  to  t'door,  ii.  293 ;  w.Yks.2  *  Lan.  Aw'd  dee  upo'  th' 
fust  hess-middin  ut  aw  coom  to,  BRIERLEY  Layrock  (1864)  xi ; 
n.Lan.  I  nivver  went  mair  'an  a  mile  frae  me  an  ass-midden, 
PIKETAH  Fomess  Flk.  ( 1870)  34.  ne.Lan.1  Chs.1  He'll  never  get 
a  mile  from  a  ess-midden,  Prov.  nw-Der.1 

ASH-NOOK,  sb.  Yks.  Written  ass- Yks.  [a's-niuk.] 
1.  The  space  beneath  the  grate  where  the  ashes  fall. 

n.Yks.2  w.Yks.  A  great  bahncin  ratten  [rat]  jumpt  aht  at 
asnook,  BYWATER  Sheffield  Dial.  (1839)  8 ;  Bang  went  eggs,  col- 
lops,  an'  t'plate,  reight  intut  ass  nook,  Dewsbre  Olm.  (1866)  14  ; 
w.Yks.2  3  s 




2.  The  chimney-corner, '  ingle-nook.' 

w.Yks.  Com'  sit  in  t'assnook  wi'  me  (W.F.)  ;  He  sat  hissen 
daan  i'  th'  assnook,  an'  Mally  gate  him  a  gill  o'  hooam  brew'd, 
HARTLEY  Clock  Aim.  (1887)  a  ;  Common  in  Wilsden,  Leeds  Merc. 
Suppl.  (May  30,  1891). 

ASHORE,  adv.  Wor.  Hrf.  Glo.  Oxf.  Wil.  Also 
ashare  Won  See  Ashard.  [ajoa'(r),  aja'(r).]  Of  a 
door :  ajar,  half-open. 

Wor.  Leave  the  door  a  little  ashore  (H.K.)  ;  ne.Wor.  Ashare 
(J.W.P.).  Hrf.1,  Glo.  (A.B.),  Glo.1,  Oxf.1,  Wll.1 

[A-,  on  +  shore  (a  prop).] 

ASHOTAY,  see  Accroshay. 

ASH-RIDDLE,  sb.  Yks.  Chs.  War.  Also  ass-  Yks. ; 
ess-  Chs.  [a's-,  e's-ridl.]  A  sieve  or  '  riddle  '  (q.v.)  for 
sifting  ashes. 

w.Yks.  Gaay  an'  teach  thi  granny  to  sup  milk  aht  o'  t'ass-riddle, 
Prov.  in  Brighouse  News  (July  23, 1887) ;  Yo  wor  ta  be  presented  wi 
a  hass-riddle,  TOM  TREDDLEHOYLE  Bairnsla  Ann.  (1847)  51.  Chs.1, 
s.Chs.1,  War.  (J.R.W.) 

Hence  Ash-riddling,  divination  from  riddling  ashes,  on 
St.  Mark's  Eve  (April  24). 

N.Cy.1  n.Yks.1  On  St.  Mark's  Eve  the  ashes  are  riddled  on  the 
hearth,  for  the  superstition  still  lingers,  that  if  any  of  the  inmates 
of  the  house  be  going  to  die  within  the  year,  the  print  of  his,  or 
her,  shoe  will  be  found  impressed  in  the  soft  ashes  (cf.  Chaff- 
riddling)  ;  n.Yks.2  What  has  survived  of  this  custom  seems  more 
common  in  our  country-places,  where  the  fire  burns  on  the  hearth. 
m.Yks.1,  w.Yks.1 

ASH-TRUG,  sb.  Cum.  Written  ass-  Cum.1  [a's-trug.] 
A  wooden  scuttle-shaped  vessel  for  carrying  coal  or 

Cnm.  Billy  cawd  it '  asstrug,'  '  SILPHEO  '  Billy  Brannau  (1885)  4  ; 
GROSE  (1790)  ;  HOLLOWAY  ;  Gl.  (1851)  ;  Still  in  common  use 
(W.K.);  Cum.1 

ASHYPET,  sb.    Sc.  Irel.    Also  written  assypet  Sc. 

1.  A  child  or  animal  that  lounges  about  the  hearth.    See 
Ashiepattle,  Assypod. 

Dub..  Dr.  A  dirty  or  neglected  child  would  not  be  called  'ashipet ' 
unless  also  lazy  and  useless.  Applied  also  to  dogs  and  cats,  which 
lie  lazily  by  the  fireside  (M.B.-S.). 

2.  An  idle  or  slatternly  woman ;  a '  Cinderella,'  engaged 
in  dirty  kitchen  work.    Occas.  applied  to  a  man. 

Ayr.  Nobody  to  let  me  in,  but  an  ashypet  lassie  that  helps  her 
for  a  servant,  Steamboat  (1822)  259  (JAM.).  Lnl.  Easter  Whitburn's 
assy  pets,  CHAMBERS  Pop.  Rhymes  (1870)  246.  Dr.  A  lazy  man 
or  woman  is  called  'ashipet'  (M.B.-S.). 

ASIDE,  adv.  and  prep.  Sc.  Nhb.  Cum.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs. 
Stf.  Der.  Lin.  War.  Shr.  Ken.  Sur.  [asai'd.] 

A.  prep. 

1.  Of  place  or  position  :  near,  by  the  side  of. 

Frf.  The  watchers  winna  let  me  in  aside  them,  BARRIE  Minister 
1 1891)  iv._  Per.  Ye  'ill  just  get  up  aside  me,  IAN  MACLAREN  Brier 
Hush  (1895)  167.  Rnf.  Maggie,  now  I'm  in  aside  ye,  TANNAHILL 
Poems  (1807)  'S3-  Gall.  Climb  up  there  aside  the  other  four, 
CROCKETT  Bog-Myrtle  (1895)  214.  Nhb.  Ye  shanna  gan  aside  us, 
N.  Minstrel  (1806-7)  pt.  iv.  76;  Feed  thaw  lams  aside  the  ship- 
ports'  sheels,  ROBSON  Sng.  Sol.  (1859^1  i.  8 ;  Nhb.1  Sit  doon 
aside  us,  hinney.  Cum.  O  that  down  aseyde  her  my  head  I  could 
lay,  ANDERSON  Ballads  (1808)  Cocker  o'  Codbeck  ;  She  met  me  ya 
neeght  aside  Pards'aw  Lea  yatt,  GILPIN  Ballads,  3rd  S.  (ed.  1874) 
72 ;  Cum.1  Parton  aside  Whitten  ;  Cum.8  Oald  Aberram  lies 
a  fine  heap  or  two  leggan  aside  Kirgat,  9.  n.Yks.  Feed  thah  kids 
aside  the  shepherds'  booths,  Whitby  Sng.  Sol.  (iS6o)  i.  8;  Just 
think  what  things  thou  promist  mail  Asahd  t'awd  willow  tree, 
TWEDDEI.L  Clevel.  Rhymes  (1^5 }  30;  n.Yks.2  e.Yks.1  Ah'll  sit 
aside  Tom.  Greenwich's  aside  Lunnan,  MS.  add.  iT.H.)  Stf.1, 
nw.Der.1,  n.Lin.1,  War.2  Ken.1 1  stood  aside  him  all  the  time.  Sur.1 

2.  Infig.  sense:  beside  oneself,  distracted. 

ne.Lan.  And  he's  aside  liissel,  cose  yo've  cracked  up  his  playin, 
MATHER  Idylls  (1895)  48. 

3.  Compared  with. 

Frf.  Adam  was  an  erring  man,  but  aside  Eve  he  was  respectable, 
BARRIE  Minister  (1891)  x.  Per.  Naething  tac  speak  of  aside  you, 
Kirsty,  IAN  MACLAREN  Auld  LangSync  (1895)  127. 

B.  adv. 

1.  In  addition,  moreover,  besides.    Aside  o',  in  addition  to. 
w.Yks.  You'll  be  wondrous  cunning  if  you  get  any  aside,  BURN- 
LEY Skcltlies(  1875    131.     Lan.  She  knowcdawthc  boiblc  through, 
VOL.  I. 

asid  o'  th'  hymn-book,  BURNETT  Haworths  (1887)  vi.      Shr.1  Poor 
young  66man,  'er's  got  the  pipus  [typhus]   faiver— the   fluency 
[influenza],  an'  'afe  a  dozen  plaints  aside.      Ken.2  Very  common  at 
2.  Aside  of,  on  the  side  of,  beside. 

Cum.3  Aside  o'  t'wide  stair  heead,  98.  w.Yks.  Paster  thay 
kids  asaide  o'  t'shepherds'  tents,  LITTLEDALE  Craven  Sng.  Sol. 
(1859)1.8;  Shoofotched  me  a  dander  aside  o'  t'earhoyle,  HARTLEY 
Clock  Aim.  (1874)  42  ;  Two  chaps  used  to  work  aside  o'  me,  ib. 
(1879)  19  ;  w.Yks.5  Cloise  aside  on't.  Lan.  I  wur  tan  aside  o'  th' 
yed  wi'  a  sod,  Rossendel  Beef-neet,  12  ;  Thou  sid  aside  at  t'Park 
wood  yett,  HARLAND  &  WILKINSON  Fit-Lore  (1867)  60  ;  Lan.1 
Eawr  Mally  stood  aside  on  me  while  th'  rushcart  were  gooin'  by  ; 
in. Lan.1  A  jerryshop  aside  o'  wheer  aw  live  (s.v.  Alicker).  s.Chs.1 
Sit  thee  dai'n  aside  o'  me.  Stf.  She  sat  doun  a-side  of  the  daughter, 
Flk-Lore  Jrn.  (1884)  II.  41 ;  Stf.2  'E  fatched  im  a  bat  aside  o'  is  yed 
as  med  is  yed  stng. 

[A,  oh  +  side.] 

ASIDEN,  prep,  and  adv.  Nhb.  Yks.  Nhp.  War.  Shr. 
Hrf.  Also,  by  aphaeresis,  siden.  [asardan.] 

1.  prep.     Beside,  near. 

Nhb.1  She  wis  sittin'  asiden  him.  e.Yks.1  Ah've  sitten  asiden 
him  monny  a  tahm  (only  used  in  a  past  sense),  MS.  add.  (T.H.) 

2.  adv.    On  one  side,  awry. 

Nhp.1  Often  used  without  the  prefix.  How  siden  your  bonnet  is. 
War.  (J.R.W.)  ;  War.2  That  post's  set  asiden  ;  War.3  That  gate 
has  been  hung  all  asiden.  Shr.1  Common.  Yo'  hanna  put  yore 
shawl  on  straight,  the  cornels  bin  all  asiden  ;  Shr.2  All  asiden 
like  Martha  Rhoden's  two-penny  dish.  Hrf.1  [All  asiding,  as  hogs 
fighting,  RAY  Prov.  (1678)  49,  ed.  1860.] 

[Repr.  the  phr.  a  side  on,  on  the  side  of,  by  the 
side  of.] 

ASIDES,  prep.  phr.  and  adv.    Yks.  War.  Sur.    [asai'dz.] 

1.  prep.  phr.    Of  place  :  beside,  near. 

m.Yks.1  Aside  has  commonly  5  added.  w.Yks.5  Aside's  o' 
t'church.  Whear's  tuh  live  nah  like  ? — Haw,  aside's  o'  ar  Tom. 

2.  In  addition  to,  moreover,  beside. 

w.Yks.5  Whoa  went  asides  him  ?  Ther's  forty  aside's  that. 
War.3  I  arns  three  shillin'  a  wik  [week]  asides  my  vittles. 

3.  adv.    Moreover,  in  addition. 

Sur.  A  lot  more  as  I  knows  on  as  gave  a  goodish  bit  asides, 
BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  III.  vi. 

[ME.  asides,  only  in  the  sense  of  '  aside,  on  one  side,' 
see  WYCLIF  (1388)  Mark  vii.  33.  Der.  of  aside  with  advl. 
suff.  in  -5.] 

ASIDING,  see  Asiden. 

ASIL-TOOTH,  see  Axle-tooth. 

ASING,  sec  Easing. 

ASK.sA.1  Sc.  Irel.  n.Cy.  to  Chs.  and  n.Lin.  Also 
written  esk  N.Cy.1  Cum.  w.Yks.  ne.Lan.1 ;  aisk  n.Yks.2 
e.Yks.  m.Yks.1  [esk,  ask.]  A  newt ;  a  lizard.  See  Asker. 

Sc.  He  brought  home  horse-leeches,  asks,  young  rats,  SMILES 
Sc.Natur.  (1879)1;  It  seems  to  be  a  general  idea  among  the  vulgar, 
that  what  we  call  the  ask  is  the  asp  of  Scripture. . .  This  has  probably 
contributed  to  the  received  opinion  of  the  newt  being  venomous 
'JAM.).  Gall.  The  yallow-wymed  ask,  HARPER  Bards  (1889)  ao6. 
Crl.  (P.J.M.)  N.Cy.1  Ask,  Esk,  a  water-newt,  believed  by  many 
erroneously  to  be  venomous.  Nhb.  The  pert  little  eskis  they  curlit 
their  tails,  RICHARDSON  Borderer's  Table-bk.  (1846)  VII.  142: 
Dry  asks  and  tyeds  she  churish'd,  ROBSON  Sngs.  of  Tyne(  1849)  148  ; 
Nhb.1  The  newt  is  usually  called  a  waiter  ask,  as  distinguished  from 
a  dry  ask.  Dur.1  Cum.  (J.Ar.) ;  Cum.1  Wm.  There's  an  ask  in 
the  pond  (B.K.) ;  Wm.1  More  frequently  called  a  wattcr-ask. 
n.Yks.123  ne.Yks.1  In  common  use.  e.Yks.  MARSHALL  Kin: 
Emit.  '  j  788  .  m.Yks.1  w.Yks.  LUCAS  Stud.  Nidderdale  (c.  18821 
231  ;  WILLAN  List  Wds.  ( 181 1 ).  n.Lan.  A  fand  o  wator-ask  i'  dhat 
dub.  ne.Lan.1,  Chs.123  n.Lin.1 1  was  once  tanged  wi'  an  ask 
among  the  brackens  e'  Brumby  Wood. 

[Tassot,  a  newt  or  ask,  COTGR.  ;  Magrdsio,  an  eft,  an 
nute,  an  aske,  FLORIO  (1611).  OE.  affexe,  lizard;  cp.  G. 

ASK,  sb?  Sh.I.  Also  written  aisk  (JAM.  Suppl.). 
Drizzle,  fog. 

Sh.  I.  A  haze  or  unclear  state  of  the  atmosphere  generally 
preceding  bad  weather  ;  we  speak  of  there  being  '  an  ask  up  da 
sky'  when  ithas  clouded  over  and  looks  unsettled  (K.I.\  S.ftOrk.1 
Sh.  &Or.I.  Small  particles  of  dust,  or  snow  'JAM.  Su/>pl.  . 





ASK,  sb.3  Sc.  (JAM.)  The  stake  to  which  a  cow  is 
bound  by  a  rope  or  chain,  in  the  cow-house. 

Cai.     [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

[Prob.  a  spec,  use  of  ON.  askr,  an  ash,  also  applied  to 
many  things  made  of  ash  ;  see  VIGFUSSON.] 

ASK,  sb*  Sh.  and  Or.  I.  Also  written  aisk.  A  wooden 
vessel  or  dish. 

Sh.I.  Used  for  carrying  butter,  milk,  eggs,  &c.  It  has  a  lid  and  two 
small  projecting  bits  of  wood  below  the  rim  to  serve  for  handles 
(K.I.).  Sh.  &Or.I.  (JAM.  Suppl.) 

[ON.  askr,  a  small  vessel  made  of  ash-wood.] 

ASK,  v.1  Var.  dial,  uses  in  Sc.  and  Eng.  Also  in  the 
forms  ax,  ex,  see  Ax.  [as,  aks,  aks.] 

1.  To  publish  the  banns  of  marriage  ;  to  be  asked  at,  in,  or 
to  church,  to  have  one's  banns  published. 

Abd.,  Lth.  Also  called  '  cry  '  (JAM.).  Nhb.1,  Dur.1  Cum.1  To  be 
ax't  at  church  is  also  called  '  Hung  in  t'bell  reapp,'  '  Cry't  i'  the 
kirk.'  Wm.1  Axt  [older  form  Ext]  at  church.  n-Yks.1  ;  n.Yks.2 
Ask'd  at  church.  m.Yks.',  w.Yks.1  w.Yks.s  Thuh  wur  ast  at 
church  last  Sunday.  Chs.1  s.Chs.1  Han  they  bin  as't  i'  church 
yet?  (Ax  is  less  common.')  Stf.2  Owd  Dick  Taylor's  lad  and 
Martha  Jones  wun  axed  i'  church.  n.Lin.1,  sw.Lin.1,  Lei.1  Nhp.1 
Being  axt  to  church.  War.2,  s.Wor.  (F.W.M.W.)  Brks.1  Thaay 
was  asted  at  church  laast  Zunday.  e.An.1  I.W.2  Bob  Gubbins 
and  Poll  Trot  was  axed  in  Atherton  Church  last  Zunday.  Wll. 
We'll  be  ax'd  in  church  a  Zunday  week,  SLOW  Rhymes  (1889) 
Zammy  an  Zusan.  w.Sotn.1  Her's  gwain  to  be  a-ax  next  Zunday. 
nw.Dev.1  Cor.2  T'es  most  time  for'ee  to  have  me  axed,  MS.  add. 
Colloq.  They  were  asked  in  church  the  Sunday  following,  MARRYAT 
Frank  Mildmay  (1829)  xxii. 

2.  Hence,  to  be  asked  out,  asked  up,  out-asked,  to  have  the 
banns  published  for  the  last  time. 

Dur.1  Cum.  I  reckon  some  one  that's  here  is  nigh  ax't  oot  by  auld 
Nick  in  the  kirk  of  the  nether  world,  CAINE  Shad.  Crime  (1885^ 
33.  Wra.1  Wiah,  thoo'I  be  ext  oot  a  Sunday.  n-Yks.1,  ne.Yks.1 
Ax'd  oot.  e.Yks.1  Tom  and  Bess  was  ax'd  up  at  chetch  o'  Sunday. 
w.Yks.1 2  Ax'd  out.  Chs.1  They  were  axed  out  last  Sunday.  Not.1 
Out-asked.  n.Lin.1  Theare's  many  a  lass  hes  been  axed-up  ...  'at 
niver's  gotten  a  husband.  sw.Lin.1  To  be  asked  up,  or  asked  out. 
Lei.1,  Nhp.1,  War.  (J.R.W.)  Shr.1  To  be  axed  up.  e.An.iAxt- 
out,  or  Out-axt.  Sus.,  Hmp.,  Ken.  On  the  third  time  of  publication, 
the  couple  is  said  to  be  out-asked,  HOLLOWAY.  w.Som.1  Dhai  wuz 
aakst  aewt  laa's  Ziin'dee  [they  were  axed  out  last  Sunday].  Cor. 
I  be  axed  out !  keep  compa^' !  Get  thee  to  doors,  thee  noodle, 
J.  TRENOODLE  Spec.  Dial.  (1846)  41  ;  Cor.12 

3.  Phr.  (i)  to  ask  at,  ask  of  (on),  to  ask  ;  (2)  to  ask  out, 
to  cry  off,  be  excused ;  (3)  ask  up,  to  speak  out. 

(i)  Sc.  I  asked  at  him,  Monthly  Mag.  (1798)  II.  435  ;  Ask  at  the 
footman,  MACKIE  Scotic.  (1881)  14  ;  Very  common  idiom  (G.W.X 
Stf.1  s.Hmp.  He'd  do  anything  you  asted  o'  him,  VERNEY  L.  Lisle 
(1870)  xvii.  (2)  w.Yks.  Willn't  ya  come?— No,  I'll  ax  aht  <J.R.~); 
(3)  Stf.1 

[1.  The  phr. '  to  ask  the  banns '  is  found  in  ME. :  Aske 
the  banns  thre  halydawes.  Then  lete  hem  come  and  wytnes 
brynge  To  stonde  by  at  here  weddynge,  MYRC/«S/.  (1450) 
203.  3.  Heo  aschede  at  Corineus  now  heo  so  hard!  were, 
R.  Glouc.  (1297)  16.] 

ASK,  v?  Sh.  and  Or.I.  Also  written  aisk  QAM.)  ; 
esk.  To  rain  slightly,  drizzle. 

Or.  I.  (S.A.S.)     Sh.  &  Or.I.  (JAM.  Suppl. 

ASKER,  si.1  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Dnb.  Stf.  Der.  Nhp 
Wor.  Shr.  Hrf.  Glo.  Dor.  Also  asgal  Shr.2  Glo.1 ;  askard 
w.Yks.15;  askelHrf.1;  askern  w.Yks.  [a'ske(r);  a-skad, 
e-skad  ;  se'zgl,  arskl.]  A  newt,  lizard.  See  Ask,  sb.1 

n.Cy.  GROSE  (1790)  ;  N.Cy.2  w.Yks.  Feyther  were  liggin'  by 
t  pond  fest  asleap,  an'  one  o'  them  offal  askards  crep  in  at  'is  ear 
(W.F.^  ;  An'  lile  bonny  askerds  wad  squirt  amang  fling,  BLACKAH 
Poems  (i  867^  38;  Dryaskerd,alandlizard.  Watteraskerd.anewt, 
Yks.  N.  &  Q.  (1888)  II.  14  ;  w.Yks.2  In  Rivelin  valley  are  three 
kinds  of  askers :  the  running  asker,  the  water  asker,  and  the  flying 
asker,  which  is  thesmallest ;  w.Yks.^'s  Lan.1  He  went  a-fishin' 
an  cowt  nowt  nobbut  askerds.  ne.Lan.1,  e.Lan.1,  Chs.12  s  Chs  i 
Ihis  plcm  s  as  rotten  as  an  owd  asker.  Dnb.  Askol  (E.F.).  Stf. 
(K.)  ;  Stf.1 ;  Stf.2  Used  only  in  the  expression,  '  Its  kaud  anuf  for 
..Der,' 4,.nw'Der-1.  NhP-1  s.Wor.  Nazgall,  or 

starv  askarz  tad!.' 

s'posed  ;  Shr.2  Shr.  &  Hrf.  Asgal,  or  Ascal,  BOUND  Prov.  (1876). 
Hrf.1  ;  Hrf.2  Askal,  a  water  animal,  a  kind  of  newt  with  rough  hair 
like  fimbriae  [?].  Glo.  Both  forms,  asker  and  asgal,  are  known 
i^W.H.C.) ;  Glo.1,  Dor.1 

[Asker,  a  newt,  KERSEY  ;  Asker,  a  sort  of  newt,  or  eft, 
Salamandria  aquatica,  BAILEY  (1755).  Der.  of  ask,  sb.1, 
with  suff.  of  uncertain  origin.] 

ASKER,  sb?  Som.  Slang.  Euphemistic  name  for  a 

w.Som.1  A  respectable  servant-girl  in  reply  to  her  mistress,  who 
had  inquired  what  the  girl's  young  man  did  for  his  living,  said  : 
Please-m  he's  a-asker,  and  tis  a  very  good  trade  indeed-m.  Slang. 
The  '  askers '  selling  their  begged  bread  at  three  halfpence  the 
pound,  READEAutob.  Thief  (1858)  37. 

[Elles  he  wolde  of  the  asker  delivered  be,  R.  Rose,  6674. 
Ask,  vb.  +  -er.] 

ASKEW,  adv.    Ess.  Som.  Cor.    [askG-.] 

1.  Of  the  legs:  extended  awkwardly,  wide  apart. 
Som.  (H.G.);  (G.S.) 

2.  Crosswise,  diagonally. 

Ess.  To  plough  a  field  askew  is  to  make  furrows  obliquely  to 
the  cross-ploughing  (H. H.M.). 

3.  To  go  askew,  to  be  troublesome,  do  wrong  actions. 
Cf.  to  gang  agley. 

Cor.  Likewise  a  thong  to  thock  thee,  ef  Thee  d'st  ever  go 
askew,  FORFAR  Poems  (1885)  7  ;  Cor.3  A  local  preacher  exhorted 
his  audience  not  to  go  askew  even  if  their  aims  were  good.  In 
fairly  common  use. 

[A-,  on  +  skew,  q.v.] 

ASKEW,  prep.     Obs.l     Ess.    Across. 

Ess.  I  seigh  him  a-coming  askew  the  mead,  A rchaeol.  Soc.  Trans. 
(1863)  II.  181.  [Not  known  to  our  correspondents.] 

ASKING(S,  sb.  In  gen.  dial,  and  colloq.  use.  Not  in 
gloss,  of  Som.  Dev.  Cor.  Also  in  the  forms  axingls  Cum. 
Wm.  Yks.  Lan.  Chs.  Stf.  Der.  Shr.  I.W.  Dor.;  exing 
Cum.  [a'skinz,  a'ksinz,  e'ksinz.]  The  publication  of 
banns  of  marriage.  Usually  in  pi. 

Cum.  Axin'  (or  Exin')  at  church  (M.P.).  Wm.  She  mud  gaa 
awae  et  yancc  an  hae  t'exins  put  up  et  kirk,  Spec.  Dial.  (1880)  pt 
ii.  20.  n.Yks.2  In  some  of  our  moorland  churches,  after  the  asking, 
the  clerk  was  wont  to  respond  with  a  hearty  '  God  speed  them 
weel.'  e.Yks.1  They'r  boon  te  be  wed  at  last ;  they'v  put  up  axins. 
m.Yks.1  He's  agate  o'  reading  t'askings.  w.Yks.  Wether  they 
wer  struck  wi  t'assin  ...  ah  dooant  naw,  bud  ah  naw  this — they 
leak'd  hard  at  me,  Nidderdill  Olm.  (1870)  ;  T'day  wor  fixed  an 
t'axins  put  in,  an  t' parson  spliced  them  reight  off,  Yksman.  Comic 
Ann.  (1878)  17  ;  Will  ye  gang  on  wi'  t'axins,  an'  wed  our  Marget? 
DIXON  Craven  Dales  (1881)  399 ;  w.Yks.1  Also  called  Spurrings. 
Lan.  I  put  th'  axins  up  about  a  fortnit  sin,  WAUGH  Chinm.  Corner 
(1874)  20 ;  I  ha  no'  yerd  o'  th'  axins  bein'  co'ed  o'er,  BRIERLEY  Cast 
upon  World  (1886)  213  ;  Lan.1  Well,  thae'rt  for  bein'  wed  at  th' 
lung  length  ;  aw  yer  thae's  getten  th'  axins  in.  e.Lan.1  m.Lan.1 
When  aw  put  th'  axins  up,  me  an'  th'  lass  as  were  mixt  up  i'  th' 
job  stopt  away  fro'  th'  church  for  three  Sundays  just  abeawt  thad 
time.  Chs.1 ;  Chs.3  Oo  had  the  axings  put  up ;  s.Chs.1  Stf.1 ;  Stf.2 
Tummas  is  goin'  get  married  nex'  month  ;  he's  put  th'  axins  in. 
Der.2,  nw.Der.1  n.Lin.1  Did  ta  hear  Bessie's  askin's  last  Sunda'  ? 
Lei.1,  Nhp.1,  War.23  Shr.1  They  ad'n  thar  axins  put  up  i'  church 
o'  Whi'sun  Sunday.  Sur.  Fee  preferred  being  married  by  'asking,' 
as  the  good  Surrey  folk  call  it,  BICKLEY  Sur.  Hills  (1890)  III.  xvi. 
Sus.  An  occasional  interest  is  given  to  the  ceremony  of  asking 
by  the  forbidding  of  the  banns,  EGERTON  Flks.  and  Ways  (1884)  93. 
I.W.1,  Dor.1 

[The  publication  of  banns  (popularly  called  'asking  in 
the  church')  was  intended  as  an  expedient  to  prevent 
clandestine  marriages,  CHAMBERS  Cycl.  (s.v.  Banns).] 

ASKLENT,  adv.  and  prep.    Sc.  Irel.  Nhb.    [askle-nt.] 
1.  adv.    Aslant,  on  one  side,  obliquely. 

Sc.  Frae  bush  to  bush  asklent  the  bank  he  scours,  DAVIDSON 
Seasons  (1789)  26  ;  Read  what  they  can  in  fate's  dark  print,  And 
let  them  never  look  asklint  On  what  they  see,  GALLOWAY  Poems 
(1788)  102.  Ayr.  Maggie  coost  her  head  fu'  high,  Look'd  asklent 
and  unco  skeigh,  BURNS  Duncan  Gray  (1792).  Rxb.  The  hames 
that  sent  the  reek  asclent,  RIDDELL  Poet.  Wks.  (ed.  1871)  I.  144. 
n.Ir.  Ballymena  Obs.  (1892).  Nhb.  [Of  a  ladder  resting  end  up 
against  a  wall]  Ye  he'd  ower  straight  up  ;  set  it  a  bit  mair  asklent. 
[Of  a  high  chimney]  It'll  be  doon  if  it's  not  seen  tee  ;  it's  lyin  mair 
an'  mair  asklent  (R.O.H.) ;  Nhb.1 




Applied   to   action   or   conduct  :    dishonourably,  not 
'  straight.'    Cp.  agley. 
Ayr.  Sin'  thou  came  to  tlie  warl  asklent,  BURNS  Poet's  Welcome 

3.  prep.    Across. 

Sc.  An'  ilk  ane  brought  their  blads  asclent  her,  A.  SCOTT  Poems 
(1808)  45. 

[A-,  on  +  sklent,  q.v.] 

ASLASH,  adv.  Yks.  Lin.  Not.  Lei.  War.  Also  written 
aslosh  n.Lin.1  Lei.1  War.  [asla'J,  aslo'J".] 

1.  Awry  ;  obliquely.     See  Slosh. 

n.Lin.1  Ther's  a  foot-pad  runs  aslosh  toward  a  steel  ther'  is  e' 
th'  plantin'.  He'd  getten  his  hat  on  aslosh. 

2.  On  one  side,  out  of  the  way. 

w.Yks.2  Come  stan'  aslash.  Not.  (J.H.B.)  Lei.1  Stan'  aslosh, 
wool  ye  !  War.3 

ASLAT,  ppl.  adj.  Dev.  [aslae't.]  Of  an  earthen  vessel, 
piece  of  furniture,  &c.  :  cracked,  split.  See  Slat,  v. 

Dev.  GROSE  (1790)  ;  Monthly  Mag.  (1808)  II.  422  ;  HOLLOWAY. 
n.Dev.Yer,  [IJeetle  Bobby's  plate's  aslat,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (  1867)  7. 
Dev.3  Thickee  plate's  aslat.  Dawntee  zit  'pon  thickee  form,  'e's 

[A-(pref.*)+slat,  q.v.] 

ASLAT,  see  Harslet. 

ASLEEP,  adv.    e.An.  Naut.    [aslrp.] 

e.An.1  Sails  are  asleep  when  steadily  filled  with  wind.  Suf. 
Used  of  sails  in  a  calm  (F.H.).  Naut.  The  sail  filled  with  wind 
just  enough  for  swelling  or  bellying  out—  as  contrasted  with  its 
flapping,  SMYTH  Sailors'  Wd-bk.  (1867). 

ASLEN,  adv.  Som.  Dev.  Also  written  aslun  Som. 
[asle'n,  asla'n.]  Slantwise,  diagonally,  '  out  of  the 

Som.  JENNINGS  Obs.  Dial.  w.Eng.  (1825)  ;  W.  &  J.  Gl.  (1873)  ; 
w.Som.1  Au'kurd  vee-ul  vur  tu  pluwee  een  ;  aay  shud  wuurk-n 
rai't  usliin-  [awkward  field  to  plough  in  ;  I  should  work  it  right 
across  diagonally].  Thick  post  is  all  aslen  [not  upright].  Dev.1 

[A-.  on  +  slen  (adj.),  q.v.] 

Cum.  Yks.  La.  Not.  Sus.  Som. 


ASLEW,  adv. 
written  aslue  e.Lan.1  Som.     [ashr,  aslur.j 

1.  Aslant,  obliquely,  awry. 

e.Yks.1  n.Lan.  Thoo  munnet  mak  it  aslew  (W.H.  H.).  e.Lan.1 
Not.2  He's  ploughing  aslew.  Sus.  HOLLOWAY;  Sus.12  Som.  W.  &J. 
Gl.  (1873). 

2.  Amiss,  out  of  course. 

Cum.  There's  nowt  so  far  aslew,  Bobbie,  but  good  manishment 
may  set  it  straight,  CAINE  Shad.  Crime  (1885)  19  ;  Cum.3  There's 
nowte  sa  far  aslew,  but  gud  manishment  med  set  it  streight,  Prov. 
An'  t'Clay-Dubs  isn't  far  aslew  when  t'wedder  isn't  wet,  47. 

3.  Tipsy. 

[A-,  on  +  slew  (vb.),  q.v.] 

ASLEY,  sb.    Sh.I.    Used  only  in  phr. 

Sh.I.  (KA.  )  S.  &  Ork.  l  Horses  in  asley,  horses  belonging  to 
different  persons,  bound  firm  one  to  another. 

ASLEY,  see  Lief. 

ASOL,  see  Hazzle,  v. 

ASOON,  adv.  Dev.  Obsol.  Written  azoon.  Anon, 

n.Dev.  [Used  in]  Exmore,  GROSE  (1790)  ;  Fegs,  they'll  be  yer 
azoon,  ROCK  Jim  an'  Nell  (1867)  3  ;  Certainly  not  in  common  use 

[A-  (pref.10)  +  soon.] 

ASOOND,  adv.    Sh.I.    [asu'nd.]    In  a  fainting  fit. 

Sh.I.  In  very  common  use  (K.I.).  S.  &  Ork.1  He  fell  dead 

[This  word  is